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FüHRER (German pronunciation: , spelled FUEHRER when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader " or "guide ". As a political title it is most associated with the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler
Hitler
, who was the only person to hold the position of Führer. The word _Führer_ in the sense of "guide" remains common in German, and it is used in numerous compound words . However, because of its strong association with Hitler, the isolated word may come with some stigma and negative connotations when used with the meaning of "leader", especially in political contexts. The word _Führer_ has cognates in the Scandinavian languages , spelled _fører_ in Danish and Norwegian and _förare_ in Swedish , which have the same meaning and use as the German word, but without necessarily having political connotations.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origin of the title and its use as party leader * 1.2 As a political office * 1.3 _Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer_ * 1.4 Military usage * 1.5 Germanic Führer
Führer

* 2 Hitler\'s honorary titles * 3 Military usage * 4 Modern German usage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

ORIGIN OF THE TITLE AND ITS USE AS PARTY LEADER

Part of a series on

NAZISM

Organizations

* National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) * Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) * Schutzstaffel (SS) * Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) * Hitler Youth (HJ) * Deutsches Jungvolk (DJ) * League of German Girls (BDM) * National Socialist German Students\' League (NSDStB) * National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL) * National Socialist Flyers Corps (NSFK) * National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK) * National Socialist Women\'s League (NSF) * Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS)

History

* Early timeline * Hitler\'s rise to power * Machtergreifung * German re-armament * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Religion in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Night of the Long Knives * Nuremberg Rally * Anti-Comintern Pact * Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
* World War II
World War II
* Tripartite Pact * The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
* Neo- Nazism
Nazism

Ideology

* Fascism * Totalitarianism * Führerprinzip * Anti-democratic thought * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Gleichschaltung
Gleichschaltung
* Hitler\'s political views * _ Mein Kampf _ * _ The Myth of the Twentieth Century _ * Militarism * National Socialist Program * New Order * _ Preussentum und Sozialismus _ * Propaganda * Religious aspects * Strasserism
Strasserism
* Syncretic politics * Symbolism * Women in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

Racial ideology

* Aryan race * Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil
* Eugenics * _ The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century _ * Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
* Heim ins Reich * Lebensraum * Master race * Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Völkisch equality

Final Solution
Final Solution

* Concentration camps * Deportations * Doctors\' trial * Extermination camps * Genocide
Genocide
* Ghettos * Human experimentation * Labour camps * Pogroms * Racial segregation

People

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Joseph Goebbels * Heinrich Himmler * Hermann Göring * Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser

Nazism
Nazism
outside of Germany

* American Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* Aria Party (Persia) * Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) * Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
* German American Bund * German National Movement in Liechtenstein * Greek National Socialist Party * South African Gentile National Socialist Movement * Hungarian National Socialist Party * Nasjonal Samling (Norway) * National Movement of Switzerland * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Bloc (Sweden) * National Socialist League (UK) * National Socialist Movement of Chile

* National Socialist Movement (United States) * National Socialist Workers\' Party of Denmark * National Unity Party (Canada) * Nazism
Nazism
in Brazil * Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina) * SUMKA * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) * World Union of National Socialists

Lists

* Books by or about Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Nazi ideologues * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
members * Speeches given by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* SS personnel

Related topics

* Antisemitism * Denazification
Denazification
* Enabling Act of 1933 * Fascism * Glossary of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Neo- Nazism
Nazism
* Völkisch movement * _ Zweites Buch _

* _ Category
Category
* Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal _

* v * t * e

_Führer_ was the unique name granted by Hitler
Hitler
to himself, in his function as _Vorsitzender_ (chairman) of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
. It was at the time common to refer to party leaders as _Führer_, with an addition to indicate the leader of which party was meant. Hitler's adoption of the title was partly inspired by its earlier use by the Austrian Georg von Schönerer , a major exponent of pan-Germanism and German nationalism in Austria , whose followers also commonly referred to him as the _Führer_ without qualification, and who also used the _Heil Hitler
Hitler
_ salute, known as the "German greeting". Hitler's choice for this political epithet was unprecedented in Germany. Like much of the early symbolism of Nazi Germany, it was modeled after Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
's Italian Fascism . Mussolini's chosen epithet _il Duce _ ("the Leader"), from the Latin
Latin
_Dux_, was widely used, though, unlike Hitler, he never made it his official title. The Italian word _Duce_ (unlike the German word _Führer_) is no longer used as a generic term for a leader, but almost always refers to Mussolini himself.

Hitler
Hitler
saw himself as the sole source of power in Germany, similar to the Roman emperors and German medieval leaders . After the death of Paul Hindenburg in 1934, the Badonviller Marsch as well as the personal standard of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
were used to evoke the presence of Hitler
Hitler
as leader and personification of the German state.

AS A POLITICAL OFFICE

After Hitler's appointment as Reichskanzler (_Chancellor of the Reich_) the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which allowed Hitler's cabinet to promulgate laws by decree.

One day before the death of Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
, Hitler
Hitler
and his cabinet decreed a law that merged the office of the president with that of Chancellor. Hitler
Hitler
therefore assumed the President's powers without assuming the office itself – ostensibly out of respect for Hindenburg's achievements as a heroic figure in World War I. Though this law was in breach of the Enabling Act, which specifically precluded any laws concerning the Presidential office, it was approved by a referendum on 19 August.

Hitler
Hitler
used the title _ Führer
Führer
und Reichskanzler_ (" Leader
Leader
and Chancellor"), highlighting the positions he already held in party and government, though in popular reception, the element _Führer_ was increasingly understood not just in reference to the Nazi party but also in reference to the German people and the German state. Soldiers had to swear allegiance to Hitler
Hitler
as "_ Führer
Führer
des deutschen Reiches und Volkes_" ( Leader
Leader
of the German Realm and People). The title was changed on 28 July 1942 to "_ Führer
Führer
des Großdeutschen Reiches_" (" Leader
Leader
of the Greater German Realm"). In his political testament , Hitler
Hitler
also referred to himself as _ Führer
Führer
der Nation_ ( Leader
Leader
of the Nation).

Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
cultivated the _ Führerprinzip _ (leader principle), and Hitler
Hitler
was generally known as just _der Führer_ ("the Leader").

_EIN VOLK, EIN REICH, EIN FüHRER_

One of the Nazis' most-repeated political slogans was _Ein Volk
Volk
, ein Reich, ein Führer
Führer
–_ "One People, One Empire, One Leader". Bendersky says the slogan "left an indelible mark on the minds of most Germans
Germans
who lived through the Nazi years. It appeared on countless posters and in publications; it was heard constantly in radio broadcasts and speeches." The slogan emphasized the absolute control of the party over practically every sector of German society and culture – with the churches the most notable exception. Hitler's word was absolute, but he had a narrow range of interest – mostly involving diplomacy and the military – and so his subordinates interpreted his will to fit their own interests.

MILITARY USAGE

Further information: Military career of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

According to the Constitution of Weimar , the President was Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Unlike "President", Hitler
Hitler
did take this title (_Oberbefehlshaber_) for himself. When conscription was reintroduced in 1935, Hitler
Hitler
created the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, a post held by the Minister for War. He retained the title of Supreme Commander for himself. Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg , then the Minister of War and one of those who created the Hitler oath , or the personal oath of loyalty of the military to Hitler, became the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces while Hitler remained Supreme Commander. Following the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair
Blomberg–Fritsch Affair
in 1938, Hitler
Hitler
assumed the commander-in-chief's post as well and took personal command of the armed forces. However, he continued using the older formally higher title of Supreme Commander, which was thus filled with a somewhat new meaning. Combining it with "Führer", he used the style _ Führer
Führer
und Oberster Befehlshaber der Wehrmacht_ (" Leader
Leader
and Supreme Commander of the _ Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
_"), yet a simple "Führer" since May 1942.

GERMANIC FüHRER

Further information: Greater Germanic Reich
Greater Germanic Reich
_ Advertisement for the Dutch translation of Mein Kampf_. Hitler
Hitler
is referred to as "the Führer
Führer
of all Germanics"

An additional title was adopted by Hitler
Hitler
on 23 June 1941 when he declared himself the "Germanic Führer" (_Germanischer Führer_), in addition to his duties as Führer
Führer
of the German state and people. This was done to emphasize Hitler's professed leadership of what the Nazis described as the "Nordic -Germanic master race ", which peoples such as the Norwegians , Danes , Swedes , and Dutch , etc. were considered members of in addition to the Germans
Germans
, and the intent to annex these countries to the German Reich . Waffen-SS formations from these countries had to declare obedience to Hitler
Hitler
by addressing him in this fashion. On 12 December 1941 the Dutch fascist Anton Mussert also addressed him as such when he proclaimed his allegiance to Hitler during a visit to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. He had wanted to address Hitler
Hitler
as _ Führer
Führer
aller Germanen_ (" Führer
Führer
of all Germanics"), but Hitler
Hitler
personally decreed the former style. Historian Loe de Jong speculates on the difference between the two: _ Führer
Führer
aller Germanen_ implied a position separate from Hitler's role as _ Führer
Führer
und Reichskanzler des Grossdeutschen Reiches_ (" Führer
Führer
and Reich Chancellor of the Greater German Empire"), while _germanischer Führer_ served more as an attribute of that main function. As late as 1944, however, occasional propaganda publications continued to refer to him by this unofficial title as well.

HITLER\'S HONORARY TITLES

National Socialist propaganda occasionally used a number of honorary titles when referencing Hitler.

* SUPREME JUDGE OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE (German : _Oberster Richter des Deutschen Volkes_) – Announced by Hitler
Hitler
on 30 June 1934 after the " Night of the Long Knives " * FIRST SOLDIER OF THE GERMAN REICH (German : _Erster Soldat des Deutschen Reiches_) – This title was assumed by Hitler
Hitler
at the start of World War II
World War II
on 1 September 1939. Addressing the Reichstag in the Kroll Opera House , Hitler
Hitler
appeared in a grey military uniform , declaring that he wanted "to be nothing but the first soldier of the German Reich", and pledging not to take it off until after victory had been achieved. * FIRST WORKER OF THE NEW GERMANY (German : _Erster Arbeiter des neuen Deutschland_). * GREATEST MILITARY COMMANDER OF ALL TIME (German : _Größter Feldherr aller Zeiten_) – A title bestowed on Hitler
Hitler
by General Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel after the successful western campaign against France and the Low Countries
Low Countries
in the summer of 1940. Shortened derisively to "Gröfaz". * MILITARY LEADER OF EUROPE (German : _Heerführer Europas_) – Bestowed on Hitler
Hitler
after the start of Operation Barbarossa by the Nazi propaganda ministry in order to portray Hitler
Hitler
as the leader of a continental European struggle against Soviet Bolshevism . * HIGH PROTECTOR OF THE HOLY MOUNTAIN (German : _Hoher Protektor des heiligen Berges_) – After the Axis occupation of Greece in 1941, the monks of the monastic state of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
asked Hitler
Hitler
to place the state under his personal protection, seeing him as a natural ally against the Bolsheviks and Jews
Jews
. Hitler
Hitler
agreed, and the monks henceforth referred to him by this title until the authority of the Greek government was re-established near the end of the war.

MILITARY USAGE

_Führer_ has been used as a military title (compare Latin
Latin
Dux
Dux
) in Germany since at least the 18th century. The usage of the term "Führer" in the context of a company-sized military subunit in the German Army referred to a commander lacking the qualifications for permanent command. For example, the commanding officer of a company was (and is) titled " Kompaniechef " (literally, Company Chief), but if he did not have the requisite rank or experience, or was only temporarily assigned to command, he was officially titled "Kompanieführer". Thus operational commands of various military echelons were typically referred to by their formation title followed by the title _Führer_, in connection with mission-type tactics used by the German military forces. The term Führer
Führer
was also used at lower levels, regardless of experience or rank; for example, a _Gruppenführer_ was the leader of a squad of infantry (9 or 10 men).

Under the Nazis, the title _Führer_ was also used in paramilitary titles (see Freikorps
Freikorps
). Almost every Nazi paramilitary organization, in particular the SS and SA , had Nazi party paramilitary ranks incorporating the title of Führer. The SS including the Waffen-SS , like all paramilitary Nazi organisations, called all their members of any degree except the lowest Führer
Führer
of something; thus confusingly, " Gruppenführer " was also an official rank title for a specific grade of general. The word _Truppenführer_ was also a generic word referring to any commander or leader of troops, and could be applied to NCOs or officers at many different levels of command.

MODERN GERMAN USAGE

In Germany, the isolated word Führer
Führer
is usually avoided in political contexts, due to its intimate connection with Nazi institutions and with Hitler
Hitler
personally.

However, the term _-führer_ is used in many compound words . Examples include _Bergführer_ (mountain guide), _Fremdenführer_ (tourist guide), _Geschäftsführer_ ( CEO
CEO
or EO), _Führerschein_ (driver's license), _Führerstand_ or _Führerhaus_ (driver's cab), _Lok(omotiv)führer_ (train driver), _Reiseführer_ (travel guide book), and _Spielführer_ (team captain — also referred to as _Mannschaftskapitän_).

The use of alternative terms like "Chef" (a borrowing from the French, as is the English "chief", e.g. _Chef des Bundeskanzleramtes_) or _Leiter_ (often in compound words like _Amtsleiter_, _Projektleiter_ or _Referatsleiter_) is usually not the result of replacing of the word "Führer", but rather using terminology that existed before the Nazis. The use of _Führer_ to refer to a political party leader is rare today and _Vorsitzender_ (chairman) is the more common term. However, the word _Oppositionsführer_ ("leader of the (parliamentary) opposition") is more commonly used.

SEE ALSO

* Germany portal * Politics portal * Fascism portal * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
portal

NAZI GERMAN TERMINOLOGY DERIVED FROM _FüHRER_

* Reichsführer-SS * Reichsjugendführer * Deputy Führer * Oberster SA-Führer * Führer Headquarters * Führerbunker * Führer Directives * Führermuseum * Führerprinzip * Führerreserve * Führerstadt

OTHER

* List of German expressions in English * Tenno
Tenno
* Il Duce * Supreme Leader
Leader
(other) * President for Life * Zucht und Ordnung

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Thamer, Hans-Ulrich (2003). "Beginn der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft (Teil 2)". _Nationalsozialismus I_ (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Archived from the original on February 8, 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Winkler, Heinrich August . "The German Catastrophe 1933-1945". _Germany: The Long Road West vol. 2: 1933-1990_. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-19-926598-5 . Retrieved 28 October 2011. * ^ Mitchell, Arthur H. (2007). _Hitler's Mountain: The Führer, Obersalzberg, and the American Occupation of Berchtesgaden_. Macfarland & Company Inc., Publishers, p. 15. * ^ Die Aussenpolitik des Dritten Reiches 1933-1939, Rainer F. Schmidt, Klett-Cotta, 2002 * ^ Hitlers Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier Henry Picker, 05.03.2014

* ^ Gesetz über das Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs, 1 August 1934: "§ 1 The office of the Reichspräsident is merged with that of the Reichskanzler. Therefore the previous rights of the Reichspräsident pass over to the Führer
Führer
and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler. He names his deputy." * ^ " Führer
Führer
- Source". * ^ "NS-Archiv : Dokumente zum Nationalsozialismus : Adolf Hitler, Politisches Testament". * ^ "Means Used by the Nazi Conspiractors in Gaining Control of the German State (Part 4 of 55)". * ^ Joseph W. Bendersky (2007). _A Concise History of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945_. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 105–6. * ^ De Jong, Louis (1974) (in Dutch). _Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de tweede wereldoorlog: Maart '41 - Juli '42_, p. 181. M. Nijhoff. * ^ Bramstedt, E. K. (2003). _Dictatorship and Political Police: the Technique of Control by Fear_, pp. 92-93. Routledge. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ De Jong 1974, pp. 199-200. * ^ _Adolf Hitler: Führer
Führer
aller Germanen_. Storm, 1944. * ^ "Münchener Studien zur Politik". Beck. 1 January 1969 – via Google Books. * ^ Toland, John (1977). _Adolf Hitler_, pp. 569-570. Book Club Associates, Doubleday ;background:#c3c3c3;">

* v * t * e

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler

POLITICS

* Führer * Political views * Political directives * Speeches * Mein Kampf _ * _ Zweites Buch _ * Last will and testament * Books * Nazism
Nazism

EVENTS

* Military career * Rise to power * Hitler Cabinet * Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* World War II
World War II
* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Assassination attempts * Death

PLACES OF RESIDENCE

FüHRER HEADQUARTERS

* Berghof ( Kehlsteinhaus ) * Reich Chancellery * Wolf\'s Lair * Werwolf
Werwolf
* Adlerhorst * Special
Special
train (Führersonderzug) * Führerbunker * Wolfsschlucht I * Wolfsschlucht II * Anlage Süd * Felsennest

CIVILIAN RESIDENCES

* Braunau am Inn * Linz
Linz
* Vienna
Vienna
( Meldemannstraße dormitory ) * Munich
Munich
(16 Prinzregentenplatz )

PERSONAL LIFE

* Health * Wealth and income * Religious views * Sexuality * Vegetarianism * Staff * Bodyguard * August Kubizek * Stefanie Rabatsch * Psychopathography * Hitler\'s Table Talk
Talk
* Paintings * 50th birthday

PERSONAL BELONGINGS

* Hitler\'s Globe * Personal standard * Private library

PERCEPTIONS

* Books * In popular culture * _ The Victory of Faith _ * _ Triumph of the Will _ * _Hitler: The Last Ten Days _ * _The Meaning of Hitler
Hitler
_ * Hitler
Hitler
"Diaries" * _Moloch _ * _Hitler: The Rise of Evil _ * _Downfall _

FAMILY

* Eva Braun (wife) * Alois Hitler
Hitler
(father) * Klara Hitler
Hitler
(mother) * Johann Georg Hiedler (grandfather) * Maria Schicklgruber (grandmother) * Angela Hitler
Hitler
(half-sister) * Paula Hitler
Hitler
(sister) * Leo Rudolf Raubal Jr. (half-nephew) * Geli Raubal
Geli Raubal
(half-niece) * William Patrick Stuart-Houston (half-nephew) * Heinz Hitler
Hitler
(half-nephew) * PETS: Blondi
Blondi
(dog)

OTHER

* Hitler\'s possible monorchism * Conspiracy theories about Hitler\'s death * Streets named after Hitler
Hitler
* Mannerheim recording

_ Category
Category

* v * t * e

National Socialist German Workers\' Party

LEADER

* Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
(1919-1921) * Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1921-1945) * Martin Bormann (1945)

RELATED ARTICLES

* Germany and World War I * Stab-in-the-back myth * Weimar Republic * Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
* Occupation of the Ruhr * Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel _ * German Workers\' Party * Thule Society
Thule Society
* National Socialist Program * Nuremberg Rally * Ranks and insignia * _ Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
_ (SA) * Beer Hall Putsch * Brown House, Munich
Munich
* _ Horst-Wessel-Lied _ * Party songs * Adolf Hitler\'s rise to power * Night of the Long Knives * _ Schutzstaffel _ (SS) * Enabling Act of 1933 * NSDAP/AO
NSDAP/AO
* Greater German Reich * Hitler Youth * World War II
World War II
* Operation Werwolf
Werwolf
* Denazification
Denazification
* Article 21 Paragraph 2 (_de facto_ prohibition) * National Socialism * German Question * Anti-Semitism in Germany

PARTY OFFICES

* NSDAP Office of Racial Policy * NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs * NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy * NSDAP Office of Military Policy * Hitler\'s Chancellery (_Kanzlei des Führers_) * Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Chancellery * _ Amt Rosenberg _

PUBLICATIONS

* _ Völkischer Beobachter _ * _ Das Schwarze Korps
Das Schwarze Korps
_ * _ Der Stürmer _ * _Das Reich _ * _ Innviertler Heimatblatt _ * _ Arbeitertum _ * _ Der Angriff _

MEMBERS

* Gottfried Feder
Gottfried Feder
* Dietrich Eckart
Dietrich Eckart
* Alfred Rosenberg * Joseph Goebbels * Heinrich Himmler * Reinhard Heydrich * Hermann Göring * Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
* Otto Strasser * Albert Speer
Albert Speer
* Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Adolf Eichmann * Joachim von Ribbentrop * Houston Stewart Chamberlain * Hans Frank * Rudolf Höss
Rudolf Höss
* Richard Walther Darré * Baldur von Schirach * Artur Axmann * Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
* Wilhelm Frick
Wilhelm Frick
* Josef Mengele * Ernst Hanfstaengl * Julius Streicher * Hermann Esser

DERIVATIVES

* Black Front ( Strasserism
Strasserism
) / German Social Union * Deutsche Rechtspartei (through entryism) / Deutsche Reichspartei / National Democratic Party of Germany * Socialist Reich Party

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Führer
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