Fabaceae or Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume, pea, or
bean family, is a large and economically important family of flowering
plants. It includes trees, shrubs, and perennial or annual herbaceous
plants, which are easily recognized by their fruit (legume) and their
compound, stipulated leaves. Many legumes have characteristics of
flowers and fruits. The family is widely distributed, and is the
third-largest land plant family in terms of number of species, behind
Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with about 751 genera and some
19,000 known species. The five largest of the genera are
Astragalus (over 3,000 species),
Acacia (over 1000 species),
Indigofera (around 700 species),
Crotalaria (around 700 species) and
Mimosa (around 500 species), which constitute about a quarter of all
legume species. The ca. 19,000 known legume species amount to about 7%
of flowering plant species.
Fabaceae is the most common family
found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the
Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the
Fabaceae is a single monophyletic family. This point of view has
been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by
different groups within the family compared with that found among the
Leguminosae and their closest relations, but also by all the recent
phylogenetic studies based on
DNA sequences. These studies
confirm that the
Fabaceae are a monophyletic group that is closely
related to the Polygalaceae,
Quillajaceae families and
that they belong to the order Fabales.
Along with the cereals, some fruits and tropical roots, a number of
Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use
is closely related to human evolution.
Fabaceae family includes a number of important agricultural and
food plants, including Glycine max (soybean),
Phaseolus (beans), Pisum
sativum (pea), Cicer arietinum (chickpeas),
Medicago sativa (alfalfa),
Arachis hypogaea (peanut),
Ceratonia siliqua (carob), and Glycyrrhiza
glabra (liquorice). A number of species are also weedy pests in
different parts of the world, including:
Cytisus scoparius (broom),
Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust),
Ulex europaeus (gorse), Pueraria
lobata (kudzu), and a number of
2.1 Growth habit
2.6 Physiology and biochemistry
3.1 Distribution and habitat
3.2 Biological nitrogen fixation
3.3 Chemical ecology
4 Evolution, phylogeny and taxonomy
4.2 Phylogeny and taxonomy
5 Economic and cultural importance
5.1 Food and forage
5.2 Industrial uses
5.2.1 Natural gums
6 Emblematic Leguminosae
7 Image gallery
9 External links
The name 'Fabaceae' comes from the defunct genus Faba, now included in
Vicia. The term "faba" comes from Latin, and appears to simply mean
"bean". Leguminosae is an older name still considered valid, and
refers to the fruit of these plants, which are called legumes.
The fruit of Gymnocladus dioicus
Fabaceae range in habit from giant trees (like Koompassia excelsa) to
small annual herbs, with the majority being herbaceous perennials.
Plants have indeterminate inflorescences, which are sometimes reduced
to a single flower. The flowers have a short hypanthium and a single
carpel with a short gynophore, and after fertilization produce fruits
that are legumes.
The Leguminosae have a wide variety of growth forms including trees,
shrubs or herbaceous plants or even vines or lianas. The herbaceous
plants can be annuals, biennials or perennials, without basal or
terminal leaf aggregations. Many Legumes have tendrils.They are
upright plants, epiphytes or vines. The latter support themselves by
means of shoots that twist around a support or through cauline or
foliar tendrils. Plants can be heliophytes, mesophytes or
The leaves are usually alternate and compound. Most often they are
even- or odd-pinnately compound (e.g.
Caragana and Robinia
respectively), often trifoliate (e.g. Trifolium, Medicago) and rarely
palmately compound (e.g. Lupinus), in the
Mimosoideae and the
Caesalpinioideae commonly bipinnate (e.g. Acacia, Mimosa). They always
have stipules, which can be leaf-like (e.g. Pisum), thorn-like (e.g.
Robinia) or be rather inconspicuous. Leaf margins are entire or,
occasionally, serrate. Both the leaves and the leaflets often have
wrinkled pulvini to permit nastic movements. In some species, leaflets
have evolved into tendrils (e.g. Vicia).
Many species have leaves with structures that attract ants that
protect the plant from herbivore insects (a form of mutualism).
Extrafloral nectaries are common among the
Mimosoideae and the
Caesalpinioideae, and are also found in some
Faboideae (e.g. Vicia
sativa). In some Acacia, the modified hollow stipules are inhabited by
ants and are known as domatia.
Main article: Root nodule
Fabaceae host bacteria in their roots within structures called
root nodules. These bacteria, known as rhizobia, have the ability to
take nitrogen gas (N2) out of the air and convert it to a form of
nitrogen that is usable to the host plant ( NO3− or NH3 ). This
process is called nitrogen fixation. The legume, acting as a host, and
rhizobia, acting as a provider of usable nitrate, form a symbiotic
Pea flower" redirects here. For the flour produced from peas, see pea
A flower of Wisteria sinensis, Faboideae. Two petals have been removed
to show stamens and pistil
The flowers often have five generally fused sepals and five free
petals. They are generally hermaphrodite, and have a short hypanthium,
usually cup shaped. There are normally ten stamens and one elongated
superior ovary, with a curved style. They are usually arranged in
Fabaceae are typically entomophilous
plants (i.e. they are pollinated by insects), and the flowers are
usually showy to attract pollinators.
In the Caesalpinioideae, the flowers are often zygomorphic, as in
Cercis, or nearly symmetrical with five equal petals in Bauhinia. The
upper petal is the innermost one, unlike in the Faboideae. Some
species, like some in the genus Senna, have asymmetric flowers, with
one of the lower petals larger than the opposing one, and the style
bent to one side. The calyx, corolla, or stamens can be showy in this
In the Mimosoideae, the flowers are actinomorphic and arranged in
globose inflorescences. The petals are small and the stamens, which
can be more than just 10, have long, coloured filaments, which are the
showiest part of the flower. All of the flowers in an inflorescence
open at once.
In the Faboideae, the flowers are zygomorphic, and have a specialized
structure. The upper petal, called the banner or standard, is large
and envelops the rest of the petals in bud, often reflexing when the
flower blooms. The two adjacent petals, the wings, surround the two
bottom petals. The two bottom petals are fused together at the apex
(remaining free at the base), forming a boat-like structure called the
keel. The stamens are always ten in number, and their filaments can be
fused in various configurations, often in a group of nine stamens plus
one separate stamen. Various genes in the CYCLOIDEA (CYC)/DICHOTOMA
(DICH) family are expressed in the upper (also called dorsal or
adaxial) petal; in some species, such as Cadia, these genes are
expressed throughout the flower, producing a radially symmetrical
Main article: Legume
The ovary most typically develops into a legume. A legume is a simple
dry fruit that usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A
common name for this type of fruit is a "pod", although that can also
be applied to a few other fruit types. A few species have evolved
samarae, loments, follicles, indehiscent legumes, achenes, drupes, and
berries from the basic legume fruit.
Physiology and biochemistry
The Leguminosae are rarely cyanogenic, however, where they are, the
cyanogenic compounds are derived from tyrosine, phenylalanine or
leucine. They frequently contain alkaloids. Proanthocyanidins can be
present either as cyanidin or delphinidine or both at the same time.
Flavonoids such as kaempferol, quercitin and myricetin are often
Ellagic acid has never been found in any of the genera or
species analysed. Sugars are transported within the plants in the form
of sucrose. C3 photosynthesis has been found in a wide variety of
genera. The family has also evolved a unique chemistry. Many
legumes contain toxic and indigestible substances which may be removed
through various processing methods. Pterocarpans are a class of
molecules (derivatives of isoflavonoids) found only in the Fabaceae.
Forisome proteins are found in the sieve tubes of Fabaceae; uniquely
they are not dependent on ADT.
Distribution and habitat
Fabaceae have an essentially worldwide distribution, being found
everywhere except Antarctica and the high arctic. The trees are
often found in tropical regions, while the herbaceous plants and
shrubs are predominant outside the tropics.
Biological nitrogen fixation
Vicia with white root nodules visible.
Cross-section through a root nodule of
Vicia observed through a
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, performed by the organisms called
diazotrophs) is a very old process that probably originated in the
Archean eon when the primitive atmosphere lacked oxygen. It is only
carried out by
Euryarchaeota and just 6 of the more than 50 phyla of
bacteria. Some of these lineages co-evolved together with the
flowering plants establishing the molecular basis of a mutually
beneficial symbiotic relationship. BNF is carried out in nodules that
are mainly located in the root cortex, although they are occasionally
located in the stem as in
Sesbania rostrata. The spermatophytes that
co-evolved with actinorhizal diazotrophs (Frankia) or with rhizobia to
establish their symbiotic relationship belong to 11 families contained
Rosidae clade (as established by the gene molecular
phylogeny of rbcL, a gene coding for part of the
RuBisCO enzyme in the
chloroplast). This grouping indicates that the predisposition for
forming nodules probably only arose once in flowering plants and that
it can be considered as an ancestral characteristic that has been
conserved or lost in certain lineages. However, such a wide
distribution of families and genera within this lineage indicates that
nodulation had multiple origins. Of the 10 families within the
Rosidae, 8 have nodules formed by actinomyces (Betulaceae,
Casuarinaceae, Coriariaceae, Datiscaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Myricaceae,
Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae), and the two remaining families,
Fabaceae have nodules formed by rhizobia.
The rhizobia and their hosts must be able to recognize each other for
nodule formation to commence.
Rhizobia are specific to particular host
species although a rhizobia species may often infect more than one
host species. This means that one plant species may be infected by
more than one species of bacteria. For example, nodules in Acacia
senegal can contain seven species of rhizobia belonging to three
different genera. The most distinctive characteristics that allow
rhizobia to be distinguished apart are the rapidity of their growth
and the type of root nodule that they form with their host. Root
nodules can be classified as being either indeterminate, cylindrical
and often branched, and determinate, spherical with prominent
lenticels. Indeterminate nodules are characteristic of legumes from
temperate climates, while determinate nodules are commonly found in
species from tropical or subtropical climates.
Nodule formation is common throughout the leguminosae, it is found in
the majority of its members that only form an association with
rhizobia, which in turn form an exclusive symbiosis with the
leguminosae (with the exception of Parasponia, the only genus of the
Ulmaceae genera that is capable of forming nodules). Nodule
formation is present in all the leguminosae sub-families, although it
is less common in the Caesalpinioideae. All types of nodule formation
are present in the sub-family Papilionoideae: indeterminate (with the
meristem retained), determinate (without meristem) and the type
included in Aeschynomene. The latter two are thought to be the most
modern and specialised type of nodule as they are only present in some
lines of the Papilionoideae sub-family. Even though nodule formation
is common in the two monophyletic subfamilies Papilionoideae and
Mimosoideae they also contain species that do not form nodules. The
presence or absence of nodule-forming species within the three
sub-families indicates that nodule formation has arisen several times
during the evolution of the leguminosae and that this ability has been
lost in some lineages. For example, within the genus Acacia, a member
of the Mimosoideae, A. pentagona does not form nodules, while other
species of the same genus readily form nodules, as is the case for
Acacia senegal, which forms both rapidly and slow growing rhizobial
A large number of species within many genera of leguminous plants,
e.g. Astragalus, Coronilla, Hippocrepis, Indigofera, Lotus, Securigera
and Scorpiurus, produce chemicals that derive from the compound
3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA, beta-nitropropionic acid). The free acid
3-NPA is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, and
thus the compound inhibits the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This
inhibition caused by 3-NPA is especially toxic to nerve cells and
represents a very general toxic mechanism suggesting a profound
ecological importance due to the big number of species producing this
compound and its derivatives. A second and closely related class of
secondary metabolites that occur in many species of leguminous plants
is defined by isoxazolin-5-one derivatives. These compounds occur in
particular together with 3-NPA and related derivatives at the same
time in the same species, as found in
Astragalus canadensis and
Astragalus collinus. 3-NPA and isoxazlin-5-one derivatives also occur
in many species of leaf beetles (see defense in insects).
Evolution, phylogeny and taxonomy
Fabales contains around 7.3% of eudicot species and the
greatest part of this diversity is contained in just one of the four
families that the order contains: Fabaceae. This clade also includes
Quillajaceae families and its
origins date back 94 to 89 million years, although it started its
diversification some 79 to 74 million years ago. In fact, the
Fabaceae have diversified during the early tertiary to become a
ubiquitous part of the modern earth’s biota, along with many other
families belonging to the flowering plants.
Fabaceae have an abundant and diverse fossil record, especially
Tertiary period. Fossils of flowers, fruit, leaves, wood and
pollen from this period have been found in numerous
locations. The earliest fossils that can be
definitively assigned to the
Fabaceae appeared in the late Palaeocene
(approximately 56 million years ago). Representatives of the 3
sub-families traditionally recognised as being members of the Fabaceae
– Cesalpinioideae, Papilionoideae and
Mimosoideae — as well as
members of the large clades within these sub-families – such as the
genistoides – have been found in periods a little later, starting
between 55 and 50 million years ago. In fact, a wide variety of
taxa representing the main lineages in the
Fabaceae have been found in
the fossil record dating from the middle to the late Eocene,
suggesting that the majority of the modern
Fabaceae groups were
already present and that a broad diversification occurred during this
period. Therefore, the
Fabaceae started their diversification
approximately 60 million years ago and the most important clades
separated some 50 million years ago. The age of the main
Cesalpinioideae clades have been estimated as between 56 and 34
million years and the basal group of the
Mimosoideae as 44 ± 2.6
million years. The division between
Mimosoideae and Faboideae
is dated as occurring between 59 and 34 million years ago and the
basal group of the
Faboideae as 58.6 ± 0.2 million years ago. It
has been possible to date the divergence of some of the groups within
the Faboideae, even though diversification within each genus was
relatively recent. For instance,
Astragalus separated from the
Oxytropis some 16 to 12 million years ago. In addition, the separation
of the aneuploid species of Neoastragalus started 4 million years ago.
Inga, another genus of the Papilionoideae with approximately 350
species, seems to have diverged in the last 2 million
It has been suggested, based on fossil and phylogenetic evidence, that
legumes originally evolved in arid and/or semi-arid regions along the
Tethys seaway during the
Palaeogene Period. However, others
Africa (or even the Americas) cannot yet be ruled out as
the origin of the family.
The current hypothesis about the evolution of the genes needed for
nodulation is that they were recruited from other pathways after a
polyploidy event. Several different pathways have been implicated
as donating duplicated genes to the pathways need for nodulation. The
main donors to the pathway were the genes associated with the
arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis genes, the pollen tube formation genes
and the haemoglobin genes. One of the main genes shown to be shared
between the arbuscular mycorrhiza pathway and the nodulation pathway
is SYMRK and it is involved in the plant-bacterial recognition.
The pollen tube growth is similar to the infection thread development
in that infection threads grow in a polar manner that is similar to a
pollen tubes polar growth towards the ovules. Both pathways include
the same type of enzymes, pectin-degrading cell wall enzymes. The
enzymes needed to reduce nitrogen, nitrogenases, require a substantial
input of ATP but at the same time are sensitive to free oxygen. To
meet the requirements of this paradoxical situation, the plants
express a type of haemoglobin called leghaemoglobin that is believed
to be recruited after a duplication event. These three genetic
pathways are believed to be part of a gene duplication event then
recruited to work in nodulation.
Phylogeny and taxonomy
The phylogeny of the legumes has been the object of many studies by
research groups from around the world. These studies have used
DNA data (the chloroplast intron trnL, the chloroplast
genes rbcL and matK, or the ribosomal spacers ITS) and cladistic
analysis in order to investigate the relationships between the
family’s different lineages.
Fabaceae is consistently recovered as
monophyletic. The studies further confirmed that the traditional
Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae were each monophyletic but
both were nested within the paraphyletic subfamily
Caesalpinioideae. All the different approaches yielded similar
results regarding the relationships between the family's main
clades. Following extensive
discussion in the legume phylogenetics community, the
Working Group reclassified
Fabaceae into six subfamilies, which
necessitated the segregation of four new subfamilies from
Caesalpinioideae and merging Caesapinioideae sensu stricto with the
former subfamily Mimosoideae.
Fabaceae are placed in the order
Fabales according to most
taxonomic systems, including the APG III system. The family now
includes six subfamilies:
Cercidoideae: 12 genera and ~335 species. Mainly tropical. Bauhinia,
Detarioideae: 84 genera and ~760 species. Mainly tropical. Amherstia,
Duparquetioideae: 1 genus and 1 species. West and Central Africa.
Dialioideae: 17 genera and ~85 species. Widespread throughout the
Caesalpinioideae: 148 genera and ~4400 species. Pantropical.
Caesalpinia, Senna, Mimosa, Acacia. Includes the former subfamily
Mimosoideae (80 genera and ~3200 species; mostly tropical and warm
Asia and America).
Faboideae (Papilionoideae): 503 genera and ~14,000 species.
Cosmopolitan. Astragalus, Lupinus, Pisum.
Economic and cultural importance
Legumes are economically and culturally important plants due to their
extraordinary diversity and abundance, the wide variety of edible
vegetables they represent and due to the variety of uses they can be
put to: in horticulture and agriculture, as a food, for the compounds
they contain that have medicinal uses and for the oil and fats they
contain that have a variety of uses.
Food and forage
The history of legumes is tied in closely with that of human
civilization, appearing early in Asia, the
Americas (the common bean,
several varieties) and
Europe (broad beans) by 6,000 BCE, where they
became a staple, essential as a source of protein.
Their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen reduces fertilizer costs for
farmers and gardeners who grow legumes, and means that legumes can be
used in a crop rotation to replenish soil that has been depleted of
Legume seeds and foliage have a comparatively higher protein
content than non-legume materials, due to the additional nitrogen that
legumes receive through the process. Legumes are commonly used as
natural fertilizers. Some legume species perform hydraulic lift, which
makes them ideal for intercropping.
Farmed legumes can belong to numerous classes, including forage,
grain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure and
timber species, with most commercially farmed species filling two or
more roles simultaneously.
There are of two broad types of forage legumes. Some, like alfalfa,
clover, vetch, and Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by
livestock. Other forage legumes such as
Albizia are woody
shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or
regularly cut by humans to provide stock feed.
Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds, and are also called
pulses. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the
production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include both
herbaceous plants like beans, lentils, lupins, peas and peanuts.
and trees such as carob, mesquite and tamarind.
Bloom legume species include species such as lupin, which are farmed
commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens
worldwide. Laburnum, Robinia, Gleditsia, Acacia, Mimosa, and Delonix
are ornamental trees and shrubs.
Industrial farmed legumes include Indigofera, cultivated for the
production of indigo, Acacia, for gum arabic, and Derris, for the
insecticide action of rotenone, a compound it produces.
Fallow or green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back
into the soil to exploit the high nitrogen levels found in most
legumes. Numerous legumes are farmed for this purpose, including
Cyamopsis and Sesbania.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide,
Dalbergia species, and
Melliferous plants offer nectar to bees and other insects to encourage
them to carry pollen from the flowers of one plant to others thereby
ensuring pollination.A number of legume species are good nectar
providers such as alfalfa, white clover, sweet clover and various
Prosopis species. Many plants in the
Fabaceae family are an important
source of pollen for the bumblebee species Bombus hortorum. This bee
species is especially fond of one species in particular; Trifolium
pratense, also known as red clover, is a popular food source in the
diet of Bombus hortorum.
Natural gums are vegetable exudates that are released as the result of
damage to the plant such as that resulting from the attack of an
insect or a natural or artificial cut. These exudates contain
heterogeneous polysaccharides formed of different sugars and usually
containing uronic acids. They form viscous colloidal solutions. There
are different species that produce gums. The most important of these
species belong to the leguminosae. They are widely used in the
pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and textile sectors. They also have
interesting therapeutic properties; for example gum arabic is
antitussive and anti-inflammatory. The most well known gums are
Astragalus gummifer), gum arabic (
Acacia senegal) and guar
The species used to produce dyes include the following: Logwood
Haematoxylon campechianum; a large spiny tree that can grow up to
15 m tall. Its cork is thin and soft and its wood is hard. The
heartwood is used to produce dyes that are red and purple. The
histological stain called haematoxylin is produced from this species.
Brazilwood tree (
Caesalpinia echinata) is similar to the previous tree
but smaller and with red or purple flowers. The wood is also used to
produce a red or purple dye. The Madras thorn (Pithecallobium dulce)
is another spiny tree native to Latin America, it grows up to 4 m
high and has yellow or green flowers that grow in florets. Its fruit
is reddish and is used to produce a yellow dye.
Indigo dye is
extracted from the True indigo plant
Indigofera tinctoria that is
native to Asia. In Central and South America dyes are produced from
two species related to this species, indigo from Indigofera
suffruticosa and Natal indigo from
Indigofera arrecta.yellow dye is
extracted from Butea monosperma commonly called as flame of the
The Cockspur Coral
Erythrina crista-galli is one of many
leguminosae used as ornamental plants. In addition, it is the National
Flower of Argentina and Uruguay.
Legumes have been used as ornamental plants throughout the world for
many centuries. Their vast diversity of heights, shapes, foliage and
flower colour means that this family is commonly used in the design
and planting of everything from small gardens to large parks. The
following is a list of the main ornamental legume species, listed by
Caesalpinia spinosa, Ceratonia siliqua,
Cercis siliquastrum, Gleditsia
triacanthos, Gymnocladus dioica, Parkinsonia aculeata, Senna
Acacia cultriformis, Acacia
Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia
Acacia visco, Albizzia julibrissin,
Subfamily Faboideae: Clianthus puniceus, Citysus scoparius, Erythrina
crista-galli, Erythrina falcata,
Laburnum anagyroides, Lotus
Lupinus polyphyllus, Otholobium
glandulosum, Retama monosperma,
Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Sophora macnabiana, Sophora
macrocarpa, Spartium junceum, Teline monspessulana, Tipuana tipu,
The Cockspur Coral
Tree (Erythrina crista-galli), is the National
Flower of Argentina and Uruguay.
The Elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) is the national tree
of Costa Rica, by Executive Order of 31 August 1959.
The Brazilwood tree (
Caesalpinia echinata) has been the national tree
Brazil since 1978.
The Golden wattle
Acacia pycnantha is Australia’s national
Hong Kong Orchid tree
Bauhinia blakeana is the national flower of
Acacia baileyana (Wattle)
Dichrostachys cinerea Sickle Bush
Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea)
Lupinus arboreus (Yellow bush lupin)
Pisum sativum (Peas); note the leaf-like stipules
Trifolium repens in
Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Kashubian vetch – Kashubia
^ a b Wojciechowski, M. F.; Lavin, M.; Sanderson, M. J. (2004). "A
phylogeny of legumes (Leguminosae) based on analysis of the plastid
matK gene resolves many well-supported sub clades within the family".
American Journal of Botany. 91 (11): 1846–62.
doi:10.3732/ajb.91.11.1846. PMID 21652332.
^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Retrieved 4 February 2014.
^ a b c d e Watson L.; Dallwitz, M. J. (2007-06-01). "The families of
flowering plants: Leguminosae". Retrieved 9 February 2008.
^ a b c The
Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG). (2017). "A new
subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically
comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77.
^ a b Schrire, B. D.; Lewis, G. P.; Lavin, M. (2005). "Biogeography of
the Leguminosae". In Lewis, G; Schrire, G.; Mackinder, B.; Lock, M.
Legumes of the world. Kew, England: Royal Botanic Gardens.
pp. 21–54. ISBN 1-900347-80-6.
^ a b International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.
Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated
as validly published: ....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba
Vicia L.]); ... When the Papilionaceae are regarded as a
family distinct from the remainder of the Leguminosae, the name
Papilionaceae is conserved against Leguminosae." English
pronunciations are as follows: English: /fəˈbeɪsi, -siˌaɪ,
-siˌeɪ, -siˌi/; English: /ləˌɡjuːməˈnoʊsi/; and English:
^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known
plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa.
Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217.
^ a b c d Judd, W. S., Campbell, C. S. Kellogg, E. A. Stevens, P.F.
Donoghue, M. J. (2002),
Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach,
Sinauer Axxoc, 287-292. ISBN 0-87893-403-0.
^ a b c d Stevens, P. F. "Fabaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
Version 7 May 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
^ Magallón, S. A., and Sanderson, M. J.; Sanderson (2001). "Absolute
diversification rates in angiosperm clades" (PDF). Evolution. 55 (9):
PMID 11681732. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October
2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Burnham, R. J.; Johnson, K. R. (2004). "South American palaeobotany
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Wikispecies has information related to Fabaceae
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fabaceae.
Wikisource has the text of the 1920
Encyclopedia Americana article
Leguminosae at The
Leguminosae at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA)
Fabaceae at the Encyclopedia of Life
Fabaceae at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
Fabaceae at the
Tree of Life Web Project
Fabaceae at the online Flora of China
Fabaceae at the online Guide to the Flora of Mongolia
Fabaceae at the online Flora of Zimbabwe
Fabaceae at the online Flora of Western Australia
Fabaceae at the online Flora of New Zealand
Leguminosae at the International
Legume Database & Information
Legume Species Checklist at Legumes Online
Fabaceae at Flowers in Israel
Asociación Española de las Leguminosas (AEL). Charity founded to
promote the agricultural use of legumes in Spain.
World list of
Fabaceae species species (20,856 spp) in the Catalogue
Watson & Dallwitz: legumino