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Faiyum[1] (Arabic: الفيوم‎ El Fayyūm  pronounced [elfæjˈjuːm]; Coptic:  ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ Phiom or Phiōm) is a city in Middle Egypt. Located 100 kilometres (62 miles) southwest of Cairo, in the Faiyum
Faiyum
Oasis, it is the capital of the modern Faiyum
Faiyum
Governorate. Originally called Shedet in Ancient Egypt, the Greeks called it Crocodilopolis or Krocodilopolis, the Romans Arsinoë.[2] It is one of Egypt's oldest cities due to its strategic location.[2]

Contents

1 Name and etymology 2 Ancient history 3 Modern city 4 Faiyum
Faiyum
mummy portraits 5 Main sights 6 Climate 7 Notable people 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Name and etymology[edit]

pꜣ-ymꜥ in hieroglyphs

Its name in English is also spelled as Fayum, Faiyum
Faiyum
or El Faiyūm. Faiyum
Faiyum
was previously officially named Madīnet El Faiyūm (Arabic for The City of Faiyum). The name Faiyum
Faiyum
(and its spelling variations) may also refer to the Faiyum
Faiyum
Oasis, although it is commonly used by Egyptians
Egyptians
today to refer to the city.[3][4] The modern name of the city comes from Coptic  ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ /Ⲡⲉⲓⲟⲙ epʰiom/peiom (whence the proper name Ⲡⲁⲓⲟⲙ payom), meaning the Sea or the Lake, which in turn comes from late Egyptian pꜣ-ymꜥ of the same meaning, a reference to the nearby Lake Moeris; the extinct elephant ancestor Phiomia
Phiomia
was named after it. Ancient history[edit] "Crocodilopolis" redirects here. For the namesake city in Upper Egypt, see Sumenu. Archaeological evidence has found occupations around the Fayum dating back to at least the Epipalaeolithic period. The middle Holocene occupations of the area are most widely studied on the north shore of Lake Qarun, where Caton-Thompson and Gardner did a number of excavations of Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic
Neolithic
sites, as well as a general survey of the area.[5] Recently the area has been further investigated by a team from the UCLA/RUG/UOA Fayum Project.[6][7] In the Pharaonic era, the city now called Medinet el Fayum (City of Faiyum) was called Shedet.[2] The 10th-century Bible exegete, Saadia Gaon, thought el Fayum to have actually been the biblical city of Pithom, mentioned in Exodus 1:11.[8] It was the most significant centre of the cult of Sobek, the crocodile-god. In consequence, the Greeks named it Crocodilopolis (Greek: Κροκοδειλόπολις), " Crocodile
Crocodile
City", from the particular reverence paid by its inhabitants to crocodiles. The city worshipped a tamed[clarification needed] sacred crocodile, named Petsuchos, that was adorned with gold and gem pendants. The crocodile lived in a special temple pond and was fed by the priests with food provided by visitors. When the Petsuchos
Petsuchos
died, it was replaced by another.[9][10] Under the Ptolemies, the city was for a while called Ptolemais Euergetis (Greek: Πτολεμαὶς Εὐεργέτις).[11] Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
(309–246 BC) renamed the city Arsinoë and the whole nome after the name of his sister and wife Arsinoë (316–270 or 268), whom he deified after her death, if not before.[12] Under the Roman Empire, Arsinoe became part of the province of Arcadia Aegypti. To distinguish it from other cities of the same name, it was called Arsinoë in Arcadia. With the arrival of Christianity, Arsinoe became the seat of a bishopric, a suffragan of the Oxyrhynchus, the capital of the province and the metropolitan see. Lequien
Lequien
gives the names of several bishops of Arsinoe, nearly all of them associated with one heresy or another.[13] The Catholic Church, considering Arsinoë in Arcadia to be no longer a residential bishopric, lists it as a titular see.[14] Fayyum was the seat of Shahralanyozan, governor of the Sasanian Egypt (619–629).[15]

Climate data for Faiyum

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 28 (82) 30 (86) 36 (97) 41 (106) 43 (109) 46 (115) 41 (106) 43 (109) 39 (102) 40 (104) 36 (97) 30 (86) 46 (115)

Average high °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 20.9 (69.6) 24.1 (75.4) 29 (84) 33.6 (92.5) 35.5 (95.9) 36.1 (97) 35.8 (96.4) 33.2 (91.8) 30.7 (87.3) 25.7 (78.3) 20.4 (68.7) 28.66 (83.57)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 13.2 (55.8) 16.1 (61) 20.4 (68.7) 24.9 (76.8) 27.1 (80.8) 28.2 (82.8) 28.1 (82.6) 25.7 (78.3) 23.1 (73.6) 18.6 (65.5) 13.5 (56.3) 20.87 (69.59)

Average low °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 5.5 (41.9) 8.2 (46.8) 11.8 (53.2) 16.3 (61.3) 18.8 (65.8) 20.3 (68.5) 20.4 (68.7) 18.2 (64.8) 15.6 (60.1) 11.6 (52.9) 6.6 (43.9) 13.13 (55.63)

Record low °C (°F) 2 (36) 4 (39) 5 (41) 8 (46) 11 (52) 16 (61) 13 (55) 13 (55) 10 (50) 11 (52) 4 (39) 4 (39) 2 (36)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 1 (0.04) 1 (0.04) 1 (0.04) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.04) 2 (0.08) 7 (0.28)

Source #1: Climate-Data.org[16]

Source #2: Voodoo Skies[17] for record temperatures

Modern city[edit] Faiyum
Faiyum
has several large bazaars, mosques,[18] baths and a much-frequented weekly market. The canal called Bahr Yussef runs through the city, its banks lined with houses. There are two bridges over the river: one of three arches, which carries the main street and bazaar, and one of two arches, over which is built the Qaitbay mosque,[19] that was a gift from his wife to honor the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan in Fayoum. Mounds north of the city mark the site of Arsinoe, known to the ancient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, where in ancient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris
Lake Moeris
was worshipped.[20] The center of the city is on the canal, with four waterwheels that were adopted by the governorate of Fayoum as its symbol; their chariots and bazaars are easy to spot. Faiyum
Faiyum
mummy portraits[edit]

Portrait of a man, c. 125–150 AD. Encaustic on wood; 37 cm × 20 cm (15 in × 8 in)

Main article: Faiyum
Faiyum
mummy portraits Faiyum
Faiyum
is the source of some famous death masks or mummy portraits painted during the Roman occupation of the area. The Egyptians continued their practice of burying their dead, despite the Roman preference for cremation. While under the control of the Roman Empire, Egyptian death masks were painted on wood in a pigmented wax technique called encaustic—the Faiyum mummy portraits
Faiyum mummy portraits
represent this technique.[21] While previously believed to represent Greek settlers in Egypt,[22][23] modern studies conclude that the Faiyum
Faiyum
portraits instead represent mostly native Egyptians, reflecting the complex synthesis of the predominant Egyptian culture and that of the elite Greek minority in the city.[24][25][26] Main sights[edit]

Hanging Mosque, built under the Ottoman Rule over Egypt Hawara, archeological site 27 km (17 mi) from the city Lahun
Lahun
Pyramids, 4 km (2 mi) outside the city Qaitbay
Qaitbay
Mosque, in the city, and was built by the wife of the Mamluk Sultan
Sultan
Qaitbay Qasr Qarun, 44 km (27 mi) from the city Wadi Elrayan
Wadi Elrayan
or Wadi Rayan, the largest waterfalls in Egypt, around 50 km (31 mi) from the city Wadi Al-Hitan
Wadi Al-Hitan
or Valley of whales, a paleontological site in the Al Fayyum Governorate, some 150 km (93 mi) southwest of Cairo. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Climate[edit] Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). The highest record temperatures was 46 °C (115 °F) on June 13, 1965 and the lowest record temperature was 2 °C (36 °F) on January 8, 1966.[17] Notable people[edit]

Tefta Tashko-Koço, well known Albanian singer was born in Faiyum, where her family lived at that time. Saadia Gaon, the influential Jewish teacher of the early 10th century, was originally from Faiyum, and often called al-Fayyumi. Youssef Wahbi, a notable Egyptian actor, well known for his influence on the development of Egyptian cinema and theater.

Gallery[edit]

Qarun Palace

Temple

A whale skeleton lies in the sand at Wadi Al-Hitan
Wadi Al-Hitan
(Arabic: وادي الحيتان, "Whales Valley") near the city of Faiyum

See also[edit]

Bahr Yussef Book
Book
of the Faiyum Fayum alphabet Faiyum
Faiyum
Governorate Faiyum
Faiyum
mummy portraits Lake Moeris Phiomia
Phiomia
(an extinct relative of the elephant, named after Faiyum) Nash Papyrus Roman Egypt Wadi Elrayan

References[edit]

^ https://www.lonelyplanet.com/egypt/medinat-al-fayoum ^ a b c Paola Davoli (2012). "The Archaeology of the Fayum". In Riggs, Christina. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt. Oxford University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 9780199571451.  ^ "The name of the Fayum province. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven". Trismegistos.org. Retrieved 2013-01-15.  ^ "Faiyum. Eternal Egypt". Eternalegypt.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2013-01-15.  ^ Caton-Thompson, G.; Gardner, E. (1934). The Desert Fayum. London: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.  ^ Holdaway, Simon; Phillipps, Rebecca; Emmitt, Joshua; Wendrich, Willeke (2016-07-29). "The Fayum revisited: Reconsidering the role of the Neolithic
Neolithic
package, Fayum north shore, Egypt". Quaternary International. The Neolithic
Neolithic
from the Sahara to the Southern Mediterranean Coast: A review of the most Recent Research. 410, Part A: 173–180. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.072.  ^ Phillipps, Rebecca; Holdaway, Simon; Ramsay, Rebecca; Emmitt, Joshua; Wendrich, Willeke; Linseele, Veerle (2016-05-18). "Lake Level Changes, Lake Edge Basins and the Paleoenvironment of the Fayum North Shore, Egypt, during the Early to Mid-Holocene". Open Quaternary. 2 (0). doi:10.5334/oq.19. ISSN 2055-298X.  ^ Saadia Gaon, Tafsir (Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch), Exodus 1:11; Rabbi Saadia Gaon's Commentaries on the Torah (ed. Yosef Qafih), Mossad Harav Kook: Jerusalem 1984, p. 63 (Exodus 1:11) (Hebrew) ^ Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, A History of Egyptian Mummies (Longman 1834), pp. 211–213 ^ Bunson, Margaret (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-43810997-8.  ^ Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidenow, Esther, eds. (2012). The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-19954556-8.  ^ Guillaume, Philippe (2008). Ptolemy
Ptolemy
the second Philadelphus and his world. Brill. p. 299. ISBN 978-90-0417089-6.  ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. II, coll. 581-584 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 840 ^ * Jalalipour, Saeid (2014). Persian Occupation of Egypt
Egypt
619-629: Politics and Administration of Sasanians (PDF). Sasanika.  ^ "Climate: Faiyum
Faiyum
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ a b "El Fayoum, Egypt". Voodoo Skies. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2013.  ^ The Mosque
Mosque
of Qaitbey in the Fayoum of Egypt
Egypt
by Seif Kamel ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fayum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 219.  ^ "The Temple and the Gods, The Cult of the Crocodile". Umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-15.  ^ "History of Encaustic Art". Encaustic.ca. 2012-06-10. Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. Retrieved 2013-01-15.  ^ " Egyptology
Egyptology
Online: Fayoum mummy portraits". Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved January 16, 2007.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online - Egyptian art and architecture - Greco-Roman Egypt
Egypt
accessed on January 16, 2007 ^ Bagnall, R.S. in Susan Walker, ed. Ancient Faces : Mummy Portraits in Roman Egypt
Egypt
(Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications). New York: Routledge, 2000, p. 27 ^ Riggs, C. The Beautiful Burial in Roman Egypt: Art, Identity, and Funerary Religion Oxford University Press (2005). ^ Victor J. Katz (1998). A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, p. 184. Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-321-01618-1: "But what we really want to know is to what extent the Alexandrian mathematicians of the period from the first to the fifth centuries C.E. were Greek. Certainly, all of them wrote in Greek and were part of the Greek intellectual community of Alexandria. And most modern studies conclude that the Greek community coexisted [...] So should we assume that Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Diophantus, Pappus and Hypatia
Hypatia
were ethnically Greek, that their ancestors had come from Greece at some point in the past but had remained effectively isolated from the Egyptians? It is, of course, impossible to answer this question definitively. But research in papyri dating from the early centuries of the common era demonstrates that a significant amount of intermarriage took place between the Greek and Egyptian communities [...] And it is known that Greek marriage contracts increasingly came to resemble Egyptian ones. In addition, even from the founding of Alexandria, small numbers of Egyptians
Egyptians
were admitted to the privileged classes in the city to fulfill numerous civic roles. Of course, it was essential in such cases for the Egyptians
Egyptians
to become "Hellenized," to adopt Greek habits and the Greek language. Given that the Alexandrian mathematicians mentioned here were active several hundred years after the founding of the city, it would seem at least equally possible that they were ethnically Egyptian as that they remained ethnically Greek. In any case, it is unreasonable to portray them with purely European features when no physical descriptions exist."

External links[edit]

Wikinews has related news: 30 brightly coloured mummies discovered in Egyptian necropolis

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Faiyum.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Faiyum.

"Photo Gallery: Water Issues in Fayoum Villages". Archived from the original on 2009-09-06.  Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Al Fayyum, Egypt". Retrieved 2011-03-22.  Fayum towns and their papyri, edited with translations and notes by Bernard P. Grenfell and Arthur S. Hunt at the Internet Archive Vincent L. Morgan; Spencer G. Lucas (2002). "Notes From Diary––Fayum Trip, 1907" (PDF). Bulletin 22. Albuquerque, New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. ISSN 1524-4156. . 148 pages, public domain. Fayoum Photo Gallery

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167693603 LCCN: n82063726 GND: 5103887-0 BNF:

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