Sixteen countries have been FIFA World Cup hosts in the competition's twenty tournaments since the inaugural World Cup in 1930. The organization at first awarded hosting to countries at meetings of FIFA's congress. The choice of location was controversial in the earliest tournaments, given the three-week boat journey between South America and Europe, the two centers of strength in football at the time.
The decision to hold the first cup in Uruguay, for example, led to only four European nations competing. The next two World Cups were both held in Europe. The decision to hold the second of these, the 1938 FIFA World Cup, in France was controversial, as the South American countries had been led to understand that the World Cup would rotate between the two continents.
Both Argentina and Uruguay thus boycotted the tournament. The first tournament following World War II, held in Brazil in 1950, had three teams withdraw due to either financial problems or disagreements with the organization.
To avoid any future boycotts or controversy, FIFA began a pattern of alternation between the Americas and Europe, which continued until the 2002 FIFA World Cup in Asia. The system evolved so that the host country is now chosen in a vote by FIFA's Council (former Executive Committee). This is done under an exhaustive ballot system. The decision is currently made roughly seven years in advance of the tournament, though the hosts for the 2022 tournament were chosen at the same time as those for the 2018 tournament.
Only Mexico, Italy, France, Germany (West Germany until shortly after the 1990 World Cup) and Brazil have hosted the event on two occasions. Mexico City's Estadio Azteca and Rio de Janeiro's Maracanã are the only venues ever to have hosted two FIFA World Cup finals. Only the 2002 FIFA World Cup had more than one host, being split between Japan and South Korea.
|1942||Cancelled due to World War II|
|1946||Cancelled due to World War II|
|1974||West Germany||Europe||West Germany|
|1994||United States||North America||Brazil|
|2002||South Korea / Japan||Asia||Brazil|
Before the FIFA Congress could vote on the first-ever World Cup host, a series of withdrawals led to the election of Uruguay. The Netherlands and Hungary withdrew, followed by Sweden withdrawing in favour of Italy. Then both Italy and Spain withdrew, in favour of the only remaining candidate, Uruguay. The FIFA Congress met in Barcelona, Spain on 18 May 1929 to ratify the decision, and Uruguay was chosen without a vote.
Notice that the celebration of the first World Cup coincided with the centennial anniversary of the first Constitution of Uruguay. For that reason, the main stadium built in Montevideo for the World Cup was named Estadio Centenario.
Sweden decided to withdraw before the vote, allowing the only remaining candidate Italy to take the hosting job for the 1934 World Cup. The decision was ratified by the FIFA Congress in Stockholm, Sweden and Zürich, Switzerland on 14 May 1932. The Italian Football Federation accepted the hosting duties on 9 October 1932.
Without any nations withdrawing their bids before the vote, the FIFA Congress convened in Berlin, Germany on 13 August 1936 to decide the next host of the World Cup. Electing France took only one ballot, as France had more than half of the votes in the first round.
Bids for 1942:
Cancelled FIFA election of the host due to the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939.
Bids for 1946:
Brazil, Argentina, and Germany had official bid for the 1942 World Cup, but the Cup was cancelled after the outbreak of World War II. The 1950 World Cup was originally scheduled for 1949, but the day after Brazil was selected by the FIFA Congress on 26 July 1946 in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, the World Cup was rescheduled for 1950.
The 1951 World Cup hosting duty was decided on 26 July 1946, the same day that Brazil was selected for the 1949 World Cup, in Luxembourg City. On 27 July, the FIFA Congress pushed back the 5th World Cup finals for three years, deciding it should take place in 1954.
Argentina, Chile, Mexico, and Sweden expressed interest in hosting the tournament. Swedish delegates lobbied other countries at the FIFA Congress held in Rio de Janeiro around the opening of the 1950 World Cup finals. Sweden was awarded the 1958 tournament unopposed in on 23 June 1950.
West Germany withdrew before the vote, which took place in Lisbon, Portugal on 10 June 1956, leaving two remaining bids. In one round of voting, Chile won over Argentina.
Spain withdrew from the bidding prior to voting by the FIFA Congress, held in Rome, Italy on 22 August 1960. Again, there was only one round of voting, with England defeating West Germany for the hosting position.
The FIFA Congress convened in Tokyo, Japan on 8 October 1964. One round of voting saw Mexico win the hosting duties over Argentina.
Three hosts for the 1974, 1978, and 1982 World Cups were chosen in London, England on 6 July 1966 by the FIFA Congress. Spain and West Germany, both facing each other in the running for hosting duties for the 1974 and 1982 World Cups, agreed to give one another a hosting job. Germany withdrew from the 1982 bidding process while Spain withdrew from the 1974 bidding process, essentially guaranteeing each a hosting spot. Mexico, who had won the 1970 hosting bid over Argentina just two years prior, agreed to withdraw and let Argentina take the 1978 hosting position.
Host voting, handled by the then-FIFA Executive Committee (or Exco), met in Stockholm on 9 June 1974 and ratified the unopposed Colombian bid.
However, Colombia withdrew after being selected to host the World Cup due to financial problems on 5 November 1982, less than four years before the event was to start. A call for bids was sent out again, and FIFA received intent from three nations:
In Zürich on 20 May 1983, Mexico won the bidding unanimously as voted by the Executive Committee, for the first time in FIFA World Cup bidding history (except those nations who bid unopposed).
Except Italy and the Soviet Union, all nations withdrew before the vote, which was to be conducted by Exco in Zürich on 19 May 1984. Once again, only one round of voting was required, as Italy won more votes than the Soviet Union.
Despite having three nations bidding for host duties, voting only took one round. The vote was held in Zürich (for the third straight time) on 4 July 1988. The United States won the bid by receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members.
This vote was held in Zürich for the fourth straight time on 1 July 1992. Only one round of voting was required to have France assume the hosting job over Morocco.
On 31 May 1996, the hosting selection meeting was held in Zürich for the fifth straight time. A joint bid was formed between Japan and South Korea, and the bid was "voted by acclamation", an oral vote without ballots. The first joint bid of the World Cup was approved, edging out Mexico.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup was co-hosted in Asia for the first time by South Korea and Japan (the final was held in Japan). Initially, the two Asian countries were competitors in the bidding process. But just before the vote, they agreed with FIFA to co-host the event. However, the rivalry and distance between them led to organizational and logistical problems. FIFA has said that co-hosting is not likely to happen again, and in 2004 officially stated that its statutes did not allow co-hosting bids.
On 6 July 2000, the host selection meeting was held for the sixth straight time in Zürich. Brazil withdrew its bid three days before the vote, and the field was narrowed to four. This was the first selection in which more than one vote round was required. Three votes were eventually needed. Germany was at least tied for first in each of the three votes, and ended up defeating South Africa by only one vote after an abstention (see below).
|Round 1||Round 2||Round 3|
The controversy over the decision to award the 2006 FIFA World Cup to Germany led to a further change in practice. The final tally was 12 votes to 11 in favour of Germany over the contenders South Africa, who had been favorites to win. New Zealand FIFA member Charlie Dempsey, who was instructed to vote for South Africa by the Oceania Football Confederation, abstained from voting at the last minute. If he had voted for the South African bid, the tally would have been 12–12, giving the decision to FIFA President Sepp Blatter, who, it was widely believed, would then have voted for South Africa.
Dempsey was among eight members of the Executive Committee to receive a fax by editors of the German satirical magazine Titanic on Wednesday, the night before the vote, promising a cuckoo clock and Black Forest ham in exchange for voting for Germany. He argued that the pressure from all sides including "an attempt to bribe" him had become too much for him.
On 4 August 2000, consequently, FIFA decided to rotate the hosting of the final tournaments between its constituent confederations. This was until October 2007, during the selection of the host for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, when they announced that they will no longer continue with their continental rotation policy (see below).
The first World Cup bidding process under continental rotation (the process of rotating hosting of the World Cup to each confederation in turn) was the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the first World Cup to be held in Africa. On 7 July 2001, during the FIFA Congress in Buenos Aires, a decision was ratified, which was that the rotation will begin in Africa. On 23 September 2002, FIFA's Executive Committee confirmed that only African member associations, would be invited to submit bids to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
In January 2003, Nigeria entered the bidding process, but withdrew their bid in September. In March 2003, Sepp Blatter initially said Nigeria's plan to co host the 2010 FIFA World Cup with four African countries would not work. Nigeria had originally hoped to bid jointly with West African neighbours Benin, Ghana, and Togo.
After it was confirmed by FIFA that joint bidding would not be allowed in the future, Libya and Tunisia withdrew both of their bids on 8 May 2004. On 15 May 2004 in Zürich (the seventh consecutive time that a host selection has been made there), South Africa, after a narrow loss in the 2006 bidding, defeated perennial candidate Morocco to host, 14 votes to 10. Egypt received no votes.
|Tunisia / Libya||Withdrew|
On 28 May 2015, media covering the 2015 FIFA corruption case reported that high-ranking officials from the South African bid committee had secured the right to host the World Cup by paying US$10 million in bribes to then-FIFA Vice President Jack Warner and to other FIFA Executive Committee members.
On 4 June 2015, FIFA executive Chuck Blazer, having co-operated with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, confirmed that he and the other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed in order to promote the South African 1998 and 2010 World Cups. Blazer stated, "I and others on the Fifa executive committee agreed to accept bribes in conjunction with the selection of South Africa as the host nation for the 2010 World Cup."
FIFA continued its continental rotation procedure by earmarking the 2014 World Cup for South America. FIFA initially indicated that it might back out of the rotation concept, but later decided to continue it through the 2014 host decision, after which it was dropped.
Colombia had expressed interest in hosting the 2014 World Cup, but withdrew undertaking the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Brazil also expressed interest in hosting the World Cup. CONMEBOL, the South American Football Federation, indicated their preference for Brazil as a host. Brazil was the only nation to submit a formal bid when the official bidding procedure for CONMEBOL member associations was opened in December 2006, as by that time, Colombia, Chile and Argentina had already withdrawn, and Venezuela was not allowed to bid.
Brazil made the first unopposed bid since the initial selection of the 1986 FIFA World Cup (when Colombia was selected as host, but later withdrew for financial problems). The FIFA Executive Committee confirmed it as the host country on 30 October 2007 by a unanimous decision.
|Round 1||Round 2|
|Wikinews has related news: FIFA receives eleven bids for 2018 and 2022 World Cups|
FIFA announced on 29 October 2007 that it will no longer continue with its continental rotation policy, implemented after the 2006 World Cup host selection. The newest host selection policy is that any country may bid for a World Cup, provided that their continental confederation has not hosted either of the past two World Cups. For the 2018 World Cup bidding process, this meant that bids from Africa and South America were not allowed.
For the 2022 World Cup bidding process, this meant that bids from South America and Europe were not allowed. Also, FIFA formally allowed joint bids once more (after they were banned in 2002), due to there being only one organizing committee per joint bid, unlike Korea/Japan, which had two different organizing committees. Countries that announced their interest included Australia, England, Indonesia, Japan, Qatar, Russia, South Korea, United States, the joint bid of Spain and Portugal and the joint bid of Belgium and Netherlands.
The hosts for both World Cups were announced by the FIFA Executive Committee on 2 December 2010. Russia was selected to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, making it the first time that the World Cup will be hosted in Eastern Europe and making it the biggest country geographically to host the World Cup. Qatar was selected to host the 2022 FIFA World Cup, making it the first time a World Cup will be held in the Middle East and the second time in Asia. Also, the decision made it the smallest country geographically to host the World Cup.
|Round 1||Round 2|
|Spain / Portugal||7||7|
|Netherlands / Belgium||4||2|
|Round 1||Round 2||Round 3||Round 4|
Before the vote, allegations of bribery resulted in the suspension of two FIFA Executive Committee members, reducing the number of voters to 22.
In May 2011, allegations of corruption within the FIFA senior officials raised questions over the legitimacy of the World Cup being held in Qatar. According to then vice-President Jack Warner, an email has been publicised about the possibility that Qatar 'bought' the 2022 World Cup through bribery via Mohammed bin Hammam who was president of the Asian Football Confederation at the time. Qatar's officials in the bid team for 2022 have denied any wrongdoing.
A whistleblower, revealed to be Phaedra Almajid, alleged that several African officials were paid $1.5 million by Qatar. She later retracted her claims of bribery, stating she had fabricated them in order to exact revenge on the Qatari bid team for relieving her of her job with them. She also denied being put under any pressure to make her retraction. FIFA confirmed receiving an email from her which stated her retraction.
On 1 June 2014, The Sunday Times claimed to have obtained documents including e-mails, letters and bank transfers which allegedly proved that Bin Hammam had paid more than US$5 million to football officials to support the Qatar bid. Bin Hamman and all those accused of accepting bribes denied the charges
More suspicions emerged in March 2014 when it was discovered that Jack Warner, who was made to leave his post as president of CONCACAF in disgrace, and his family were paid almost $2 million from a firm linked to Qatar's successful campaign. The FBI is investigating Warner and his alleged links to the Qatari bid.
A CONCACAF bid for the 2026 World Cup is probable, with Canada, USA, and Mexico the most likely nations to bid. Under FIFA rules as of 2016, the 2026 Cup cannot be in either Europe (UEFA) or Asia (AFC), leaving an African (CAF) bid, a North American (CONCACAF) bid, a South American (CONMEBOL) bid or an Oceanian (OFC) bid as other possible options. In March 2017, FIFA's president Gianni Infantino confirmed that "Europe (UEFA) and Asia (AFC) are excluded from the bidding following the selection of Russia and Qatar in 2018 and 2022 respectively."
The bidding process was originally scheduled to start in 2015, with the appointment of hosts scheduled for the FIFA Congress on 10 May 2017 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. On 10 June 2015, FIFA announced that the bid process for the 2026 FIFA World Cup was postponed. However, following the FIFA Council meeting on 10 May 2016, a new bid schedule was announced for May 2020 as the last in a four-phase process.
CONCACAF member federations (Canada, Mexico, United States) are favoured to host the 2026 World Cup for the first time since 1994 World Cup. Also, FIFA's president Infantino will consider the option for triple co-hosting by Canada, Mexico and the United States. On 14 October 2016, FIFA said it will accept CONCACAF triple tournament-sharing bid by Canada, Mexico and the United States.
On 10 April 2017, Canada, the United States, and Mexico announced their intention to submit a joint bid to co-host the 2026 FIFA World Cup, with three-quarters of the games to be played in the U.S., including the final.
On 11 August 2017, Morocco has officially announced a bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup.
The host will be announced on June 13, 2018 at the 69th FIFA Congress in Moscow, Russia.
Official 2026 Bids:
Two early bids for the 2030 FIFA World Cup - the Centennial World Cup - have been proposed. The first bid for the 2030 FIFA World Cup has been proposed as a collective bid by the members of the Argentine Football Association and Uruguayan Football Association into a proposed joint bid from Uruguay and Argentina. The second bid for the 2030 FIFA World Cup has been a proposed bid by The Football Association of England. Under FIFA rules as of 2017, the 2030 World Cup cannot be held in Asia (AFC) because the Asian Football Confederation is excluded from the bidding following the selection of Qatar in 2022. Also in June 2017, UEFA's president Aleksander Čeferin stated that Europe (UEFA) will definitely fight for its right to host the 2030 World Cup.
The Uruguay–Argentina bid would coincide with the centennial anniversary of the first FIFA World Cup final, and the bicentennial of the first Constitution of Uruguay. The Uruguay-Argentina bid was officially confirmed on 29 July 2017. Paraguay is aiming for joining the bid, but this is not confirmed or discarded yet. The efforts for the inclusion of Paraguay in the bid caused discomfort in the Uruguayan Football Association, and Wilmar Valdéz (AUF president) accused some insistence of the Conmebol although it is not official that Paraguay joins the event. Chile also wants to organize the World Cup with Uruguay and Argentina.
A joint bid was announced by the Argentine Football Association and the Uruguayan Football Association on 29 July 2017. Before Uruguay and Argentina played out a goalless draw in Montevideo, FC Barcelona players Luis Suárez and Lionel Messi promoted the bid with commemorative shirts. On 31 August 2017, it was suggested Paraguay would join as a third host. CONMEBOL, the South American confederation, confirmed the joint three-way bid in September 2017.
English FA vice chairman David Gill has proposed that his country could potentially bid for 2030, provided that the bidding process is made more transparent. "England is one of few countries that could stage even a 48-nation event in its entirety, while Football Association chief executive Martin Glenn made it clear earlier this year bidding for 2030 was an option." In June 2017, UEFA stated that "it would support a pan-British bid for 2030 or even a single bid from England." Moreover, a possible English bid for 2030 was also backed by the German Football Association.
It is expected that countries from "South America (CONMEBOL) and Europe (UEFA) will likely to be in a bid competition for 2030."
Confirmed 2030 bids:
Expressed interest in bidding:
The first bid for the 2034 FIFA World Cup has been proposed as a collective bid by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The idea of a combined ASEAN bid had been mooted as early as January 2011, when the Football Association of Singapore's then-President, Zainudin Nordin, said in a statement that the proposal had been made at an ASEAN Foreign Ministers meeting. In 2013, Nordin and Special Olympics Malaysia President, Datuk Mohamed Feisol Hassan, recalled the idea for ASEAN to jointly host a World Cup. Under FIFA rules as of 2017, the 2030 World Cup cannot be held in Asia (AFC) as Asian Football Confederation members are excluded from the bidding following the selection of Qatar in 2022. Therefore, the earliest bid by an AFC member could be made for 2034.
Later, Malaysia has withdrawn from involvement but Singapore and other ASEAN countries continued the campaign to submit a joint bid for the World Cup in 2034. In February 2017, ASEAN held talks on launching a joint bid during a visit by FIFA chief Gianni Infantino to Yangon, Myanmar.
In July 2017, Joko Driyono, the Vice-President of the Indonesia's Football Association, during meeting in Vietnam said that Indonesia and Thailand were set to lead a consortium of South-East Asian nations in the bid. Driyono added that due to geographic and infrastructure considerations and the expanded format (48 teams), at least two or three ASEAN countries combined would be in a position necessary to host matches.
In September 2017, the Football Association of Thailand's Deputy CEO, Benjamin Tan, at the ASEAN Football Federation (AFF) Council meeting, confirmed that his Association has "put in their interest to bid and co-host" the 2034 World Cup with Indonesia. On the same occasion, the General Secretary of the AFF, Dato Sri Azzuddin Ahmad, confirmed that Indonesia and Thailand will submit a joint bid.
Indonesia is the only Southeast Asian country to have participated in the World Cup. The 1938 World Cup is the Indonesians' only appearance to date when they were known as the Dutch East Indies. Far from ever having hosting the World Cup, no South-East Asian country ever qualified to the tournament. As of March 2018, Indonesia is ranked by FIFA at 162nd place and not a single national team from South-East Asia ranks in the FIFA top 100.
China has announced its interest in bidding several times and reports stated "that China is likely to host the World Cup for the first time in 2034."
Expressed interest in bidding:
World Cup-winning bids are bolded. Planned but not-yet-official bids for 2030 and beyond are not included.
|Germany||6||1938, 1962,[a] 1966,[a] 1974,[a] 1982,[a] 2006|
|Argentina||5||1938, 1962, 1970, 1978, 2030[b]|
|Mexico||1970, 1978, 1986,[c] 2002, 2026[d]|
|Morocco||1994, 1998, 2006, 2010, 2026|
|Spain||1930, 1966, 1974, 1982, 2018[e]|
|Brazil||4||1950, 1994, 2006, 2014|
|England||1966, 1990, 2006, 2018|
|United States||1986, 1994, 2022, 2026[d]|
|Italy||3||1930, 1934, 1990|
|Japan||1970, 2002,[f] 2022|
|South Africa||2006, 2010|
|South Korea||2002,[f] 2022|
It is widely considered that home advantage is common in the World Cup, with the host team usually performing above average. Of the eight countries that have won the tournament, only Brazil and Spain were not champions at home, and both England and France had their only titles as hosts.
Further, Sweden got to its only final as hosts of the 1958 tournament, and only the Swedes and Brazilians finished as runner-up in home soil. The host country reached the semi-finals thirteen times in twenty tournaments, and both Chile and South Korea had their only finishes on the top four at home. Only South Africa in 2010 managed to not go past the group stage.
|12||Fourth place||South Korea||2002||7||3||2||2||57%||8||6||2||0.3||1.1|
|19||Round of 16||Japan||2002||4||2||1||1||63%||5||3||2||0.5||1.25|
|20||Round of 16||United States||1994||4||1||1||2||38%||3||4||−1||−0.3||0.8|
|21||Group stage||South Africa||2010||3||1||1||1||50%||3||5||−2||−0.7||1|