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FACEBOOK is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California . The Facebook
Facebook
website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg , along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates, Eduardo Saverin , Andrew McCollum , Dustin Moskovitz , and Chris Hughes .

The founders had initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students; however, later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area , the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University . Facebook
Facebook
gradually added support for students at various other universities, and eventually to high school students as well. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement, depending on applicable local laws. The Facebook
Facebook
name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students.

Facebook
Facebook
may be accessed by a large range of desktops , laptops , tablet computers , and smartphones over the Internet
Internet
and mobile networks . After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. Users can add other users as "friends" , exchange messages, post status updates and digital photos , share digital videos and links, use various software applications ("apps"), and receive notifications when others update their profiles or make posts. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, school, hobbies or other topics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends". In groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people. Because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook
Facebook
has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies. Facebook
Facebook
makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen, marketing access for its customers to its users and offering highly selective advertising opportunities.

Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering (IPO) in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13, 2015, Facebook
Facebook
became the fastest company in the Standard "> Original layout and name of Thefacebook, 2004

A "face book " is a student directory featuring photos and basic information. In 2003, there were no universal online facebooks at Harvard, with only paper sheets distributed and private online directories. Zuckerberg told the _Crimson_ that "Everyone’s been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. I think it’s kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website, known as "TheFacebook", with the inspiration coming from an editorial in the _Crimson_ about Facemash, stating that "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.

Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss , Tyler Winklevoss , and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com . They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to _The Harvard Crimson_ and the newspaper began an investigation. They later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO ).

Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College ; within the first month, more than half the undergraduates at Harvard were registered on the service. Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook
Facebook
expanded to the universities of Columbia , Stanford
Stanford
, and Yale
Yale
. It later opened to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University , New York University , MIT , and gradually most universities in the United States and Canada.

In mid-2004, entrepreneur Sean Parker —an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became the company's president. In June 2004, Facebook moved its operations base to Palo Alto, California . It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel . In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$ 200,000. The domain facebook.com belonged to AboutFace Corporation before the purchase. This website last appeared on April 8, 2005; from April 10, 2005 to August 4, 2005, this domain gave a 403 error. Mark Zuckerberg , co-creator of Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room, 2005

In May 2005, Accel Partners
Accel Partners
invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site was launched in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step. (At the time, high-school networks required an invitation to join.) Facebook
Facebook
also expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.

2006–2012: PUBLIC ACCESS, MICROSOFT ALLIANCE AND RAPID GROWTH

On September 26, 2006, Facebook
Facebook
was opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address .

In late 2007, Facebook
Facebook
had 100,000 business pages (pages which allowed companies to promote themselves and attract customers). These started as group pages, but a new concept called company pages was planned. Pages began rolling out for businesses in May 2009.

On October 24, 2007, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook
Facebook
for $240 million, giving Facebook
Facebook
a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements on the social networking site.

In October 2008, Facebook
Facebook
announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin
Dublin
, Ireland. Almost a year later, in September 2009, Facebook
Facebook
said that it had turned cash-flow positive for the first time.

A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook
Facebook
the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users . _Entertainment Weekly _ included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"

Traffic to Facebook
Facebook
increased steadily after 2009. The company announced 500 million users in July 2010, and according to its data, half of the site's membership used Facebook
Facebook
daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution."

In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google
Google
and Amazon.com . Facebook headquarters entrance sign at 1 Hacker Way, Menlo Park, California

In early 2011, Facebook
Facebook
announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook
Facebook
was removing approximately 20,000 profiles every day for violations such as spam, graphic content, and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security .

Release of statistics by DoubleClick showed that Facebook
Facebook
reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick. According to a Nielsen study, Facebook
Facebook
had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google
Google
.

2012–2013: IPO, LAWSUITS AND ONE-BILLIONTH USER

Main article: Initial public offering of Facebook
Facebook

Facebook
Facebook
eventually filed for an initial public offering on February 1, 2012. Facebook
Facebook
held an initial public offering on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.

Facebook
Facebook
began selling stock to the public and trading on the NASDAQ on May 18, 2012. Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked in position 462.

Facebook
Facebook
filed their S1 document with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2012. The company applied for a $5 billion IPO, one of the biggest offerings in the history of technology. The IPO raised $16 billion, making it the third-largest in U.S. history.

The shares began trading on May 18; the stock struggled to stay above the IPO price for most of the day, but set a record for the trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares). The first day of trading was marred by technical glitches that prevented orders from going through; only the technical problems and artificial support from underwriters prevented the stock price from falling below the IPO price on the day.

In March 2012, Facebook
Facebook
announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the site. The store was to be available on iPhones , Android devices, and mobile web users. Billboard on the Thomson Reuters building welcomes Facebook
Facebook
to NASDAQ, 2012

On May 22, 2012, the Yahoo! Finance website reported that Facebook's lead underwriters, Morgan Stanley (MS), JP Morgan (JPM), and Goldman Sachs (GS), cut their earnings forecasts for the company in the middle of the IPO process. The stock had begun its freefall by this time, closing at 34.03 on May 21 and 31.00 on May 22. A "circuit breaker" was used in an attempt to slow down the stock price's decline. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman
Chairman
Mary Schapiro , and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Chairman
Chairman
Rick Ketchum, called for a review of the circumstances surrounding the IPO.

Facebook's IPO was consequently investigated, and was compared to a pump and dump scheme. A class-action lawsuit was filed in May 2012 because of the trading glitches, which led to botched orders. Lawsuits were filed, alleging that an underwriter for Morgan Stanley selectively revealed adjusted earnings estimates to preferred clients.

The other underwriters (MS, JPM, GS), Facebook's CEO and board, and NASDAQ also faced litigation after numerous lawsuits were filed, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations. It was believed that adjustments to earnings estimates were communicated to the underwriters by a Facebook
Facebook
financial officer, who used the information to cash out on their positions while leaving the general public with overpriced shares. By the end of May 2012, Facebook's stock lost over a quarter of its starting value, which led _ The Wall Street Journal _ to label the IPO a "fiasco".

Zuckerberg announced to the media at the start of October 2012 that Facebook
Facebook
had passed the monthly active users mark of one billion. The company's data also revealed 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections.

2013–PRESENT: SITE DEVELOPMENTS, A4AI AND 10TH ANNIVERSARY

On January 15, 2013, Facebook
Facebook
announced Facebook Graph Search , which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging the data present on its site. Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware," returning only results from content already shared with the user.

On April 3, 2013, Facebook
Facebook
unveiled Facebook Home , a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC
HTC
announced the HTC
HTC
First , a smartphone with Home pre-loaded.

On April 15, 2013, Facebook
Facebook
announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. On April 19, 2013, Facebook
Facebook
officially modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.

Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook
Facebook
agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails that caused withdrawal of advertising from the site by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The social media website initially responded by stating that "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". It decided to take action on May 29, 2013, after it "become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate."

On June 12, 2013, Facebook
Facebook
announced on its newsroom that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic. A July 2013 _Wall Street Journal_ article identified the Facebook
Facebook
IPO as the cause of a change in the U.S.' national economic statistics, as the local government area of the company's headquarters, San Mateo County , California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average weekly wage in the county was US$ 3,240, 107% higher than the previous year. It noted the wages were "the equivalent of $168,000 a year, and more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan
Manhattan
), at $2,107 a week, or roughly $110,000 a year."

Facebook
Facebook
was blocked by the Chinese government in 2009. In September 2013, the _ South China Morning Post _ announced that the block would lifted in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone "to welcome foreign companies to invest and to let foreigners live and work happily in the free-trade zone." However, a few days later, the _People\'s Daily _, the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China , dismissed the earlier report, reiterating the block on Facebook.

Facebook
Facebook
was announced as a member of The Alliance for Affordable Internet
Internet
(A4AI) in October 2013, when the A4AI was launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google
Google
, Intel
Intel
and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee , the A4AI seeks to make Internet
Internet
access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google
Google
will help to decrease Internet
Internet
access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.

A Reuters report, published on December 11, 2013, stated that Standard & Poor\'s announced the placement of Facebook
Facebook
on its S&P 500 index "after the close of trading on December 20." Facebook
Facebook
announced Q4 2013 earnings of $523 million (20 cents per share), an increase of $64 million from the previous year, as well as 945 million mobile users.

The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. In each of the first three months of 2014, over one billion users logged into their Facebook
Facebook
account on a mobile device.

As part of the company's second quarter results, Facebook
Facebook
announced in late July 2014 that mobile accounted for 62% of its advertising revenue, which is an increase of 21% from the previous year.

By September 2014, Facebook's market capitalization had risen to over $200 billion.

Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook , Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the " Internet
Internet
czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q"> , Facebook
Facebook
has 20,658 employees.

REVENUE

Revenues (in millions US$ ) YEAR REVENUE GROWTH

2004 $6999400000000000000♠0.4 —

2005 $7000900000000000000♠9 2150%

2006 $7001480000000000000♠48 433%

2007 $7002153000000000000♠153 219%

2008 $7002280000000000000♠280 83%

2009 $7002775000000000000♠775 177%

2010 $7003200000000000000♠2,000 158%

2011 $7003371100000000000♠3,711 86%

2012 $7003508900000000000♠5,089 37%

2013 $7003787200000000000♠7,872 55%

2014 $7004124660000000000♠12,466 58%

2015 $7004179280000000000♠17,928 44%

Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising. Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major websites. According to BusinessWeek.com, banner advertisements on Facebook
Facebook
have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole, although specific comparisons can reveal a much larger disparity. For example, while Google
Google
users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80,000 clicks for every one million searches), Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages). Successful advertising campaigns on the site can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks.

The cause of Facebook's low CTR has been attributed to younger users enabling ad blocking software and their adeptness at ignoring advertising messages, as well as the site's primary purpose being social communication rather than content viewing. According to digital consultancy iStrategy Labs in mid-January 2014, three million fewer users aged between 13 and 17 years were present on Facebook's Social Advertising
Advertising
platform compared to 2011. However, _Time_ writer and reporter Christopher Matthews stated in the wake of the iStrategy Labs results:

A big part of Facebook's pitch is that it has so much information about its users that it can more effectively target ads to those who will be responsive to the content. If Facebook
Facebook
can prove that theory to be true, then it may not worry so much about losing its cool cachet.

A portion of Facebook
Facebook
revenue comes from the "firehose" access, bulk access to the social media data sold to the third parties.

In December 2014, a report from Frank N. Magid and Associates found that the percentage of teens aged 13 to 17 who used Facebook
Facebook
fell to 88% in 2014, down from 94% in 2013 and 95% in 2012.

Zuckerberg, alongside other Facebook
Facebook
executives, have questioned the data in such reports; although, a former Facebook
Facebook
senior employee has commented: "Mark is very willing to recognize the strengths in other products and the flaws in Facebook."

On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts. A study found that, for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads. Chart of Facebook's Stock
Stock

The company released its own set of revenue data at the end of January 2014 and claimed: Revenues of US$2.59 billion were generated for the three months ending December 31, 2013; earnings per share were 31 cents; revenues of US$7.87 billion were made for the entirety of 2013; and Facebook's annual profit for 2013 was US$1.5 billion. During the same time, independent market research firm eMarketer released data in which Facebook
Facebook
accounted for 5.7 per cent of all global digital ad revenues in 2013 (Google's share was 32.4 per cent). Revenue
Revenue
for the June 2014 quarter rose to $2.68 billion, an increase of 67 per cent over the second quarter of 2013. Mobile advertising revenue accounted for around 62 per cent of advertising revenue, an increase of approximately 41 per cent over the comparable quarter of the previous year.

Number Of Advertisers

In February 2015, Facebook
Facebook
announced that it had reached two million active advertisers with most of the gain coming from small businesses. An active advertiser is an advertiser that has advertised on the Facebook
Facebook
platform in the last 28 days. In March 2016, Facebook announced that it reached three million active advertisers with more than 70% from outside the US.

MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

Main article: List of mergers and acquisitions by Facebook

On November 15, 2010, Facebook
Facebook
announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.

In February 2014, Facebook
Facebook
announced that it would be buying mobile messaging company WhatsApp for US$19 billion in cash and stock.

In November 2016 Facebook
Facebook
acquired CrowdTangle, a social analytics company that tracks how content spreads online. CrowdTangle confirmed the acquisition in a message at their website, but company didn't disclosed financial terms of the deal.

OFFICES

In early 2011, Facebook
Facebook
announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park.

All users outside of the US and Canada have a contract with Facebook's Irish subsidiary " Facebook
Facebook
Ireland Limited". This allows Facebook
Facebook
to avoid US taxes for all users in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. Facebook
Facebook
is making use of the Double Irish arrangement which allows it to pay just about 2–3% corporation tax on all international revenue.

In 2010, Facebook
Facebook
opened its fourth office, in Hyderabad and the first in Asia
Asia
.

Facebook, which in 2010 had more than 750 million active users globally including over 23 million in India, announced that its Hyderabad center would house online advertising and developer support teams and provide round-the-clock, multilingual support to the social networking site's users and advertisers globally. With this, Facebook joins other giants like Google
Google
, Microsoft
Microsoft
, Oracle , Dell
Dell
, IBM
IBM
and Computer Associates that have already set up shop. In Hyderabad, it is registered as ' Facebook
Facebook
India Online Services Pvt Ltd'.

Though Facebook
Facebook
did not specify its India investment or hiring figures, it said recruitment had already begun for a director of operations and other key positions at Hyderabad, which would supplement its operations in California
California
, Dublin
Dublin
in Ireland as well as at Austin
Austin
, Texas
Texas
.

A custom-built data center with substantially reduced ("38% less") power consumption compared to existing Facebook
Facebook
data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville, Oregon . In April 2012, Facebook
Facebook
opened a second data center in Forest City, North Carolina , US. In June 2013, Facebook
Facebook
opened a third data center in Luleå , Sweden. In November 2014, Facebook
Facebook
opened a fourth data center in Altoona, Iowa , US. In September 2016, Facebook
Facebook
announced a coming datacenter in Los Lunas, New Mexico in 2018 powered by renewable energy.

On October 1, 2012, CEO Zuckerberg visited Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market. Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. Facebook
Facebook
has roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic analogue VK has around 34 million.

The functioning of a woodwork facility on the Menlo Park campus was announced at the end of August 2013. The facility, opened in June 2013, provides equipment, safety courses and woodwork learning course, while employees are required to purchase materials at the in-house store. A Facebook
Facebook
spokesperson explained that the intention of the facility is to encourage employees to think in an innovative manner because of the different environment, and also serves as an attractive perk for prospective employees.

On November 21, 2016 Facebook
Facebook
announced that it will open its new London headquarters next year and create another 500 jobs in the UK. New headquarters will be in Fitzrovia in central London at a site that is currently undergoing redevelopment. Facebook's London-based executive, Nicola Mendelsohn said "The UK remains one of the best places to be a tech company,".

*

Entrance to Facebook's previous headquarters in the Stanford
Stanford
Research Park , Palo Alto , California
California

*

Entrance to Facebook
Facebook
headquarters complex in Menlo Park, California

*

Inside the Facebook
Facebook
headquarters in 2014

WEBSITE

Main articles: List of Facebook features and Facebook Platform Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005 Previous Facebook
Facebook
logo in use from August 23, 2005 until July 1, 2015

TECHNICAL ASPECTS

The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red-green colorblind , a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007; he explained in 2010: "blue is the richest color for me—I can see all of blue." Facebook
Facebook
is built in PHP which is compiled with HipHop for PHP , a 'source code transformer' built by Facebook
Facebook
engineers that turns PHP into C++
C++
. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook
Facebook
servers by 50%.

Facebook
Facebook
is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build engineer at Facebook, Facebook
Facebook
compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent -based release system. Rossi stated that it takes approximately 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process is zero downtime and new changes to Facebook
Facebook
are rolled out daily.

Facebook
Facebook
used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, new events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them into storage. The User Interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook
Facebook
handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook).

Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out (thus the name). Ptail data is separated out into three streams so they can eventually be sent to their own clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article will generate a lot of impressions and news feed impressions which will cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table .

After this, data is output in PHP format (compiled with HipHop for PHP ). The backend is written in Java and Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions are used to make the web pages display more quickly. The more and longer data is cached the less realtime it is. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers so it can be queried via Hive. This also serves as a backup plan as the data can be recovered from Hive. Raw logs are removed after a period of time.

On March 20, 2014 Facebook
Facebook
announced a new open source programming language called Hack . Prior to public release, a large portion of Facebook
Facebook
was already running and "battle tested" using the new language.

Facebook
Facebook
uses the Momentum platform from Message Systems to deliver the enormous volume of emails it sends to its users every day.

HISTORY

On July 20, 2008, Facebook
Facebook
introduced " Facebook
Facebook
Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look. After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook
Facebook
began migrating all users to the new version starting in September 2008. On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook
Facebook
was testing a simpler signup process.

Fundraising Feature

In March 2017, Facebook
Facebook
announced a feature that would allow users to raise money. Users could personally fundraise using the categories education, medical and pet health, public crisis, natural disasters, emergencies and funerals. In May 2017, Facebook
Facebook
added the categories community and sports and announced anyone in the U.S. eighteen and over could use the feature. Later in 2017, Facebook
Facebook
announced users could start a fundraiser from within Safety Check, the Facebook feature that activates during major disasters.

USER PROFILE/PERSONAL TIMELINE

Facebook
Facebook
login/signup screen

Each registered user on Facebook
Facebook
gets their own personal profile that shows their posts and content. The format of individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological feed of a user's stories, including status updates, photos, interactions with apps, and events. The new layout also let users add a "cover photo", a large header image at the top of the Timeline. Along with the new layout, users were also given more privacy settings to control the content on the Timeline.

In 2007, Facebook
Facebook
launched Facebook
Facebook
Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase, with more 100,000 Pages launched in November.

In June 2009, Facebook
Facebook
introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing.

In February 2014, Facebook
Facebook
expanded the options for a user's gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site.

In May 2014, Facebook
Facebook
introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click.

NEWS FEED

Main article: News Feed

On September 6, 2006, News Feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's friends. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook
Facebook
users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users).

In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.

On February 23, 2010, Facebook
Facebook
was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user. The patent may encourage Facebook
Facebook
to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may potentially include websites such as Twitter .

One of the most popular applications on Facebook
Facebook
is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos. Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr
Flickr
, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. During the first years, Facebook
Facebook
users were limited to 60 photos per album. As of May 2009, this limit has been increased to 200 photos per album.

Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag ", or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that she has been tagged, and provides a link to see the photo.

On June 7, 2012, Facebook
Facebook
launched its App Center to its users. It will help the users in finding games and other applications with ease. Since the launch of the App Center, Facebook
Facebook
has seen 150M monthly users with 2.4 times the installation of apps.

The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm.

On May 13, 2015, Facebook
Facebook
in association with major news portals launched a program "Instant Articles" to provide rich news experience. Instant articles provides users, access to articles on Facebook
Facebook
news feed without leaving the site.

According to the technology news web site Gizmodo on May 9, 2016, Facebook
Facebook
curators routinely suppress or promote news that is deemed to meet a political agenda. For example, articles about Black Lives Matter would be listed even if they did not meet the trending criteria of News Feed. Likewise positive news about conservative political figures were regularly excised from Facebook
Facebook
pages.

In January 2017, Facebook
Facebook
launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat
Snapchat
and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours.

LIKE BUTTON

Main article: Facebook like button

The like button, first enabled on February 9, 2009, enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content appears in the News Feeds of that user's friends, and the button also displays the number of other users who have liked the content, including a full or partial list of those users. The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. After extensive testing and years of questions from the public about whether it had an intention to incorporate a "Dislike" button, Facebook
Facebook
officially rolled out "Reactions" to users worldwide on February 24, 2016, letting users long-press on the like button for an option to use one of five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow", "Sad", or "Angry". Reactions were also extended to comments in May 2017.

INSTANT MESSAGING

Main article: Facebook Messenger

Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. Originally developed as Facebook
Facebook
Chat in 2008, the company revamped its messaging service in 2010, and subsequently released standalone iOS and Android apps in August 2011. Over the years, Facebook
Facebook
has released new apps on a variety of different operating systems, launched a dedicated website interface , and separated the messaging functionality from the main Facebook
Facebook
app, requiring users to download the standalone apps.

Facebook Messenger lets Facebook
Facebook
users send messages to each other. Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make voice calls and video calls both in one-to-one interactions and in group conversations. Its Android app has integrated support for SMS
SMS
and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, while both apps support multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption , and playing "Instant Games", which are select games built into Messenger. Some features, including sending money and requesting transportation, are limited to the United States. In 2017, Facebook has added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours; Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji ; and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification.

In March 2015, Facebook
Facebook
announced that it would start letting businesses and users interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. It also announced that third-party developers could integrate their apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat. In April 2016, it introduced an API
API
for developers to build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to give users news through the service, and in April 2017, it enabled the M virtual assistant for users in the U.S., which scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. Additionally, Facebook
Facebook
expanded the use of bots, incorporating group chatbots into Messenger as "Chat Extensions", adding a "Discovery" tab for finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot.

FOLLOWING

On September 14, 2011, Facebook
Facebook
added the ability for users to provide a "Subscribe" button on their page, which allows users to subscribe to public postings by the user without needing to add him or her as a friend. In conjunction, Facebook
Facebook
also introduced a system in February 2012 to verify the identity of certain accounts.

In December 2012, Facebook
Facebook
announced that because of user confusion surrounding its function, the Subscribe button would be re-labeled as a "Follow" button—making it more similar to other social networks with similar functions.

COMPARISON WITH MYSPACE

The media often compares Facebook
Facebook
to Myspace , but one significant difference between the two Web sites is the level of customization. Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make. MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook
Facebook
allows only plain text . Facebook
Facebook
has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall , a space on every user's profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see; Pokes , which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification then tells a user that he or she has been poked); Photos , that allows users to upload albums and photos; and Status , which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions. Facebook
Facebook
also allows users to tag various people in photographs. Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a user's profile can also view that user's Wall. In July 2007, Facebook
Facebook
began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only. Facebook
Facebook
also differs from Myspace in the form of advertising used. Facebook
Facebook
uses advertising in the form of banner ads, referral marketing, and games. Myspace, on the other hand, uses Google
Google
and AdSense . There is also a difference in the userbase of each site. MySpace, initially, was much more popular with high school students, while Facebook
Facebook
was more popular among college students. A study by the American firm Nielsen Claritas showed that Facebook
Facebook
users are more inclined to use other professional networking sites, such as LinkedIn , than Myspace users.

PRIVACY

PRISM : a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook
Facebook
and Yahoo!.

Facebook
Facebook
enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who can see specific parts of their profile. The website is free to its users and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads . Facebook
Facebook
requires a user's name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings.

On November 6, 2007, Facebook
Facebook
launched Facebook Beacon , which was a part of Facebook's advertisement system until it was discontinued in 2009. Its purpose was to allow targeted advertisements and allowing users to share their activities with their friends.

In 2010, Facebook's security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users' privacy , but privacy concerns remain.

Since 2010, among other social media services, the National Security Agency has been taking publicly posted profile information from users Facebook
Facebook
profiles to discover who they interact with.

On November 29, 2011, Facebook
Facebook
settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises.

In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook
Facebook
messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook. In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice.

FACEBOOK BUG BOUNTY PROGRAM

A Facebook
Facebook
"White Hat " debit card, given to researchers who report security bugs .

On July 29, 2011, Facebook
Facebook
announced its Bug Bounty Program in which security researchers will be paid a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes on Facebook's website. Facebook's Whitehat page for security researchers says: "If you give us a reasonable time to respond to your report before making any information public and make a good faith effort to avoid privacy violations, destruction of data, and interruption or degradation of our service during your research, we will not bring any lawsuit against you or ask law enforcement to investigate you."

Facebook
Facebook
started paying researchers who find and report security bugs by issuing them custom branded "White Hat" debit cards that can be reloaded with funds each time the researchers discover new flaws. "Researchers who find bugs and security improvements are rare, and we value them and have to find ways to reward them," Ryan McGeehan, former manager of Facebook's security response team, told CNET in an interview. "Having this exclusive black card is another way to recognize them. They can show up at a conference and show this card and say 'I did special work for Facebook.'"

India, which has the second largest number of bug hunters in the world, tops the Facebook
Facebook
Bug Bounty Program with the largest number of valid bugs. "Researchers in Russia earned the highest amount per report in 2013, receiving an average of $3,961 for 38 bugs. India contributed the largest number of valid bugs at 136, with an average reward of $1,353. The U.S. reported 92 issues and averaged $2,272 in rewards. Brazil and the UK were third and fourth by volume, with 53 bugs and 40 bugs, respectively, and average rewards of $3,792 and $2,950", Facebook
Facebook
quoted in a post.

RECEPTION

Most popular social networking sites by country Facebook
Facebook
Twitter VKontakte QZone Odnoklassniki Facenama no data

USER GROWTH

CEO Mark Zuckerberg announced in August 2008 that Facebook
Facebook
had passed 100 million registered users. This increased to 150 million "active" users in January 2009. Stan Schroeder of _ Mashable _ questioned how the measurement of "active" was made, though acknowledging that "it probably means that users who've just created an account which sits idle for a long period of time aren't included". The number of users continued to grow, reaching 250 million in July 2009, 300 million in September 2009, 400 million in February 2010, and 500 million in July 2010. According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook
Facebook
daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution."

Mark Zuckerberg announced to the media at the start of October 2012 that Facebook
Facebook
had passed the monthly active users mark of one billion. The company's data also revealed 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections. This continued to grow, reaching 1.19 billion monthly active users in October 2013, 1.44 billion users in April 2015, of which 1.25 billion were mobile users, 1.71 billion users in July 2016, 1.94 billion users in March 2017, and ultimately 2 billion users in June 2017.

In November 2015, after skepticism about its accuracy of the "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook
Facebook
changed its definition of an "active user", now defining it as a logged-in member who visits the Facebook
Facebook
site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the last 30 days of the date of measurement. This excludes the use of third-party services with Facebook
Facebook
integration, which was previously counted.

*

Facebook
Facebook
popularity. Active users of Facebook
Facebook
increased from just a million in 2004 to over 750 million in 2011. *

Population pyramid
Population pyramid
of Facebook
Facebook
users by age as of January 1, 2010

STATISTICS

According to analytics firm comScore , Facebook
Facebook
is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008. comScore reported that Facebook
Facebook
attracted over 130 million unique visitors in May 2010, an increase of 8.6 million people. According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb , Facebook
Facebook
is ranked second and first globally respectively, it is the highest-read social network on the Web, with over 20 billion visitors per month, as of 2015. SimilarWeb , Quantcast , and Compete.com all rank the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic. The website is the most popular for uploading photos, cumulatively with 50 billion uploaded. In 2010, Sophos 's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms, 60% of which responded that they believed Facebook
Facebook
was the social network that "posed the biggest threat to security," well ahead of MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn .

Facebook
Facebook
is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries , including Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. However, Facebook
Facebook
still receives limited adoption in countries such as Japan, where domestically created social networks are still largely preferred. In regional Internet
Internet
markets, penetration on Facebook
Facebook
is highest in North America (69 percent), followed by Middle East-Africa (67 percent), Latin America (58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia-Pacific (17 percent). Some of the top competitors were listed in 2007 by Mashable .

AWARDS AND RECOGNITION

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by _ PC Magazine _ in 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008. In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook
Facebook
was named the "second most popular thing among undergraduates," tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod .

In 2010, Facebook
Facebook
won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" award for the third year in a row. However, in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index , Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it in the bottom 5% of all private-sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system, airlines, and cable companies . The reasons why Facebook
Facebook
scored so poorly include privacy problems, frequent changes to the website's interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and spam.

In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook
Facebook
is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook
Facebook
as legally binding. In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Gendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook. Employers have also used Facebook
Facebook
as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.

By 2005, the use of Facebook
Facebook
had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own. In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year. In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend ", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend ' on a social networking site such as Facebook.

CRITICI SMS
SMS
AND CONTROVERSIES

Main article: Criticism of Facebook

Facebook's market dominance have led to international media coverage and significant reporting of its shortcomings. Notable issues include Internet
Internet
privacy , such as its use of a widespread "like" button on third-party websites tracking users , possible indefinite records of user information, automatic facial recognition software, and its role in the workplace, including employer-employee account disclosure.

The use of Facebook
Facebook
can have psychological effects, including feelings of jealousy and stress, a lack of attention, and social media addiction, in some cases comparable to drug addiction.

Facebook's company tactics have also received prominent coverage, including electricity usage, tax avoidance, real-name user requirement policies, censorship, and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program .

Due to allowing users to publish material by themselves, Facebook
Facebook
has come under scrutiny for the amount of freedom it gives users, including copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech , incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news , and crimes, murders and violent incidents live-streamed through its Facebook Live functionality.

Facebook
Facebook
has been banned by several governments, including Syria, China, and Iran.

The company has also been subject to multiple litigation cases over the years, with its most prominent case concerning allegations that CEO Mark Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss , Tyler Winklevoss , and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004, instead allegedly opting to steal the idea and code to launch Facebook
Facebook
months before HarvardConnection began. The original lawsuit was eventually settled in 2009, with Facebook
Facebook
paying approximately $20 million in cash and 1.25 million shares. A new lawsuit in 2011 was dismissed.

IMPACT

Facebook
Facebook
on the Ad-tech 2010

MEDIA IMPACT

In April 2011, Facebook
Facebook
launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook. The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebook's top executives at an "influencers' summit" in February 2010. Facebook
Facebook
has now been involved in campaigns for _ True Blood _, _ American Idol
American Idol
_, and _Top Gear _. News and media outlets such as _The Washington Post_, _Financial Times_ and ABC News have used aggregated Facebook
Facebook
fan data to create various infographics and charts to accompany their articles. In 2012, beauty pageant Miss Sri Lanka Online was run exclusively using Facebook.

ECONOMIC IMPACT

Facebook, Inc. has utilized growing internet markets using a social media platform to expand its user base while generating billions of dollars in revenue from Facebook's companies. Through empirical findings, economists have been able to identify key areas where Facebook
Facebook
has been able to stimulate economic activity by offering a free public good in that one user will not reduce the amount available to another, while also generating positive externalities . Thus, mobile phone manufactures and carriers have been beneficiaries of Facebook's spillover effect . Three distinct areas have been found to add the most economic impact: platform competition, the marketing place, and user behavior data.

Facebook's platform is efficient because it lowers barriers to entry and lowers costs for businesses to rapidly innovate new ideas. Scalability is accomplished with less wasted resources and monetized by collecting user behavior and usage data for targeted advertising. Facebook
Facebook
advertising allows firms to reasonably scale up operations to reach Facebook
Facebook
users. Facebook's daily active users have increased 18% year-over-year and burgeoning from 1 million users in 2004, to over 1.9 billion in 2017. Facebook
Facebook
is a leader among tech companies who continues to improve their carbon impact through more efficient data centers and clean renewable energy .

By the end of 2016, Facebook's total revenue earnings were $27.638 billion, gross profit was $23.849 billion and a net income for the year was $10.188 billion.

Facebook
Facebook
provides a development platform for many social gaming , communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This open platform of Facebook
Facebook
has spawned many new businesses and added thousands of jobs to the economy. Zynga Inc. , a leading company in social gaming app development, is an example of those businesses. An econometric analysis studied the impact of Facebook
Facebook
on the economy in terms of the number of jobs created and the economic value of those jobs. The conservative estimate was that the app development platform of Facebook
Facebook
added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion.

Facebook
Facebook
Companies

* Facebook, Inc. * Facebook
Facebook
Payments, Inc. * Atlas * Instagram LLC * Onavo * Moves * Oculus * WhatsApp, Inc. * Masquerade * CrowdTangle

SOCIAL IMPACT

Main articles: Social networking service § Social impact , Social impact of the Internet
Internet
§ Social networking
Social networking
and entertainment , and Social capital

Facebook
Facebook
has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. Facebook
Facebook
allows people using computers or mobile phones to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. It has reunited lost family members and friends. It allows users to trade ideas, stay informed with local or global developments, and unite people with common interests and/or beliefs through open, closed and private groups and other pages.

Facebook's social impact has also changed how people communicate. Rather than having to reply to others through email, Facebook
Facebook
allows users to broadcast or share content to others, and thereby to engage others or be engaged with others' posts.

Facebook
Facebook
has been successful and more socially impactful than many other social media sites. David Kirkpatrick, technology journalist and author of _The Facebook
Facebook
Effect_, believes that Facebook
Facebook
is structured in a way that is not easily replaceable. He challenges users to consider how difficult it would be to move all the relationships and photos to an alternative. Facebook
Facebook
has let people participate in an atmosphere with the "over the backyard fence quality" of a small town, despite the move to larger cities. As per Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey, 44 percent of the overall population gets news through Facebook.

EMOTIONAL HEALTH IMPACT

Studies have shown that Facebook
Facebook
causes negative effects on self-esteem by triggering feelings of envy, with vacation and holiday photos proving to be the largest resentment triggers. Other prevalent causes of envy include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such envious feelings leave people lonely and dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about their own lives following an increase in the amount of time spent on Facebook.

According to professor of psychology Susan Krauss Whitbourne, although Facebook
Facebook
has an upside of friending people, there is also the downside of having someone unfriend or reject another person. Whitbourne refers to unfriended persons on Facebook
Facebook
as victims of estrangement. Unfriending someone is seldom a mutual decision and the person often does not know he has been unfriended.

One explanation is that social-media users usually split their time between Facebook
Facebook
and interacting in the real world. When something entertaining happens in real life, people feel the need to share it. It might seem harmless, however at some point people begin to substitute one reality with another. As a result, people start to change their behavior and even their assumptions about life, love and friendships, based on the Facebook
Facebook
reality. This leads to cognitive dissonance . Such a discrepancy between perceptions and beliefs can damage people's emotional balance and lead them to experience identity confusion, relationship conflicts, changes in judgement, and even psychotic break.

POLITICAL IMPACT

Further information: Social media
Social media
and political communication in the United States and Social media
Social media
in the 2016 U.S. Presidential campaign A man during the 2011 Egyptian protests carrying a card saying "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian Social Network"

In February 2008, a Facebook
Facebook
group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia , better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name). In August 2010, one of North Korea
North Korea
's official government websites and the official news agency of the country, Uriminzokkiri , joined Facebook.

During the Arab Spring many journalists made claims that Facebook played a major role in generating the 2011 Egyptian revolution
2011 Egyptian revolution
. On January 14, the Facebook
Facebook
page of "We are all khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem Create Event to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable , in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook
Facebook
became the primary tool for connecting all protesters and led the Egyptian government of Prime Minister Nazif to ban Facebook, Twitter and another websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet
Internet
connections for all of Egypt at midnight January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Mubarak
Mubarak
to resign.

In Bahrain uprising which started on February 14, 2011, Facebook
Facebook
was utilized by the Bahraini regime as well as regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old girl named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook, taken from her home by masked commandos and put in prison.

In 2011, Facebook
Facebook
filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name _FB PAC_. In an email to _The Hill _, a spokesman for Facebook
Facebook
said " Facebook
Facebook
Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected."

During the Syrian civil war, the YPG , a libertarian army for Rojava has recruited westerners through Facebook
Facebook
in its fight against ISIL . Dozens have joined its ranks for various reasons from religious to ideological. The Facebook
Facebook
page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology.

United States

_ Parts of this article (those related to result of 2016 presidential election and Facebook's effect on it) need to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2017)_

Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary
New Hampshire primary
, when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Facebook
Facebook
users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote, and message questions.

Over a million people installed the Facebook
Facebook
application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part, and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook
Facebook
as a popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. A poll by CBS News , UWIRE and _The Chronicle of Higher Education _ claimed to illustrate how the " Facebook
Facebook
effect" has affected youth voting rates, support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.

The new social media, such as Facebook
Facebook
and Twitter, made use first of the personal computer and the Internet, and after 2010 of the smart phones to connect hundreds of millions of people, especially those under age 35. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached.

Facebook
Facebook
is having an impact on local government as well. Justin Smith , a Colorado sheriff uses Facebook
Facebook
to disseminate his ideas on matters relating to local, state, and national concerns. He also publicizes crimes, particularly those that his department solves. He has seven thousand followers on the social medium, considered a large number. Smith said that he rarely goes out in public "when I don't get feedback from folks. … Facebook
Facebook
is an interesting tool because I think it holds candidates and elected officials more accountable. Voters know where someone stands."

As American political strategists turn their attention to the 2016 presidential contest, they identify Facebook
Facebook
as an increasingly important advertising tool. Recent technical innovations have made possible more advanced divisions and subdivisions of the electorate. Most important, Facebook
Facebook
can now deliver video ads to small, highly targeted subsets. Television, by contrast, shows the same commercials to all viewers, and so cannot be precisely tailored.

BANS AND CENSORSHIP

Main article: Censorship of Facebook

In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China
China
, Iran
Iran
, and North Korea
North Korea
.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

_ Facebook
Facebook
parade float in San Francisco Pride
San Francisco Pride
2014

* American author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal _. * _ The Social Network _, a drama film directed by David Fincher and adapted from Mezrich's book, was released October 1, 2010. The film is a fictional re-telling of the creation of Facebook, and the legal battles associated with it. People portrayed in the movie, including Zuckerberg, criticized its accuracy. * In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the banning of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was created, called MillatFacebook . * " You Have 0 Friends ", an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series, _ South Park _, explicitly parodied Facebook. * In July 2014, after Shakira became the first celebrity to cross over 100 million likes, Mark Zuckerberg posted a congratulatory message on the artist's wall. Cristiano Ronaldo is the second to reach 100 million likes, ahead of Rihanna
Rihanna
and Eminem , who had 98 million and 89 million likes respectively. On 15 March 2015, Cristiano Ronaldo surpassed Shakira to become the most liked person on Facebook.

SEE ALSO

* Companies portal * Internet
Internet
portal

* Ambient awareness * Cyberstalking * List of social networking websites * List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users * Six degrees of separation
Six degrees of separation
* Social Graph * Timeline of social media * VK (social networking) * WhatsApp

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News_. Retrieved March 23, 2010. * ^ Carlisle, Juliet E.; Patton, Robert C. (2013-01-01). "Is Social Media Changing How We Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis of Facebook
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and the 2008 Presidential Election". _Political Research Quarterly_. 66 (4): 883–895. JSTOR 23612065 . doi :10.1177/1065912913482758 . * ^ Skogerbø, Eli; Krumsvik, Arne H. (2015-05-04). "Newspapers, Facebook
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and Twitter". _Journalism Practice_. 9 (3): 350–366. ISSN 1751-2786 . doi :10.1080/17512786.2014.950471 . * ^ Jason Pohl (July 6, 2014). "Is Justin Smith Colorado\'s most social sheriff?". _ Fort Collins Coloradoan _. Retrieved February 7, 2015. * ^ Shane Goldmacher, " Facebook
Facebook
the Vote: The social network at the center of American digital life could become the epicenter of the presidential race," _National Journal Magazine_ June 13, 2015 * ^ Hempel, Jessi (June 25, 2009). "The book that Facebook
Facebook
doesn\'t want you to read". _CNN_. Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010. * ^ " The Social Network (2010)". Internet
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Movie DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2010. * ^ Racheff, Jeffery (October 20, 2010). " Mark Zuckerberg Calls The Social Network Inaccurate". _Limelife_. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2015. * ^ Hussain, Waqar (May 27, 2010). "Pakistanis create rival Muslim Facebook". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved June 9, 2010. * ^ " South Park parodies Facebook". _ The Guardian
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_. Guardian Media Group . April 8, 2010. Retrieved March 23, 2017. * ^ " Mark Zuckerberg Congratulates Shakira, Singer Attains "Most Liked Page on Facebook"". _OnoBello.com_. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ " Shakira reaches 100 million \'likes\': Do Facebook
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fans and Twitter followers matter?". _Metro UK _. July 25, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ Ella Alexander (July 21, 2014). " Shakira is Facebook\'s most popular celebrity with 100million likes – enough to fill 1,359 Maracana stadiums". _Independent UK _. London. Retrieved August 13, 2014. * ^ "Sorry, Shakira, Cristiano Ronaldo is the most liked person on Facebook".

FURTHER READING

* Arrington, Michael (April 25, 2010). "The Age of Facebook". TechCrunch
TechCrunch
. Retrieved March 23, 2017. * Kirkpatrick, David (October 6, 2006). "Why Facebook
Facebook
matters: It\'s not just for arranging dates. And it\'s not just another social network. Facebook
Facebook
offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships". _Fortune _. Retrieved April 9, 2017. * Lee, Newton (2014). _ Facebook
Facebook
Nation: Total Information Awareness_ (2nd ed.). Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4939-1739-6 . * Miller, Daniel (2011). _Tales from Facebook_. Polity. ISBN 978-0-7456-5209-2 . * Muffett, Alec (October 31, 2014). "Making Connections to Facebook More Secure". Facebook. Retrieved December 13, 2016. * Schroeder, Stan (February 7, 2011). " Facebook
Facebook
Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know". Mashable . Retrieved February 1, 2015.

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