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Faith in Christianity
Christianity
is a central idea taught by Jesus
Jesus
himself in reference to the gospel (Good News).[1] In the understanding of Jesus[clarification needed] it was an act of trust and self-abandonment in which people no longer rely on their own strength and policies but commit themselves to the power and guiding word of him in whom they believe.[2][3] Since the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
the meaning of this term has been an object of major theological disagreement in Western Christianity. The differences have been largely overcome in the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification (1999). Some of the definitions in the history of Christian theology
Christian theology
have followed the biblical formulation in Hebrews 11:1: "the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen".[4] As in other Abrahamic religions, it includes a belief in the existence of God, in the reality of a transcendent domain that God
God
administers as his kingdom and in the benevolence of the will of God
God
or God's plan for humankind. Christianity
Christianity
differs from other Abrahamic religions in that it focuses on the teachings of Jesus, and on his place as the prophesied Christ. It also includes a belief in the New Covenant. According to most Christian traditions, Christian faith requires a belief in Jesus' resurrection from the dead, which he states is the plan of God
God
the Father.[5][6] The precise understanding of the term "faith" differs among the various Christian traditions. Despite these differences, Christians generally agree that faith in Jesus
Jesus
lies at the core of the Christian tradition, and that such faith is required in order to be a Christian.

Contents

1 New Testament

1.1 Faith in Jesus
Jesus
as belief, trust and reliance 1.2 Faith in Jesus
Jesus
as faithfulness, loyalty and commitment 1.3 Specific verses

2 Roman Catholicism

2.1 Faith is a supernatural act 2.2 Faith is not blind 2.3 Justification not by faith alone

3 Eastern Christianity

3.1 Noetic faculty 3.2 Intuitive truth

4 Lutheranism 5 Protestantism

5.1 Faith as steadfastness in reasoned belief 5.2 Faith involving knowledge 5.3 Faith is an operation of the Spirit of God 5.4 Faith as a gift of God

6 Latter-day Saints

6.1 Fundamentals 6.2 Increase ones faith 6.3 Faith as a seed

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

New Testament[edit] The word "faith", translated from the Greek πιστις (pi'stis), was primarily used in the New Testament
New Testament
with the Greek perfect tense and translates as a noun-verb hybrid; which is not adequately conveyed by the English noun. The verb form of pi'stis is pisteuo, which is often translated into English versions of the New Testament
New Testament
as 'believe'. The adjectival form, pistos, is almost always translated as 'faithful'. The New Testament
New Testament
writers, following the translators of the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) rendered words in the Hebrew scriptures that concerned 'faithfulness' using pi'stis-group words. The pi'stis-group words are most appropriately translated into English by a range of words, depending on the context in which they occur. In both the New Testament
New Testament
and other Greek texts, pi'stis describes connections of firmness that can form between a wide variety of entities: people, traditions, practices, groups, purposes, facts or propositions. The appropriate English translation is often evident from the relationship between the two entities connected by pi'stis. The pi'stis-group words in the New Testament
New Testament
can thus be interpreted as relating to ideas of faithfulness, fidelity, loyalty, commitment, trust, belief, and proof. The most appropriate interpretation and translation of pi'stis-group words in the New Testament
New Testament
is a matter of recent controversy, particularly over the meaning of pi'stis when it is directed towards Jesus.[7] Faith in Jesus
Jesus
as belief, trust and reliance[edit] In the Protestant
Protestant
tradition, faith is generally understood to be closely associated with ideas of belief, trust, and reliance. This understanding is founded in the doctrinal statements of the Reformers. One of their confessional statements explains: "the principle acts of saving faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ
Christ
alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life."[8] The Reformers contrasted faith with human efforts to do good works as a means of justification.[9] This understanding of saving faith has remained within the Protestant
Protestant
tradition. Saving faith is generally understood in terms of a belief of, trust in, and reliance on the person of Jesus and his work of atonement accomplished through his death on the cross. In a more everyday sense, faith is often discussed in terms of believing God's promises, trusting in his faithfulness, and relying on God's character and faithfulness to act. Yet, many Protestants stress that genuine faith is also acted on, and thus it brings about different behaviour or action and does not consist merely of mental belief, trust or confidence or outright antinomianism. Hence, having authentic 'faith in Jesus' is generally understood to lead to changes in how one thinks and lives. However, the Protestant
Protestant
tradition holds that these changes in character and conduct do not have any value for obtaining a positive final judgment, but that a positive final judgment depends on faith alone (sola fide). Faith in Jesus
Jesus
as faithfulness, loyalty and commitment[edit] In recent decades, scholars have researched what pi'stis meant in the social context of the New Testament
New Testament
writers. Several scholars who have studied the usage of pi'stis in both early Greek manuscripts and the New Testament
New Testament
have concluded that 'faithfulness' is the most satisfactory English translation in many instances.[10][11] This recent research has prompted some to argue that New Testament
New Testament
faith and belief in Jesus
Jesus
should be understood in terms of faithfulness, loyalty, and commitment to him and his teachings, rather than in terms of belief, trust and reliance.[12] Such an understanding of faith can be integrated well with the moral influence theory of atonement. Specific verses[edit] Hebrews 11:1: "Now faith (pi'stis) is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." This passage concerning the function of faith in relation to the covenant of God
God
is often used as a definition of faith. Υποστασις (hy-po'sta-sis), translated "assurance" here, commonly appears in ancient papyrus business documents, conveying the idea that a covenant is an exchange of assurances which guarantees the future transfer of possessions described in the contract. In view of this, James Hope Moulton
James Hope Moulton
and George Milligan suggest the rendering: "Faith is the title deed of things hoped for" (Vocabulary of the Greek Testament, 1963, p. 660). The Greek word e´leg-khos, rendered "conviction" in Hebrews 11:1 (ESV), conveys the idea of bringing forth evidence that demonstrates something, particularly something contrary to what appears to be the case. Thereby this evidence makes clear what has not been discerned before and so refutes what has only appeared to be the case. This evidence for conviction is so positive or powerful that it is described as faith. Christian faith, described in these terms, is not synonymous with credulity, but rather has connotations of acting in faithfulness and trust. John 3:16: "For God
God
so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." This passage is often used as a standard statement of Christian faith. Hebrews 11:6: This passage describes the meaning and the practical role of faith: "Without faith it is impossible to please [God], for he who comes to God
God
must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him." John 6:28–29: When asked "What must we do to do the works God requires?" the writer has Jesus
Jesus
answering, "The work of God
God
is this: to believe (pi'stis) in the one he has sent." Galatians 5:6: "For in Christ
Christ
Jesus
Jesus
neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything, but only faith working through love." James 2:22: "Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect?" James 2:26: "For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also." Roman Catholicism[edit] See also: Sensus fidelium

Relief of allegory of Faith on the Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
Column in Olomouc

According to Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
theology, in an objective sense faith is the sum of truths revealed by God
God
in Scripture and tradition and which the Church presents to us in a brief form in its creeds. Subjectively, faith stands for the habit or virtue by which these truths are assented to. Faith is a supernatural act[edit] Faith is claimed to be a supernatural act performed by Divine grace. It is "the act of the intellect assenting to a Divine truth owing to the movement of the will, which is itself moved by the grace of God" (St. Thomas, II-II, Q. iv, a. 2). And just as the light of faith is a gift supernaturally bestowed upon the understanding, so also this Divine grace moving the will is, as its name implies, an equally supernatural and an absolutely gratuitous gift. Neither gift is due to previous study, neither of them can be acquired by human efforts, but "Ask and ye shall receive." Because the virtue is "infused" and not reachable by human efforts, it is therefore one of the theological virtues. Faith is not blind[edit] "We believe", says the Vatican Council (III, iii), "that revelation is true, not indeed because the intrinsic truth of the mysteries is clearly seen by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God
God
Who reveals them, for He can neither deceive nor be deceived." Thus, with regard to the act of faith which the Christian makes in the Holy Trinity, faith can be described in a syllogistic fashion, thus:

Whatever God
God
reveals is true

but, God
God
has revealed the Holy Trinity, which is a mystery

therefore this mystery is true.

Roman Catholics accept the major premise as being beyond doubt, a presupposition upon which reason is based and thus intrinsically evident to reason; the minor premise is also held to be true, based on belief in the infallibility of certain Church declarations, and also because, as the Vatican Council says, "in addition to the internal assistance of His Holy Spirit, it has pleased God
God
to give us certain external proofs of His revelation, viz. certain Divine facts, especially miracles and prophecies, for since these latter clearly manifest God's omnipotence and infinite knowledge, they afford most certain proofs of His revelation and are suited to the capacity of all." Hence Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
writes: "A man would not believe unless he saw the things he had to believe, either by the evidence of miracles or of something similar" (II-II:1:4, ad 1). Thomas is here speaking of the motives of credibility, the causes which give rise to belief. Text adapted from The Catholic Encyclopedia article "Faith". Justification not by faith alone[edit] In the Catholic Church justification is granted by God
God
from baptism firstly,[13] instead of plainly by faith, and from the sacrament of reconciliation after if a mortal sin is committed.[14] A mortal sin makes justification lost even if faith is still present. Before baptism faith is required of adults. The baptism of babies requires the parents' promise to pass on the faith to the child. Baptism
Baptism
is called the sacrament of faith. Eastern Christianity[edit] Noetic faculty[edit] Faith (pistis) in Eastern Christianity
Christianity
is an activity of the nous or spirit. Faith being characteristic of the noesis or noetic experience of the spirit. Faith here being defined as intuitive truth meaning as a gift from God, faith is one of God's uncreated energies (Grace too is another of God's uncreated energies and gifts).[15] The God
God
in Trinity
Trinity
is uncreated or incomprehensible in nature, being or essence.[16] Therefore, in Eastern Christianity, God's essence or incomprehisibility is distinguished from his uncreated energies. This is clarified in the Essence-Energies distinction
Essence-Energies distinction
of Gregory Palamas.[17] Faith here beyond simply a belief in something. Faith here as an activity or operation of God
God
working in and through mankind. Faith being a critical aspect to the relationship between man and the God, this relationship or process is called Theosis. Faith as an operation in contemplating of an object for understanding. Mankind's analysis of an objects properties: enables us to form concepts. But this analysis can in no case exhaust the content of the object of perception. There will always remain an "irrational residue" which escapes analysis and which can not be expressed in concepts: it is this unknowable depth of things, that which constitutes their true, indefinable essence that also reflects the origin of things in God. Intuitive truth[edit] As God
God
in Trinity, as the anomalies of God's essence or being. In Eastern Christianity
Christianity
it is by faith or intuitive truth that this component of an objects existence is grasp.[18] Though God
God
through his energies draws us to him, his essence remains inaccessible.[18] The operation of faith being the means of free will by which mankind faces the future or unknown, these noetic operations contained in the concept of insight or noesis. XIV. SAVING FAITH. Lutheranism[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

According to Lutherans, saving faith is the knowledge of,[19] acceptance of,[20] and trust[21] in the promise of the Gospel.[22] Protestantism[edit] Faith as steadfastness in reasoned belief[edit] Protestant
Protestant
Christian C.S. Lewis
C.S. Lewis
described his experience of faith in his book Mere Christianity
Christianity
by distinguishing between two usages of the word. He describes the first as follows:

"Faith seems to be used by Christians in two senses or on two levels ... In the first sense it means simply Belief."[23]

Several paragraphs later he continues with:

"Faith, in the sense in which I am here using the word, is the art of holding on to things your reason has once accepted, in spite of your changing moods."[23]

Faith involving knowledge[edit] Protestants differ on the exact relationship between faith and knowledge, although all agree that knowledge is normally involved. Roughly, the split is between paedobaptists and baptists, with paedobaptists asserting that faith means placing one's trust in Jesus Christ
Christ
according to the measure of understanding granted, and baptists asserting faith means placing one's trust in Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
with a certain minimal core of understanding being necessary. Faith is an operation of the Spirit of God[edit] Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith, and the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed truth rests is the veracity of God. Historical faith is the apprehension of and assent to certain statements which are regarded as mere facts of history. Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in men (e.g., Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled the common operation of the Holy Spirit. Saving faith is so called because it has eternal life inseparably connected with it, and is a special operation of the Holy Spirit Faith as a gift of God[edit] Paul writes in Ephesians 2:8-9: "For by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God—not the result of works, so that no one may boast." From this, some Protestants believe that faith itself is given as a gift of God (e.g. the Westminster Confession of Faith[24]), although this interpretation is disputed by others who believe the Greek gender alignment indicates that the "gift" referred to is salvation rather than faith.[25] Latter-day Saints[edit]

And now, I, Moroni, would speak somewhat concerning these things; I would show unto the world that faith is things which are hoped for and not seen; wherefore, dispute not because ye see not, for ye receive no witness until after the trial of your faith. ~ The Book of Mormon, Ether 12:6

Fundamentals[edit] According to James E. Faust, the Faith of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints is based on four fundaments:[26]

1. Jesus, the Son of the Father, is the Christ
Christ
and the Savior and Redeemer of the world; 2. Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
was the instrument through which the gospel was restored in its fulness and completeness in our time; 3. The Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
is the word of God
God
and, as the Prophet
Prophet
Joseph Smith said, is the keystone of our religion and another testament of Jesus
Jesus
as the Christ
Christ
and the Redeemer of all mankind; 4. Gordon B. Hinckley
Gordon B. Hinckley
holds, as all of the preceding Presidents of the Church did, all of the keys and authority restored by the Prophet Joseph Smith.

Increase ones faith[edit] Furthermore, James O. Mason said that there need to be 4 steps to increase ones faith.[27]

Study: The Prophet
Prophet
Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
instructed, “Faith comes by hearing the word of God, through the testimony of the servants of God.”[28] Prayer: The Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
counseled that through our prayers we “might perfect that which is lacking in [our] faith.”1 Thessalonians 3:10 [29] Service and sacrifice: The Prophet
Prophet
Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
taught, “Let us here observe, that a religion that does not require the sacrifice of all things never has power sufficient to produce the faith necessary unto life and salvation; for, from the first existence of man, the faith necessary unto the enjoyment of life and salvation never could be obtained without the sacrifice of all earthly things.” [30] Personal righteousness: The Savior taught, “If any man will do [God’s] will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.”John 7:17 [31]

Faith as a seed[edit] Alma the Younger
Alma the Younger
describes faith as a seed in Alma 32 in the Book of Mormon. This is the most comprehensive explanation of faith in the Standard works
Standard works
of the LDS Church.[32] See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal Lutheranism
Lutheranism
portal Catholicism portal Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal LDS Church
LDS Church
portal

Baptism Binding of Isaac Book of Job Divine grace Good works Rule of Faith Theological virtues

References[edit]

^ Mark 1:15 ^ Matthew 21:25; Luke 1:20 ^ cf. footnote b to Matthew 8:10 in The New Jerusalem
New Jerusalem
Bible, London: Darton, Longmann & Todd, 1985. ISBN 0-232-51650-2, p. 1621. ^ Cf. "Faith". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. London-Chicago-Geneva-Sydney-Toronto: W. Benton. 1964. p. 40.  ^ The importance of a belief in the resurrection is substantiated in several ways: ( 1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
15:1–4) '... the gospel I preached to you... Otherwise, you have believed in vain...'. The same book says, in 15:14: "And if Christ
Christ
has not been raised, our preaching is useless and so is your faith" (see also Acts 2:32; Philippians
Philippians
3:10; John 11:25). ^ Dictionary of Premillennial Theology
Theology
by Mal Couch 1997 ISBN 0-8254-2410-0 page 127 ^ See A. J. Wallace, R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation
Salvation
(New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp 120–135 for a more detailed explanation of the different meanings pi'stis can take. ^ Westminster Confession of 1646 AD, Article XIV, section II. ^ See, for example, Augsburg Confession of 1530 AD, Article IV. ^ Douglas A. Campbell, The Quest for Paul's Gospel: A Suggested Strategy (London: T&T Clark , 2005), p. 186. ^ Stanley K. Stowers, A Rereading of Romans: Justice, Jews, and Gentiles (Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, 1994), p. 199. ^ A. J. Wallace, R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation
Salvation
(New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp 120–135. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1992. Vatican City-State. Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith.  ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church No. 1446. The Vatican. Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance for all sinful members of his Church: above all for those who, since Baptism, have fallen into grave sin, and have thus lost their baptismal grace and wounded ecclesial communion. It is to them that the sacrament of Penance offers a new possibility to convert and to recover the grace of justification. The Fathers of the Church present this sacrament as "the second plank [of salvation] after the shipwreck which is the loss of grace."  ^ Glossary of terms from the Philokalia
Philokalia
pg 430 Palmer, G.E.H; Sherrard; Ware, Kallistos (Timothy). The Philokalia, Vol. 4 ISBN 0-571-19382-X Faith- not only an individual or theoretical belief in the dogmatic truths of Christianity, but an all-embracing relationship, an attitude of love and trust in God. As such it involves a transformation of man's entire life. Faith is a gift from God, the means whereby we are taken up into the whole theanthropic activity of God
God
in Christ
Christ
and of man in Christ
Christ
through which man attains salvation. ^ The Mystical Theology
Theology
of the Eastern Church, by Vladimir Lossky SVS Press, 1997. (ISBN 0-913836-31-1) James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1991. (ISBN 0-227-67919-9) pg 21 pg 71 ^ The Mystical Theology
Theology
of the Eastern Church, by Vladimir Lossky SVS Press, 1997. (ISBN 0-913836-31-1) James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1991. (ISBN 0-227-67919-9) pg 71 ^ a b The Mystical Theology
Theology
of the Eastern Church, by Vladimir Lossky pg 33 SVS Press, 1997. (ISBN 0-913836-31-1) James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1991. (ISBN 0-227-67919-9) pg 71 ^ John 17:3, Luke 1:77,Galatians 4:9, Philippians
Philippians
3:8, and 1 Timothy 2:4 refer to faith in terms of knowledge. ^ John 5:46 refers to acceptance of the truth of Christ's teaching, while John 3:36 notes the rejection of his teaching. ^ John 3:16,36, Galatians 2:16, Romans 4:20–25, 2 Timothy 1:12 speak of trust, confidence, and belief in Christ. John 3:18 notes belief in the name of Christ, and Mark 1:15 notes belief in the gospel. ^ Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics . St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. pp. 54ff, Part XIV. "Sin" ^ a b Lewis, C. S. (2001). Mere Christianity: a revised and amplified edition, with a new introduction, of the three books, Broadcast talks, Christian behaviour, and Beyond personality. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-065292-6.  ^ "The Westminster Confession of Faith, 1646 ^ GREGORY P. SAPAUGH, "IS FAITH A GIFT? A STUDY OF EPHESIANS 2:8," Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society, Volume 7:12, Spring 1994 ^ Faust, James E. (July 2000), "The Shield of Faith", Liahona  ^ Mason, James O. (April 2001), "Faith in Jesus
Jesus
Christ", Ensign  ^ History of the Church, 3:379. ^ 1 Thes. 3:10. ^ Lectures on Faith, 69. ^ John 7:17. ^ Sorensen, Elaine Shaw (1992). "Seeds of Faith: A Follower's View of Alma 32". In Nyman, Monte S.; Tate, Charles D., Jr. The Book of Mormon: Alma, the Testimony of the Word. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University. pp. 129–39. ISBN 0-88494-841-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Sorensen, Elaine Shaw (1992). "Seeds of Faith: A Follower's View of Alma 32". In Nyman, Monte S.; Tate, Charles D., Jr. The Book of Mormon: Alma, the Testimony of the Word. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University. pp. 129–39. ISBN 0-88494-841-2. 

External links[edit]

Confident Christians Free Christian apologetic materials and presentations Save the World Online Church" Summa Theologica "Second Part of the Second Part" See Questions 1–16 Catholic Encyclopedia "Faith"

v t e

The Seven Virtues in Christian ethics

Great Commandment; "All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments." – Matthew 22:35-40

Four Cardinal virtues

Prudence
Prudence
(Prudentia) Justice (Iustitia) Fortitude (Fortitudo) Temperance (Temperantia)

Sources: Plato

Republic, Book IV

Cicero Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Thomas Aquinas

Three Theological virtues

Faith (Fides) Hope (Spes) Love (Caritas)

Sources: Paul the Apostle

1 Corinthians
1 Corinthians
13

Seven deadly sins

Lust
Lust
(Luxuria) Gluttony
Gluttony
(Gula) Greed
Greed
(Avaritia) Sloth (Acedia) Wrath (Ira) Envy
Envy
(Invidia) Pride
Pride
(Superbia)

Source: Prudentius, Psychomachia

People: Evagrius Ponticus John Cassian Pope Gregory I Dante Alighieri Peter Binsfeld

Related concepts

Ten Commandments Eschatology Sin

Original sin

Old Covenant Hamartiology

Christian ethics Christian philosophy Christianity
Christianity
portal Philosophy portal

v t e

Christian soteriology

Absolution Adoption Assurance Atonement Baptism Calling Conversion Divinization Election Eternal life Faith Forgiveness Glorification Grace

Irresistible

Imputation Justification Means of grace Monergism Mortification Ordo salutis Perseverance Predestination Recapitulation Reconciliation Redemption Regeneration Repentance Resurrection Salvation Sanctification Synergism Theosis Union with Christ

Related theology Christology The Trinity Hamartiology

v t e

Christian theology

Systematic

Scripture

Inspiration Preservation Canonics Biblical studies Exegesis Law and Gospel Hermeneutics

God

Attributes Patriology Christology Pneumatology Theocentricism Theology
Theology
proper Immutability Impassibility

Trinity

Father Son (Hypostatic union Incarnation Jesus Logos Christocentric) Holy Spirit

Cosmology

Creation Angels Angelic hierarchy Humanity Fallen angels Satan Theodicy

Soteriology

Absolution Adoption Assurance Atonement Baptism Calling Conversion Election Eternal life Faith Forgiveness Glorification Grace Irresistible grace Imputation Justification Lapsarianism Means of grace Monergism Mortification Ordo salutis Perseverance Predestination Recapitulation Reconciliation Redemption Regeneration Repentance Resurrection Salvation Sanctification Synergism Theosis Union with Christ

Hamartiology

Adam Anthropology The Fall Incurvatus in se Original sin Sin Theodicy Total depravity

Ecclesiology

Sacrament

Eucharist

Missiology Polity (Congregational Episcopal Presbyterian) Synod Conciliarity

Eschatology

Summary of differences Historicism Idealism Dispensationalism Futurism Preterism Millenarianism (Pre- / Post- / A-millennialism) Adventism Antichrist Apocalypse Apocalypticism Covenant / New Covenant
New Covenant
theology End times Heaven Hell Last Judgment Millennialism New Jerusalem Rapture Second Coming Soul sleep Tribulation War in Heaven

Historical

History of Christian theology Calvinist–Arminian debate Apostolic Age Canon Patristics Caesaropapism Semipelagianism Iconoclasm Scholasticism Thomism Conciliarism Renaissance Reformation Counter-Reformation Pietism Great Awakenings

Practical

Apologetics Biblical law Education Ethics Homiletics Liturgics Missiology Moral Pastoral Polemics Political Public

By tradition

Eastern Orthodox

Apophatic theology Cataphatic theology Economy Essence–energies Gnomic will Metousiosis Phronema Phyletism Proskynesis Sobornost Symphonia Tabor Light Theoria Theosis Theotokos

Oriental Orthodox

Miaphysitism Monophysitism Monoenergism Monothelitism Aphthartodocetism

Roman Catholic

Absolution Apostolic succession Assumption of Mary Traditionalism Ecumenical Councils Filioque Immaculate Conception Indulgences Infant baptism Josephology Liturgy Mariology Mass Modernism Natural law Papal infallibility Priesthood Purgatory Quartodecimanism Real presence Sacerdotalism Sacrament Sainthood Thomism Transubstantiation Ultramontanism Veneration

Protestant

General

Adiaphora Assurance Believer's baptism Protestant
Protestant
ecclesiology (Branch theory) Priesthood of all believers

Anglican

Anglo-Catholicism Evangelical Catholic High church Latitudinarian Low church

Arminian / Wesleyan

Christian perfection Conditional preservation of the saints Imparted righteousness Lordship salvation Prevenient grace

Lutheran

Two kingdoms Loci Theologici Theology
Theology
of the Cross Confessional Lutheranism Haugean Lutheran orthodoxy Lutheran scholasticism Neo-Lutheranism

Reformed (Calvinist)

Christian reconstructionism Covenant theology Free Grace Monergism Predestination Five solae (Sola fide Sola gratia Sola scriptura Soli Deo gloria Solus Christus) Supersessionism Total depravity TULIP

Pentecostalist

Baptism
Baptism
with the Holy Spirit Faith healing Fivefold ministry Glossolalia

Other

Adventism Anabaptism Dispensationalism Evangelicalism Fundamentalism Messianic Judaism Pietism Prosperity theology Restorationism

Outline of Christian theology C

.