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Falangism
Falangism
(Spanish: falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries. In its original form, Falangism
Falangism
is widely considered a fascist ideology.[1] Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, many of the radical elements of Falangism
Falangism
considered to be fascist were diluted or abandoned altogether and it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.[2] Opponents of Franco's changes to the party include former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism
Falangism
places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation.[3] Falangism emphasized the need for authority, hierarchy and order in society.[3] Falangism
Falangism
is anti-communist, anti-capitalist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal,[4][5] although under Franco the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.[6] The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism
Falangism
to support the unity of Spain
Spain
and the elimination of regional separatism; the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange; utilizing violence to regenerate Spain; promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire. The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury.[7] It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts.[8] Falangism
Falangism
supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages.[8] The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain
Spain
during his rule.[9] The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.[10] Falangism
Falangism
has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position.[11] However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism
Falangism
place it on the political right.[12]

Contents

1 Components

1.1 Nationalism
Nationalism
and racialism 1.2 Totalitarianism 1.3 National syndicalist economics 1.4 Age and gender roles

2 Falangist intellectuals 3 See also 4 References

Components[edit] Nationalism
Nationalism
and racialism[edit] During the Spanish Civil War, the Falange and the Carlists prior to the two parties' unification in 1937 both promoted the incorporation of Portugal
Portugal
into Spain. Both prior to and after its merger with the Carlists, the Falange supported the unification of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and Portugal
Portugal
into Spain. During its early years of existence, the Falange produced maps of Spain
Spain
that included Portugal
Portugal
as a province of Spain.[13] The Carlists stated that a Carlist Spain
Spain
would retake Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and Portugal.[14] After the civil war, some radical members of the Falange called for a reunification with Portugal
Portugal
and annexation of former Spanish territories in the French Pyrenees.[15] During World War II, Franco in a communiqué with Germany on 26 May 1942 declared that Portugal
Portugal
should be made a part of Spain.[16] Some of the Falangists in Spain
Spain
had supported racialism and racialist policies, viewing races as both real and existing with differing strengths, weaknesses and accompanying cultures inextricably obtained with them. However, unlike other racialists such as the National Socialists, Falangism
Falangism
is unconcerned about racial purity and does not denounce other races for being inferior, claiming "that every race has a particular cultural significance" and claiming that the intermixing of the Spanish race and other races has produced a "Hispanic supercaste" that is "ethically improved, morally robust, spiritually vigorous".[17] It is less concerned about biological Spanish racial regeneration than it was in advocating the necessity of Spanish Catholic spiritual regeneration.[18] Some have nonetheless promoted eugenics designed to eliminate physical and psychological damage caused by pathogenic agents. Falangism
Falangism
did and still does support natality policies to stimulate increased fertility rate among ideal physically and morally fit citizens.[19]

Franco and Ramón Serrano Suñer
Ramón Serrano Suñer
with Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and other leading Nazis like Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
in 1940

Franco praised Spain's Visigothic heritage, saying that the Germanic tribe of the Visigoths
Visigoths
gave Spaniards their "national love for law and order".[20] During early years of the Falangist regime of Franco, the regime admired Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and had Spanish archaeologists seek to demonstrate that Spaniards were part of the Aryan race
Aryan race
particularly through their Visigothic heritage.[21] Founder of the Falange Española, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, had little interest in addressing the "Jewish problem" outside areas of political issues.[22] The Falange's position was influenced by the fact of the small size of the Jewish community in Spain
Spain
at the time that did not favour the development of strong antisemitism.[23] Primo de Rivera saw the solution to the Jewish problem in Spain
Spain
as simple: the conversion of Jews to Catholicism.[24] However, on the issue of perceived political tendencies amongst Jews he warned about Jewish-Marxist influences over the working classes.[22] The Falangist daily newspaper Arriba claimed that "the Judeo-Masonic International is the creator of two great evils that have afflicted humanity: capitalism and Marxism".[22] Primo de Rivera approved of attacks by Falangists on the Jewish-owned SEPU department stores in 1935.[22] The Spanish Falange and its Hispanic affiliates have promoted the cultural, economic and racial unity of Hispanic peoples across the world in "hispanidad".[10] It has sought to unite Hispanic peoples through proposals to create a commonwealth or federation of Spanish-speaking states headed by Spain.[15] Totalitarianism[edit] Falangism
Falangism
supports the establishment of a Falangist-led totalitarian one-party state. National syndicalist economics[edit]

Falange leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera
José Antonio Primo de Rivera
advocated national syndicalism as the alternative to both capitalism and communism

Falangism
Falangism
supports a national, trans-class society while opposing individual-class-based societies such as bourgeois or proletarian societies. Falangism
Falangism
opposes class conflict. José Antonio Primo de Rivera declared that "[t]he State is founded on two principles—service to the united nation and the cooperation of classes".[25] Originally, Falangism
Falangism
in Spain
Spain
as promoted by Primo de Rivera advocated a "national syndicalist" economy that rejected both capitalism and communism.[11] Primo de Rivera denounced capitalism for being an individualist economy at the hands of the bourgeoisie that turned workers "into a dehumanized cog in the machinery of bourgeois production" while state socialist economies enslaved the individual by handing control of production to the state.[11] Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", called for a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion, and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury.[7] Under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.[6] Falangism
Falangism
is staunchly anti-communist.[5] The Spanish Falange supported Spanish intervention during World War II
World War II
against the Soviet Union in the name of anti-communism, resulting in Spain
Spain
supporting the Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact
and sending volunteers to join Nazi Germany's foreign legions on the Eastern Front to support the German war effort against the Soviet Union.[5] Age and gender roles[edit] The Spanish Falange supported conservative ideas about women and supported rigid gender roles that stipulated that women's main duties in life were to be a loving mother and a submissive wife.[26] This policy was set against that of the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
that provided universal suffrage to women.[26] Falangist intellectuals[edit]

Nimio de Anquin[27] Álvaro Cunqueiro Ernesto Giménez Caballero Carlos Ibarguren Pedro Laín Entralgo Ramiro Ledesma Ramos Leopoldo Lugones Eugenio d'Ors Leopoldo Panero José María Pemán Onésimo Redondo Dionisio Ridruejo Luis Rosales Pedro Sainz Rodríguez Rafael Sánchez Mazas Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Antonio Tovar

See also[edit]

Authentic Falange Bolivian Socialist Falange Falange Española
Falange Española
Independiente Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Falangist Mountain Unity Lebanese Phalanges Party National Falange National syndicalism Philippine Falange American Falangist Party

References[edit]

Spain
Spain
portal Fascism
Fascism
portal

^ Stanley G. Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press, 1995. Pp. 263. ^ Martin Blinkhorn. Fascists and Conservatives: The Radical Right and the Establishment in Twentieth-Century Europe. Reprinted edition. Oxon, England, UK: Routledge, 1990, 2001. Pp. 10 ^ a b Stanley Payne. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Pres, 1995. Pp. 261. ^ Sheelagh M. Ellwood. Spanish fascism in the Franco era: Falange Española de las Jons, 1936–76. Macmillan, 1987. Pp. 99–101. ^ a b c Wayne H. Bowen. Spaniards and Nazi Germany: collaboration in the new order. Columbia, Missouri, USA: Missouri University Press, 2000. Pp. 152. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne. Fascism
Fascism
in Spain, 1923–1977. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1999. Pp. 281. ^ a b Hans Rogger, Eugen Weber. The European Right. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press; London, England, UK: University of Cambridge Press, 1965. Pp. 195. ^ a b Benjamin Welles. Spain: the gentle anarchy. Praeger, 1965. Pp. 124. ^ Sharryn Kasmir. The Myth of Mondragón: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-class Life in a Basque Town. State University of New York, 1996. Pp. 75. ^ a b Stein Ugelvik Larsen (ed.). Fascism
Fascism
Outside of Europe. New York, New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 2001. Pp. 120–121. ^ a b c Roger Griffin (ed). Fascism. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1995. Pp. 189. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. Pp. 633. ^ Wayne H. Bowen. Spain
Spain
during World War II. Columbia, Missouri, USA: University of Missouri Press, 2006. Pp. 26. ^ M. K. Flynn. Ideology, mobilization, and the nation: the rise of Irish, Basque, and Carlist national movements in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Pp. 178. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne. Fascism
Fascism
in Spain, 1923–1977. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1999 pp.330–331 ^ Paul Preston. Franco: a biography. BasicBooks, a division of HarperCollins, 1994. Pp. 857. ^ Roger Griffin (ed). Fascism. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1995. Pp. 190. ^ Roger Griffin (ed). Fascism. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1995. Pp. 191. ^ Roger Griffin (ed). Fascism. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1995. Pp. 190–191. ^ Roger Collins. Visigothic Spain
Spain
409 – 711. Blackwell Publishing, 2004. P. 3. ^ Philip L. Kohl, Clare Fawcett. Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge, England, UK: Press Syndicate of Cambridge University Press, 1995. P. 46. ^ a b c d Paul Preston
Paul Preston
(2012). The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain. London, UK: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0002556347 ^ Walter Laqueur, Judith Tydor Baumel. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Encyclopedia. Yale University Press, 2001. P. 183. ^ Wayne H. Bowen. Spaniards and Nazi Germany: Collaboration in the New Order. University of Missouri Press, 2000. P. 20. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. Pp. 633 ^ a b Rodney P. Carlisle (general editor). The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, Volume 2: The Right. Thousand Oaks, California, USA; London, England, UK; New Delhi, India: Sage Publications, 2005. Pp. 634. ^ Deutsch, Sandra McGee. Las Derechas: the extreme right in Argentina, Brazil and Chile, 1830-1939. Stanford, CA: Stanford U Press, 1999. Print.

v t e

Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan National Bolshevism Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

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