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Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal (2001) is a book by investigative journalist Eric Schlosser
Eric Schlosser
that examines the local and global influence of the United States fast food industry.[3] First serialized by Rolling Stone[4] in 1999, the book has drawn comparisons to Upton Sinclair's classic muckraking novel The Jungle (1906).[5] The book was adapted into a 2006 film of the same name, directed by Richard Linklater.

Contents

1 Summary

1.1 Evolution of the fast food industry 1.2 Marketing to children

2 Young reader version 3 Editions 4 Reception 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Summary[edit] The book is divided into two sections: "The American Way", which interrogates the beginnings of the Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
within the context of post-World War II America; and "Meat and Potatoes", which examines the specific mechanisms of the fast-food industry, including the chemical flavoring of the food, the production of cattle and chickens, the working conditions in the beef industry, the dangers of eating meat, and the global context of fast food as an American cultural export.[6] Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
opens with a discussion of Carl N. Karcher
Carl N. Karcher
and the McDonald's brothers, examining their roles as pioneers of the fast-food industry in southern California. This discussion is followed by an examination of Ray Kroc
Ray Kroc
and Walt Disney's complicated relationship, as well as each man's rise to fame. This chapter also considers the intricate, profitable methods of advertising to children. Next, Schlosser visits Colorado Springs, CO
Colorado Springs, CO
and investigates the life and working conditions of the typical fast-food industry employee: fast-food restaurants have among the highest employee turnover rates and pay minimum wage to a higher proportion of their employees than any other American industry.[6] The second section of the text begins with a discussion of the chemical components that make the food taste so good. Schlosser follows this with a discussion of the life of a typical rancher, considering the difficulties presented to the agricultural world in a new economy. Schlosser is perhaps most provocative when he critiques the meatpacking industry, which he tags as the most dangerous job in America. Moreover, the meat produced by slaughterhouses has become exponentially more hazardous since the centralization of the industry: the way cattle are raised, slaughtered, and processed provides an ideal setting for E coli
E coli
to spread. Additionally, working conditions continue to grow worse. In the final chapter, Schlosser considers how fast food has matured as an American cultural export following the Cold War: the collapse of Soviet Communism has allowed the mass spread of American goods and services, especially fast food. As a result, the rest of the world is catching up with America's rising obesity rates.[6] Evolution of the fast food industry[edit] The book continues with an account of the evolution of fast food and how it has coincided with the advent of the automobile. Schlosser explains the transformation from countless independent restaurants to a few uniform franchises. "The extraordinary growth of the fast food industry has been driven by fundamental changes in American society. During that period, women entered the workforce in record numbers, often motivated less by a feminist perspective than by a need to pay the bills. In 1975, about one-third of American mothers with young children worked outside the home; today almost two-thirds of such mothers are employed. As the sociologists Cameron Lynne Macdonald and Carmen Sirianni have noted, the entry of so many women into the workforce has greatly increased demand for the types of services that housewives traditionally perform: cooking, cleaning, and child care. A generation ago, three-quarters of the money used to buy food in the United States was spent to prepare meals at home. Today about half of the money used to buy food is spent at restaurants - mainly at fast food restaurants." Marketing to children[edit] Regarding the topic of child-targeted marketing, Schlosser explains how the McDonald's Corporation
McDonald's Corporation
modeled its marketing tactics on The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company, which inspired the creation of advertising icons such as Ronald McDonald
Ronald McDonald
and his sidekicks. Marketing executives intended that this marketing shift would result not only in attracting children, but their parents and grandparents as well. More importantly, it would instill brand loyalty that would persist through adulthood, through nostalgic associations to McDonald's. Schlosser also discusses the tactic's ills: the exploitation of children's naïveté and their trusting nature. In marketing to children, Schlosser suggests, corporations have infiltrated schools through sponsorship and quid pro quo. He sees that reductions in corporate taxation have come at the expense of school funding, thereby presenting many corporations with the opportunity for sponsorship with those same schools. According to his sources, 80% of sponsored textbooks contain material that is biased in favor of the sponsors, and 30% of high schools offer fast foods in their cafeterias.[7] In his examination of the meat packing industry, Schlosser finds that it is now dominated by casual, easily exploited immigrant labor and that levels of injury are among the highest of any occupation in the United States. Schlosser discusses his findings on meat packing companies, including ConAgra
ConAgra
and IBP, Inc., and profiles former meatpacking employee Kenny Dobbins. Schlosser also recounts the steps involved in meat processing, and reveals several hazardous practices unknown to many consumers, such as the practice of rendering dead pigs, dead horses and chicken manure into cattle feed. Schlosser notes that practices like these were responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, aka Mad Cow Disease, p. 202-3), as well as for introducing harmful bacteria into the food supply, such as E. coli O157:H7 (ch. 9, "What's In The Meat"). A later section of the book discusses the fast food industry's role in globalization, linking increased obesity in China and Japan
Japan
with the arrival of fast food. The book also includes a summary of the McLibel Case. In later editions, Schlosser provided an additional section that included reviews of his book, counters to critics who emerged since its first edition, and discussion of the effect that the threat of BSE had on USDA
USDA
policy towards cattle farming. He concluded that, given the swift, decisive and effective action that took place as a result of this interest and intervention, many of the problems documented in the book are solvable, given enough political will. Young reader version[edit] An adaptation of Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
for younger readers titled Chew on This was published in May 2006 by Houghton Mifflin. It is co-authored by journalist Charles Wilson. Editions[edit]

ISBN 0-06-093845-5 (paperback edition 2002, 400pp.) ISBN 0-7139-9602-1 (paperback edition 2001, 368pp.) ISBN 0-14-100687-0 (paperback edition 2002, 400pp.) ISBN 0-395-97789-4 (hardcover edition 2001, 288pp.) ISBN 0-06-083858-2 (paperback edition 2005, 383pp.)

Reception[edit] Rob Walker, writing for The New York Times, remarks that "Schlosser is a serious and diligent reporter"" and that " Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
isn't an airy deconstruction but an avalanche of facts and observations as he examines the fast-food process from meat to marketing."[8] See also[edit]

The Corporation (film) — a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation and its behavior towards society Labor rights in American meatpacking industry Fat, Sick and Nearly Dead Super Size Me The Jungle

References[edit]

^ "Fast Food Nation". Salon. 2002-05-03. Retrieved 2010-12-05.  ^ Sagon, Candy (2001-03-14). "The Hamburger Critic (and His Own Critics); 'Fast Food Nation" takes a scary look under the bun. But is it just fear-mongering?". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-12-05.  ^ Schlosser, Eric (2001-04-07). "The bitter truth about fast food". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-05-09.  ^ Audio Interview: Eric Schlosser. The New York Times
The New York Times
listen to audio file.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Tichi, Cecilia (2004). "From the Jungle to Fast Food Nation: American Déjà Vu". Exposés and excess: muckraking in America, 1900-2000. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3763-3.  ^ a b c "Fast Food Nation, Analysis Book Summary Online Chapter Notes". TheBestNotes.com. May 16, 2008. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2014.  ^ Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. ^ Walker, Rob (21 January 2001). "No Accounting for Mouthfeel". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2015. 

External links[edit]

Excerpt from Fast Food Nation Original articles from which the book evolved "Bacon as a Weapon of Mass Destruction" – video by Democracy Now! Presentation by Schlosser on Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
at the 92nd Street Y, May 31, 2001, C-SPAN Elizabeth L. Cline (June 14, 2012). Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion (Reprint ed.). Portfolio (distributed by Penguin Group (USA) LLC). ISBN 1591846544. , similar expose of the fashion industry

v t e

Food industry
Food industry
criticism

Books

The Jungle
The Jungle
(1906) Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
(2001) Reefer Madness (2003) Shopped
Shopped
(2004) Chew on This (2006) My Secret Life on the McJob (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma
The Omnivore's Dilemma
(2006) Eating Animals
Eating Animals
(2009) Wheat Belly (2011) Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat (2014) Meat Atlas
Meat Atlas
(annual) The Meat Racket: The Secret Takeover of America's Food Business (2014) Defending Beef: The Case for Sustainable Meat Production (2014) Righteous Porkchop (2009)

Films

The Jungle
The Jungle
(1914) McLibel (1997) The Corporation (2003) Super Size Me
Super Size Me
(2004) The Future of Food
The Future of Food
(2004) We Feed the World
We Feed the World
(2005) Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price (2005) Our Daily Bread (2005) Earthlings (2005) Fast Food Nation
Fast Food Nation
(2006) Black Gold (2006) King Corn (2007) Food, Inc.
Food, Inc.
(2008) Million Calorie March: The Movie (2008) The World According to Monsanto (2008) Fresh (2009) Bananas!*
Bananas!*
(2009) Big Boys Gone Bananas!*
Bananas!*
(2011) The Dark Side of Chocolate
The Dark Side of Chocolate
(2010) Forks Over Knives
Forks Over Knives
(2011) A Place at the Table
A Place at the Table
(2013) Fed Up (2014) Cowspiracy
Cowspiracy
(2014) Super Size Me
Super Size Me
2: Holy Chicken! (2017)

Organizations

Coca-Cola Cargill Tesco Nestlé

boycott

McDonald's

Concepts

Children in cocoa production Fair trade

coffee

Fast food

criticism

Food safety Genetically modified food
Genetically modified food
(controversies)

By c

.