The FABACEAE, LEGUMINOSAE or PAPILIONACEAE, commonly known as the
LEGUME, PEA, or BEAN FAMILY, are a large and economically important
family of flowering plants . It includes trees , shrubs , and
perennial or annual herbaceous plants , which are easily recognized by
their fruit (legume ) and their compound, stipulated leaves. Many
legumes have characteristics of flowers and fruits. The family is
widely distributed, and is the third-largest land plant family in
terms of number of species, behind only the
Orchidaceae and Asteraceae
, with about 751 genera and some 19,000 known species. The five
largest of the genera are _
Astragalus _ (over 3,000 species), _Acacia
_ (over 1000 species), _
Indigofera _ (around 700 species), _Crotalaria
_ (around 700 species) and _
Mimosa _ (around 500 species), which
constitute about a quarter of all legume species. The ca. 19,000 known
legume species amount to about 7% of flowering plant species.
Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and
in dry forests in the
Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that
Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family. This point of view has
been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by
different groups within the family compared with that found among the
Leguminosae and their closest relations, but also by all the recent
phylogenetic studies based on
DNA sequences. These studies confirm
Fabaceae are a monophyletic group that is closely related to
Quillajaceae families and that they
belong to the order
Along with the cereals , some fruits and tropical roots a number of
Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use
is closely related to human evolution .
A number of important agricultural and food plants, including
_Glycine max_ (soybean ), _
Phaseolus _ (beans), _
Pisum sativum_ (pea
), _Cicer arietinum_ (chickpeas ), _
Medicago sativa_ (alfalfa ),
Arachis hypogaea_ (peanut ), _
Ceratonia siliqua _ (carob), and
Glycyrrhiza glabra _ (liquorice ). A number of species are also weedy
pests in different parts of the world, including: _
Cytisus scoparius _
Robinia pseudoacacia _ (black locust)_,
Ulex europaeus _
Pueraria lobata _ (kudzu), and a number of _
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Description
* 2.1 Growth habit
* 2.2 Leaves
* 2.3 Roots
* 2.4 Flowers
* 2.6 Physiology and biochemistry
* 3 Ecology
* 3.1 Distribution and habitat
* 3.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
* 3.3 Chemical ecology
* 4 Evolution, phylogeny and taxonomy
* 4.1 Evolution
* 4.2 Phylogeny and taxonomy
* 4.2.1 Phylogeny
* 4.2.2 Taxonomy
* 5 Economic and cultural importance
* 5.1 Food and forage
* 5.2 Industrial uses
* 5.2.1 Natural gums
* 5.3 Dyes
* 5.4 Ornamentals
* 6 Emblematic Leguminosae
* 7 Image gallery
* 8 References
* 9 External links
The name 'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus _Faba_, now included
Vicia _. The term "faba" comes from Latin, and appears to simply
mean "bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, and
refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes .
_ The fruit of
Gymnocladus dioicus _
Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees (like _
Koompassia excelsa _)
to small annual herbs , with the majority being herbaceous perennials.
Plants have indeterminate inflorescences, which are sometimes reduced
to a single flower. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single
carpel with a short gynophore , and after fertilization produce fruits
that are legumes.
The Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms including trees,
shrubs or herbaceous plants or even vines or lianas . The herbaceous
plants can be annuals, biennials or perennials, without basal or
terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils.They are
upright plants, epiphytes or vines. The latter support themselves by
means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or
foliar tendrils . Plants can be heliophytes, mesophytes or xerophytes
The leaves are usually alternate and compound. Most often they are
even- or odd-pinnately compound (e.g. _
Caragana _ and _
respectively), often trifoliate (e.g. _
Trifolium _, _
Medicago _) and
rarely palmately compound (e.g. _
Lupinus _), in the
Caesalpinioideae commonly bipinnate (e.g. _
Acacia _, _
They always have stipules , which can be leaf-like (e.g. _
thorn-like (e.g. _
Robinia _) or be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins
are entire or, occasionally, serrate . Both the leaves and the
leaflets often have wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements . In
some species, leaflets have evolved into tendrils (e.g. _
Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that
protect the plant from herbivore insects (a form of mutualism ).
Extrafloral nectaries are common among the
Mimosoideae and the
Caesalpinioideae, and are also found in some
Faboideae (e.g. _Vicia
sativa _). In some _
Acacia _, the modified hollow stipules are
inhabited by ants and are known as domatia .
Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called
root nodules . These bacteria, known as rhizobia , have the ability to
take nitrogen gas (N2) out of the air and convert it to a form of
nitrogen that is usable to the host plant ( NO3− or NH3 ). This
process is called nitrogen fixation . The legume, acting as a host,
and rhizobia , acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a
Pea flower" redirects here. For the flour produced from peas, see
pea flour . _ A flower of
Wisteria sinensis _, Faboideae. Two
petals have been removed to show stamens and pistil
The flowers often have five generally fused sepals and five free
petals . They are generally hermaphrodite , and have a short
hypanthium , usually cup shaped. There are normally ten stamens and
one elongated superior ovary , with a curved style . They are usually
arranged in indeterminate inflorescences .
Fabaceae are typically
entomophilous plants (i.e. they are pollinated by insects ), and the
flowers are usually showy to attract pollinators .
Caesalpinioideae , the flowers are often zygomorphic , as in
Cercis _, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in _Bauhinia
_. The upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the
Some species, like some in the genus _Senna _, have asymmetric
flowers, with one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one,
and the style bent to one side. The calyx, corolla, or stamens can be
showy in this group.
Mimosoideae , the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in
globose inflorescences . The petals are small and the stamens, which
can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the
showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence
open at once.
Faboideae , the flowers are zygomorphic, and have a
specialized structure . The upper petal, called the banner, is large
and envelops the rest of the petals in bud, often reflexing when the
flower blooms. The two adjacent petals, the wings, surround the two
bottom petals. The two bottom petals are fused together at the apex
(remaining free at the base), forming a boat-like structure called the
keel. The stamens are always ten in number, and their filaments can be
fused in various configurations, often in a group of nine stamens plus
one separate stamen. Various genes in the _CYCLOIDEA (CYC)/DICHOTOMA
(DICH)_ family are expressed in the upper (also called dorsal or
adaxial) petal; in some species, such as _Cadia _, these genes are
expressed throughout the flower, producing a radially symmetrical
Vicia angustifolia _
The ovary most typically develops into a legume . A legume is a
simple dry fruit that usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two
sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a "pod", although that
can also be applied to a few other fruit types. A few species have
evolved samarae , loments , follicles , indehiscent legumes, achenes ,
drupes , and berries from the basic legume fruit.
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
The Leguminosae are rarely cyanogenic , however, where they are, the
cyanogenic compounds are derived from tyrosine , phenylalanine or
leucine . They frequently contain alkaloids . Proanthocyanidins can be
present either as cyanidin or delphinidine or both at the same time.
Flavonoids such as kaempferol , quercitin and myricetin are often
Ellagic acid has never been found in any of the genera or
species analysed. Sugars are transported within the plants in the form
of sucrose . C3 photosynthesis has been found in a wide variety of
genera. The family has also evolved a unique chemistry. Many legumes
contain toxic and indigestible substances which may be removed through
various processing methods. Pterocarpans are a class of molecules
(derivatives of isoflavonoids ) found only in the Fabaceae.
DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT
Fabaceae have an essentially worldwide distribution, being found
everywhere except Antarctica and the high arctic. The trees are often
found in tropical regions, while the herbaceous plants and shrubs are
predominant outside the tropics.
BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION
_ Roots of
Vicia _ with white root nodules visible. _
Cross-section through a root nodule of
Vicia _ observed through a
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, performed by the organisms called
diazotrophs ) is a very old process that probably originated in the
Archean eon when the primitive atmosphere lacked oxygen . It is only
carried out by
Euryarchaeota and just 6 of the more than 50 phyla of
bacteria . Some of these lineages co-evolved together with the
flowering plants establishing the molecular basis of a mutually
beneficial symbiotic relationship. BNF is carried out in nodules that
are mainly located in the root cortex, although they are occasionally
located in the stem as in _
Sesbania rostrata _. The spermatophytes
that co-evolved with actinorhizal diazotrophs (_
Frankia _) or with
rhizobia to establish their symbiotic relationship belong to 11
families contained within the
Rosidae clade (as established by the
gene molecular phylogeny of _rbcL_, a gene coding for part of the
RuBisCO enzyme in the chloroplast ). This grouping indicates that the
predisposition for forming nodules probably only arose once in
flowering plants and that it can be considered as an ancestral
characteristic that has been conserved or lost in certain lineages.
However, such a wide distribution of families and genera within this
lineage indicates that nodulation had multiple origins. Of the 10
families within the Rosidae, 8 have nodules formed by actinomyces
Rosaceae ), and the two
Fabaceae have nodules formed by
The rhizobia and their hosts must be able to recognize each other for
nodule formation to commence.
Rhizobia are specific to particular host
species although a rhizobia species may often infect more than one
host species. This means that one plant species may be infected by
more than one species of bacteria. For example, nodules in _Acacia
senegal _ can contain seven species of rhizobia belonging to three
different genera. The most distinctive characteristics that allow
rhizobia to be distinguished apart are the rapidity of their growth
and the type of root nodule that they form with their host. Root
nodules can be classified as being either indeterminate, cylindrical
and often branched, and determinate, spherical with prominent
lenticels. Indeterminate nodules are characteristic of legumes from
temperate climates, while determinate nodules are commonly found in
species from tropical or subtropical climates.
Nodule formation is common throughout the leguminosae, it is found in
the majority of its members that only form an association with
rhizobia, which in turn form an exclusive symbiosis with the
leguminosae (with the exception of _Parasponia_, the only genus of the
Ulmaceae genera that is capable of forming nodules). Nodule
formation is present in all the leguminosae sub-families, although it
is less common in the Caesalpinioideae. All types of nodule formation
are present in the sub-family Papilionoideae: indeterminate (with the
meristem retained), determinate (without meristem) and the type
included in _Aeschynomene_. The latter two are thought to be the most
modern and specialised type of nodule as they are only present in some
lines of the Papilionoideae sub-family. Even though nodule formation
is common in the two monophyletic subfamilies Papilionoideae and
Mimosoideae they also contain species that do not form nodules. The
presence or absence of nodule-forming species within the three
sub-families indicates that nodule formation has arisen several times
during the evolution of the leguminosae and that this ability has been
lost in some lineages. For example, within the genus _Acacia_, a
member of the Mimosoideae, _A. pentagona_ does not form nodules, while
other species of the same genus readily form nodules, as is the case
Acacia senegal_, which forms both rapidly and slow growing
A large number of species within many genera of leguminous plants,
Astragalus _, _
Coronilla _, _
Hippocrepis _, _
_Lotus _, _
Securigera _ and _Scorpiurus _, produce chemicals that
derive from the compound 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA,
beta-nitropropionic acid ). The free acid 3-NPA is an irreversible
inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration , and thus the compound
inhibits the tricarboxylic acid cycle . This inhibition caused by
3-NPA is especially toxic to nerve cells and represents a very general
toxic mechanism suggesting a profound ecological importance due to the
big number of species producing this compound and its derivatives. A
second and closely related class of secondary metabolites that occur
in many species of leguminous plants is defined by isoxazolin-5-one
derivatives. These compounds occur in particular together with 3-NPA
and related derivatives at the same time in the same species, as found
Astragalus canadensis_ and _
Astragalus collinus_. 3-NPA and
isoxazlin-5-one derivatives also occur in many species of leaf beetles
(see defense in insects ).
EVOLUTION, PHYLOGENY AND TAXONOMY
Fabales contains around 7.3% of eudicot species and the
greatest part of this diversity is contained in just one of the four
families that order contains: Fabaceae. This clade also includes the
Quillajaceae families and its origins
date back 94 to 89 million years, although it started its
diversification some 79 to 74 million years ago. In fact, the
Fabaceae have diversified during the early tertiary to become a
ubiquitous part of the modern earth’s biota , along with many other
families belonging to the flowering plants.
Fabaceae have an abundant and diverse fossil record, especially
Tertiary period. Fossils of flowers, fruit, leaves, wood and
pollen from this period have been found in numerous locations.
The earliest fossils that can be definitively assigned to the Fabaceae
appeared in the late
Palaeocene (approximately 56 million years ago).
Representatives of the 3 sub-families traditionally recognised as
being members of the
Fabaceae – Cesalpinioideae, Papilionoideae and
Mimosoideae — as well as members of the large clades within these
sub-families – such as the genistoides – have been found in
periods a little later, starting between 55 and 50 million years ago.
In fact, a wide variety of taxa representing the main lineages in the
Fabaceae have been found in the fossil record dating from the middle
to the late
Eocene , suggesting that the majority of the modern
Fabaceae groups were already present and that a broad diversification
occurred during this period. Therefore, the
Fabaceae started their
diversification approximately 60 million years ago and the most
important clades separated some 50 million years ago. The age of the
main Cesalpinioideae clades have been estimated as between 56 and 34
million years and the basal group of the
Mimosoideae as 44 ± 2.6
million years. The division between
dated as occurring between 59 and 34 million years ago and the basal
group of the
Faboideae as 58.6 ± 0.2 million years ago. It has been
possible to date the divergence of some of the groups within the
Faboideae, even though diversification within each genus was
relatively recent. For instance, _
Astragalus _ separated from the
Oxytropis _ some 16 to 12 million years ago. In addition, the
separation of the aneuploid species of _Neoastragalus_ started 4
million years ago. _
Inga ,_ another genus of the Papilionoideae with
approximately 350 species, seems to have diverged in the last 2
It has been suggested, based on fossil and phylogenetic evidence,
that legumes originally evolved in arid and/or semi-arid regions along
the Tethys seaway during the
Palaeogene Period. However, others
Africa (or even the
Americas ) cannot yet be ruled out as
the origin of the family.
The current hypothesis about the evolution of the genes needed for
nodulation is that they were recruited from other pathways after a
polyploidy event. Several different pathways have been implicated as
donating duplicated genes to the pathways need for nodulation. The
main donors to the pathway were the genes associated with the
arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis genes, the pollen tube formation genes
and the haemoglobin genes. One of the main genes shown to be shared
between the arbuscular mycorrhiza pathway and the nodulation pathway
is SYMRK and it is involved in the plant-bacterial recognition. The
pollen tube growth is similar to the infection thread development in
that infection threads grow in a polar manner that is similar to a
pollen tubes polar growth towards the ovules. Both pathways include
the same type of enzymes, pectin-degrading cell wall enzymes. The
enzymes needed to reduce nitrogen, nitrogenases, require a substantial
input of ATP but at the same time are sensitive to free oxygen. To
meet the requirements of this paradoxical situation, the plants
express a type of haemoglobin called leghaemoglobin that is believed
to be recruited after a duplication event. These three genetic
pathways are believed to be part of a gene duplication event then
recruited to work in nodulation.
PHYLOGENY AND TAXONOMY
The phylogeny of the legumes has been the object of many studies by
research groups from around the world. These studies have used
DNA data (the chloroplast intron _trnL_, the chloroplast
genes _rbcL_ and _matK_, or the ribosomal spacers _ITS_) and cladistic
analysis in order to investigate the relationships between the
family’s different lineages.
Fabaceae is consistently recovered as
monophyletic . The studies further confirmed that the traditional
Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae were each monophyletic but
both were nested within the paraphyletic subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
All the different approaches yielded similar results regarding the
relationships between the family's main clades. Following
extensive discussion in the legume phylogenetics community, the Legume
Phylogeny Working Group reclassified
Fabaceae into six subfamilies,
which necessitated the segregation of four new subfamilies from
Caesalpinioideae and merging Caesapinioideae _sensu stricto_ with the
former subfamily Mimosoideae.
Polygalaceae (outgroup )
Fabaceae are placed in the order
Fabales according to most
taxonomic systems, including the
APG III system . The family now
includes six subfamilies:
* CERCIDOIDEAE : 12 genera and ~335 species. Mainly tropical.
Bauhinia _, _
* DETARIOIDEAE : 84 genera and ~760 species. Mainly tropical.
Amherstia _, _
Detarium _, _
* DUPARQUETIOIDEAE : 1 genus and 1 species. West and Central Africa.
* DIALIOIDEAE : 17 genera and ~85 species. Widespread throughout the
* CAESALPINIOIDEAE : 148 genera and ~4400 species.
Caesalpinia _, _Senna _, _
Mimosa _, _
Acacia _. Includes the former
Mimosoideae (80 genera and ~3200 species; mostly tropical
and warm temperate
Asia and America).
* FABOIDEAE (PAPILIONOIDEAE ): 503 genera and ~14,000 species.
Cosmopolitan . _
Astragalus _, _
Lupinus _, _
ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL IMPORTANCE
Legumes are economically and culturally important plants due to their
extraordinary diversity and abundance, the wide variety of edible
vegetables they represent and due to the variety of uses they can be
put to: in horticulture and agriculture, as a food, for the compounds
they contain that have medicinal uses and for the oil and fats they
contain that have a variety of uses.
FOOD AND FORAGE
The history of legumes is tied in closely with that of human
civilization, appearing early in
Asia , the
Americas (the common bean
, several varieties) and
Europe (broad beans) by 6,000 BCE , where
they became a staple, essential as a source of protein.
Their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen reduces fertilizer costs
for farmers and gardeners who grow legumes, and means that legumes can
be used in a crop rotation to replenish soil that has been depleted of
Legume seeds and foliage have a comparatively higher
protein content than non-legume materials, due to the additional
nitrogen that legumes receive through the process. Legumes are
commonly used as natural fertilizers. Some legume species perform
hydraulic lift , which makes them ideal for intercropping .
Farmed legumes can belong to numerous classes, including forage ,
grain , blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure and
timber species, with most commercially farmed species filling two or
more roles simultaneously.
There are of two broad types of FORAGE LEGUMES. Some, like alfalfa ,
clover , vetch , and _
Arachis _, are sown in pasture and grazed by
livestock. Other forage legumes such as _
Leucaena _ or _
Albizia _ are
woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock
or regularly cut by humans to provide stock feed.
GRAIN LEGUMES are cultivated for their seeds , and are also called
pulses . The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for
the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include both
herbaceous plants like beans , lentils , lupins , peas and peanuts .
and trees such as carob , mesquite and tamarind .
BLOOM LEGUME species include species such as lupin , which are farmed
commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens
Laburnum _, _
Robinia _, _
Gleditsia _, _
Acacia _, _Mimosa
_, and _
Delonix _ are ornamental trees and shrubs .
INDUSTRIAL FARMED LEGUMES include _
Indigofera _, cultivated for the
production of indigo , _
Acacia _, for gum arabic , and _
Derris _, for
the insecticide action of rotenone , a compound it produces.
FALLOW or GREEN MANURE legume species are cultivated to be tilled
back into the soil to exploit the high nitrogen levels found in most
legumes. Numerous legumes are farmed for this purpose, including
Leucaena _, _
Cyamopsis _ and _
Various legume species are farmed for TIMBER PRODUCTION worldwide,
including numerous _
Acacia _ species, _
Dalbergia _ species, and
Castanospermum australe _.
Melliferous plants offer nectar to bees and other insects to
encourage them to carry pollen from the flowers of one plant to others
thereby ensuring pollination .A number of legume species are good
nectar providers such as alfalfa , white clover , sweet clover and
Prosopis species. Many plants in the _Fabaceae_ family are an
important source of pollen for the bumblebee species _Bombus hortorum
_. This bee species is especially fond of one species in particular;
Trifolium pratense _, also known as red clover, is a popular food
source in the diet of _
Bombus hortorum _.
Natural gums are vegetable exudates that are released as the result
of damage to the plant such as that resulting from the attack of an
insect or a natural or artificial cut. These exudates contain
heterogeneous polysaccharides formed of different sugars and usually
containing uronic acids . They form viscous colloidal solutions. There
are different species that produce gums. The most important of these
species belong to the leguminosae. They are widely used in the
pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and textile sectors. They also have
interesting therapeutic properties; for example gum arabic is
antitussive and anti-inflammatory . The most well known gums are
Astragalus gummifer_), gum arabic (_
Acacia senegal _) and
guar gum (_
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba _).
The species used to produce dyes include the following: Logwood
_Haematoxylon campechianum_; a large spiny tree that can grow up to 15
m tall. Its cork is thin and soft and its wood is hard. The heartwood
is used to produce dyes that are red and purple. The histological
stain called haematoxylin is produced from this species. Brazilwood
Caesalpinia echinata _) is similar to the previous tree but
smaller and with red or purple flowers. The wood is also used to
produce a red or purple dye. The Madras thorn (_Pithecallobium dulce_)
is another spiny tree native to Latin America, it grows up to 4 m high
and has yellow or green flowers that grow in florets. Its fruit is
reddish and is used to produce a yellow dye.
Indigo dye is extracted
from the True indigo plant _
Indigofera tinctoria _ that is native to
Asia. In Central and South America dyes are produced from two species
related to this species, indigo from _
Indigofera suffruticosa _ and
Natal indigo from _
Indigofera arrecta_.yellow dye is extracted from
_Butea monosperma_ commonly called as flame of the forest.
_ The Cockspur Coral
Erythrina crista-galli _ is one of many
leguminosae used as ornamental plants . In addition, it is the
Flower of Argentina and
Legumes have been used as ornamental plants throughout the world for
many centuries. Their vast diversity of heights, shapes, foliage and
flower colour means that this family is commonly used in the design
and planting of everything from small gardens to large parks. The
following is a list of the main ornamental legume species, listed by
* Subfamily Caesalpinioideae: _
Bauhinia forficata _, _Caesalpinia
gilliesii _, _
Caesalpinia spinosa _, _
Ceratonia siliqua _, _Cercis
siliquastrum _, _
Gleditsia triacanthos _, _
Gymnocladus dioica _,
Parkinsonia aculeata _, _
Senna multiglandulosa _.
* Subfamily Mimosoideae: _
Acacia caven _, _
Acacia cultriformis _,
Acacia dealbata _, _
Acacia karroo _, _
Acacia longifolia _, _Acacia
melanoxylon _, _
Acacia paradoxa _, _
Acacia retinodes _, _Acacia
saligna _, _
Acacia verticillata _, _
Acacia visco _, _Albizzia
julibrissin _, _
Calliandra tweediei _, _
Paraserianthes lophantha _,
Prosopis chilensis _.
* Subfamily Faboideae: _
Clianthus puniceus _, _Citysus scoparius _,
Erythrina crista-galli _, _
Erythrina falcata _, _
_, _Lotus peliorhynchus _, _
Lupinus arboreus _, _
_, _Otholobium glandulosum _, _
Retama monosperma _, _
Robinia luxurians _, _
Robinia pseudoacacia _, _Sophora japonica _,
_Sophora macnabiana _, _
Sophora macrocarpa _, _
Spartium junceum _,
Teline monspessulana _, _
Tipuana tipu _, _
Wisteria sinensis _.
* The Cockspur Coral
Erythrina crista-galli _), is the
Flower of Argentina and
* The Elephant ear tree (_
Enterolobium cyclocarpum _) is the
national tree of
Costa Rica , by Executive Order of 31 August 1959.
* The Brazilwood tree (_
Caesalpinia echinata _) has been the
national tree of
Brazil since 1978.
* The Golden wattle _
Acacia pycnantha _ is
Australia ’s national
Hong Kong Orchid tree _
Bauhinia blakeana _ is the national
Hong Kong .
Acacia baileyana _ (Wattle)
Loments of _
Desmodium gangeticum _
Dichrostachys cinerea _ Sickle Bush
Indigofera gerardiana _
Tendrils of _
Lathyrus odoratus _ (Sweet pea)
Inflorescence of _
Lupinus arboreus _ (Yellow bush lupin)
Pisum sativum _ (Peas); note the leaf-like stipules
_Smithia conferta _
Trifolium repens _ in
Kullu District of
Himachal Pradesh ,
_Kashubian vetch _ –
_Zornia gibbosa _
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wojciechowski, M. F.; Lavin, M.; Sanderson, M. J.
(2004). "A phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the
plastid matK gene resolves many well-supported sub clades within the
family". _American Journal of Botany_. 91 (11): 1846–62. PMID
21652332 . doi :10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families
of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). _Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society_. 161 (2): 105–121. doi :10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
Retrieved 4 February 2014.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Watson L.; Dallwitz, M. J. (2007-06-01).
"The families of flowering plants: Leguminosae". Retrieved 9 February
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