HOME
The Info List - ExxonMobil


--- Advertisement ---



Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corporation (stylized as ExxonMobil) is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company,[2] and was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon
Exxon
(formerly the Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of New Jersey) and Mobil (formerly the Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of New York). The world's 10th largest company by revenue, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is also the seventh largest publicly traded company by market capitalization.[3][4] The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016.[5] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
was the second most profitable company in the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
in 2014.[6] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is the largest of the world's Big Oil
Big Oil
companies, or supermajors,[7] with daily production of 3.921 million BOE (barrels of oil equivalent); but significantly smaller than a number of national companies. In 2008, this was approximately 3 percent of world production, which is less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies.[8] When ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1 percent of the total.[9][10] ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years.[11] With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels (1,000,000 m3), Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is the largest refiner in the world,[12][13][14] a title that was also associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870.[2] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill in Alaska, widely considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. Exxon Mobil
Mobil
has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. The company has also been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, and its impact on the future of nations.[15]

Contents

1 History

1.1 1870 to 1911 1.2 1911 to 1950 1.3 1950 to 1972 1.4 1972 to 1998 1.5 1998 to 2000 1.6 2000 to present

2 Operations

2.1 Upstream 2.2 Downstream 2.3 Chemicals 2.4 Clean technology research

3 Corporate affairs

3.1 Financial data 3.2 Headquarters 3.3 Management

4 Environmental record

4.1 Climate change 4.2 Sakhalin-I 4.3 New Jersey settlement

5 Human rights 6 Geopolitical influence 7 Accidents

7.1 Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill 7.2 Exxon's Brooklyn oil spill 7.3 Baton Rouge Refinery
Baton Rouge Refinery
pipeline oil spill 7.4 Baton Rouge Refinery
Baton Rouge Refinery
benzene leak 7.5 Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
oil spill 7.6 Mayflower oil spill

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

Chart of the major energy companies dubbed "Big Oil", sorted by latest published revenue

Exxon Mobil
Mobil
was formed in 1999 by the merger of two major oil companies, Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil. 1870 to 1911[edit] Main article: Standard Oil Both Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller
and partners in 1870 as the Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Company of Ohio. In 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Trust with Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of New York as its largest companies.[16] The Anglo-American Oil Company
Anglo-American Oil Company
was established in the United Kingdom in 1888.[17] In 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft (later: Esso
Esso
A.G.).[18][19] In 1891, a sale branch for the Netherlands and Belgium, American Petroleum
Petroleum
Company, was established in Rotterdam.[20] At the same year, a sale branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice.[21] The Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892; however, it reemerged as the Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Interests.[16] In 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts.[22] In 1898, Standard Oil
Standard Oil
of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
of Canada.[18] In 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests.[16] The anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898.[16] The reputation of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
in the public eye suffered badly after publication of Ida M. Tarbell's classic exposé The History of the Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. in 1904, leading to a growing outcry for the government to take action against the company. By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States
United States
ruled that Standard Oil
Standard Oil
must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard (" Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. of New Jersey"), which eventually became Exxon, and Socony
Socony
(" Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. of New York"), which eventually became Mobil.[23] 1911 to 1950[edit] Over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony
Socony
grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard. Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle
Walter C. Teagle
in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world.[23] In 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50% share in Humble Oil
Humble Oil
& Refining Co., a Texas
Texas
oil producer.[16] In 1920, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[23] In the following years it acquired or established Tropical Oil Company of Colombia (1920), Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of Venezuela
Venezuela
(1921), and Creole Petroleum
Petroleum
Company of Venezuela (1928).[18] Henry Clay Folger
Henry Clay Folger
was head of Socony
Socony
until 1923, when he was succeeded by Herbert L. Pratt. The growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony
Socony
in 1920.[citation needed] After dissolution of Standard Oil, Socony
Socony
had refining and marketing assets but no production activities. For this reason, Socony purchased a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum
Petroleum
Co., a major refiner, marketer and pipeline transporter, in 1918. In 1925, Magnolia became wholly owned by Socony. In 1926, Socony
Socony
purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California.[16][23] In 1928, Socony
Socony
joined the Turkish Petroleum
Petroleum
Company (Iraq Petroleum
Petroleum
Company).[23] In 1931, Socony
Socony
merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer dating back to 1866, to form Socony-Vacuum.[16][23][24] In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard has established through its Dutch subsidiary an exploration and production company Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum
Petroleum
Maatschappij in 1912. In 1922, it found oil in Indonesia
Indonesia
and in 1927, it built a refinery in Sumatra.[25] It had oil production and refineries but no marketing network. Socony-Vacuum had Asian marketing outlets supplied remotely from California. In 1933, Jersey Standard and Socony-Vacuum merged their interests in the Asia-Pacific region into a 50–50 joint venture. Standard Vacuum Oil Company, or "Stanvac," operated in 50 countries, from East Africa to New Zealand, before it was dissolved in 1962.[16] In 1924, Jersey Standard and General Motors
General Motors
pooled its tetraethyllead-related patents and established the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation.[26] In 1927, Jersey Standard signed a 25-years cooperation agreement with IG Farben
IG Farben
for the coal hydrogenation research in the United States. Jersey Standard assumed this cooperation to be beneficial as it believed the United States
United States
oil reserves to be exhausted in the near future and that the coal hydrogenation would give an access for producing synthetic fuels. It erected synthetic fuel plants in Bayway, Baton Rouge, and Baytown (unfinished). The interest in hydrogenation evaporated after discovery of the East Texas
Texas
Oil Field.[27] As a part of the cooperation between Jersey Standard and IG Farben, a joint company, Standard I.G. Company, was established with Jersey Standard having a stake of 80%. IG Farben transferred rights to the hydrogenation process outside of Germany to the joint venture in exchange of $35 million stake of Jersey Standard shares.[28] In 1930, the joint company established Hydro Patents Company to license the hydrogenation process in the United States.[29] The agreement with IG Farben
IG Farben
gave to Jersey Standard access to patents related to polyisobutylene which assist Jersey Standard to advance in isobutolene polymerization and to produce the first butyl rubber in 1937.[23][30][31] As the agreement with IG Farben gave to the German company a veto right of licensing chemical industry patents in the United States, including patent for butyl rubber, Jersey Standard was accused of treason by senator Harry S. Truman.[32] In 1941, it opened the first commercial synthetic toluene plant.[23] In 1932, Jersey Standard acquired foreign assets of the Pan American Petroleum
Petroleum
and Transport Company. In 1937, its assets in Bolivia were nationalized, followed by nationalization of its assets in Mexico in 1938.[23] In 1935, Socony
Socony
Vacuum Oil opened the huge Mammoth Oil Port on Staten Island which had a capacity of handling a quarter of a billion gallons of petroleum products a year and could transship oil from ocean-going tankers and river barges.[33] In 1940, Socony-Vacuum purchased the Gilmore Oil Company of California, which 1946 was merged with its another subsidiary, General Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation.[34] In 1947, Jersey Standard and Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
formed a joint venture Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij BV for oil and gas exploration and production in the Netherlands.[35] In 1948, Jersey Standard and Socony-Vacuum acquired interests in the Arab-American Oil Company
Arab-American Oil Company
(Aramco).[16][36] 1950 to 1972[edit] In 1955, Socony-Vacuum became Socony
Socony
Mobil
Mobil
Oil Company. In 1959, Magnolia Petroleum
Petroleum
Company, General Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation, and Mobil Producing Company were merged to form the Mobil
Mobil
Oil Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Socony
Socony
Mobil. In 1966, Socony
Socony
Mobil
Mobil
Oil Company became the Mobil
Mobil
Oil Corporation.[16] Humble Oil
Humble Oil
became a wholly owned subsidiary of Jersey Standard and was reorganized into the United States
United States
marketing division of Jersey Standard in 1959. In 1967, Humble Oil
Humble Oil
purchased all remaining Signal stations from Standard Oil Company
Standard Oil Company
of California (Chevron) In 1969, Humble Oil
Humble Oil
opened a new refinery in Benicia, California.[citation needed] In Libya, Jersey Standard made its first major oil discovery in 1959.[16] Mobil
Mobil
Chemical Company was established in 1960 and Exxon
Exxon
Chemical Company (first named Enjay Chemicals) in 1965.[16] In 1965, Jersey Standard started to acquire coal assets through its affiliate Carter Oil (later renamed: Exxon
Exxon
Coal, U.S.A.). For managing the Midwest and Eastern coal assets in the United States, the Monterey Coal Company was established in 1969.[37] Carter Oil focused on the developing synthetic fuels from coal.[37] In 1966, it started to develop the coal liquefaction process called the Exxon
Exxon
Donor Solvent Process. In April 1980, Exxon
Exxon
opened a 250-ton-per-day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. The plant was closed and dismantled in 1982.[38] In 1967, Mobil
Mobil
acquired a 28% strategic stake in the German fuel chain Aral.[39] In late 1960s Jersey Standard task force was looking for projects 30 years in the future.[40][41] In April 1973, Exxon
Exxon
founded Solar Power Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary for manufacturing of terrestrial photovoltaic cells.[42] After 1980s oil glut
1980s oil glut
Exxon's internal report projected that solar would not become viable until 2012 or 2013.[43] Consequently, Exxon
Exxon
sold Solar Power Corporation in 1984.[42] In 1974–1994, also Mobil
Mobil
developed solar energy through Mobil
Mobil
Tyco Solar Energy Corporation, its joint venture with Tyco Laboratories.[42][44] In late 1960s, Jersey Standard entered into the nuclear industry. In 1969, it created a subsidiary, Jersey Nuclear Company (later: Exxon Nuclear Company), for manufacturing and marketing of uranium fuel, which was to be fabricated from uranium concentrates mined by the mineral department of Humble Oil
Humble Oil
(later: Exxon
Exxon
Minerals Company).[45] In 1970, Jersey Nuclear opened a nuclear fuel manufacturing facility, now owned by Areva, in Richland, Washington.[46] In 1986, Exxon Nuclear was sold to Kraftwerk Union, a nuclear arm of Siemens.[47][48] The company started surface mining of uranium ore in Converse County, Wyoming, in 1970, solution mining in 1972, and underground mining in 1977. Uranium ore processing started in 1972. The facility was closed in 1984.[49] In 1973, Exxon
Exxon
acquired the Ray Point uranium ore processing facility which was shortly afterwards decommissioned.[50] 1972 to 1998[edit] In 1972, Exxon
Exxon
was unveiled as the new, unified brand name for all former Enco and Esso
Esso
outlets. At the same time, the company changed its corporate name from Standard Oil
Standard Oil
of New Jersey to Exxon Corporation, and Humble Oil
Humble Oil
became Exxon
Exxon
Company, U.S.A.[16] The rebranding came after successful test-marketing of the Exxon
Exxon
name, under two experimental logos, in the fall and winter of 1971-72. Along with the new name, Exxon
Exxon
settled on a rectangular logo using red lettering and blue trim on a white background, similar to the familiar color scheme on the old Enco and Esso
Esso
logos. Exxon
Exxon
replaced the Esso, Enco, and Humble brands in the United States
United States
on January 1, 1973.[citation needed] Due to the oil embargo of 1973, Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
began to expand their exploration and production into the North Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, Africa and Asia. Mobil
Mobil
diversified its activities into retail sale by acquiring the parent company of Montgomery Ward and Container Corporation.[16] In 1976, Exxon, through its subsidiary Intercor, entered into partnership with Colombian state owned company Carbocol to start coal mining in Cerrejón.[51] In 1980, Exxon
Exxon
merged its assets in the mineral industry into newly established Exxon
Exxon
Minerals (later Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Coal and Minerals).[52] At the same year, Exxon
Exxon
entered into the oil shale industry by buying a 60% stake in the Colony Shale Oil Project in Colorado, United States,[53] and 50% stake in the Rundle oil shale deposit in Queensland, Australia.[54] On May 2, 1982, Exxon
Exxon
announced the termination of the Colony Shale Oil Project because of low oil-prices and increased expenses.[23][53] Mobil
Mobil
moved its headquarters from New York to Fairfax County, Virginia, in 1987.[55] Exxon
Exxon
sold the Exxon
Exxon
Building (1251 Avenue of the Americas), its former headquarters in Rockefeller Center, to a unit of Mitsui Real Estate Development Co. Ltd. in 1986 for $610 million, and in 1989, moved its headquarters from Manhattan, New York City to the Las Colinas
Las Colinas
area of Irving, Texas. John Walsh, president of Exxon
Exxon
subsidiary Friendswood Development Company, stated that Exxon left New York because the costs were too high.[56] On March 24, 1989, the Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil tanker struck Bligh Reef
Bligh Reef
in Prince William Sound, Alaska
Alaska
and spilled more than 11 million US gallons (42,000 m3) of crude oil. The Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill was the second largest in U.S. history, and in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez incident, the U.S. Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. An initial award of $5 billion USD punitive was reduced to $507.5 million by the US Supreme Court in June 2008,[57] and distributions of this award have commenced.[citation needed] In 1994, Mobil
Mobil
established a subsidiary MEGAS ( Mobil
Mobil
European Gas) which became responsible for its Mobil's natural gas operations in Europe.[58] In 1996, Mobil
Mobil
and British Petroleum
British Petroleum
merged their European refining and marketing of fuels and lubricants businesses. Mobil
Mobil
had 30% stake in fuels and 51% stake in lubricants businesses.[59] In 1996, Exxon
Exxon
entered into the Russian market by signing a production sharing agreement on the Sakhalin-I
Sakhalin-I
project.[60] 1998 to 2000[edit] In 1998, Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
signed a US$73.7 billion merger agreement forming a new company called Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. (ExxonMobil), the largest oil company and the third largest company in the world. This was the largest corporate merger that time. At the time of the merge, Exxon
Exxon
was the world's largest energy company while Mobil
Mobil
was the second largest oil and gas company in the United States. The merger announcement followed shortly after merger of British Petroleum and Amoco
Amoco
which was the largest industrial merger that time.[61] Formally, Mobil
Mobil
was bought by Exxon. Mobil's shareholders received 1.32 Exxon's share for each Mobil's share. As a result, the former Mobil's shareholders receives about 30% in the merged company while the stake of former Exxon's shareholders was about 70%. The head of Exxon
Exxon
Lee Raymond
Lee Raymond
remained the chairman and chief executive of the new company and Mobil
Mobil
chief executive Lucio Noto became vice-chairman.[61] The merger of Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
was unique in American history because it reunited the two largest companies of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
trust.[62] The merger was approved by the European Commission
European Commission
on September 29, 1999, and by the United States
United States
Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
on November 30, 1999.[63][64] As a condition for the Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
merger, the European Commission
European Commission
ordered to dissolve the Mobil's partnership with BP, as also to sell its stake in Aral.[39] As a result, BP acquired all fuels assets, two base oil plants, and a substantial part of the joint venture's finished lubricants business, while ExxonMobil acquired other base oil plants and a part of the finished lubricants business.[65] The stake in Aral was sold to Vega Oel, later acquired by BP.[39] The European Commission
European Commission
also demanded divesting of Mobil's MEGAS and Exxon's 25% stake in the German gas transmission company Thyssengas.[66] MEGAS was acquired by Duke Energy
Duke Energy
and the stake in Thyssengas was acquired by RWE.[67][67] The company also divested Exxon's aviation fuel business to BP and Mobil's certain pipeline capacity servicing Gatwick Airport.[68] The Federal Trade Commission required to sell 2,431 gas stations in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic (1,740), California (360), Texas
Texas
(319), and Guam
Guam
(12). In addition, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
should sell its Benicia Refinery in California, terminal operations in Boston, the Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
area and Guam, interest in the Colonial pipeline, Mobil's interest in the Trans- Alaska
Alaska
Pipeline System, Exxon's jet turbine oil business, and give-up the option to buy Tosco Corporation
Tosco Corporation
gas stations.[69][70] The Benicia Refinery and 340 Exxon-branded stations in California were bought by Valero Energy Corporation
Valero Energy Corporation
in 2000.[71] 2000 to present[edit] In 2002, the company sold its stake in the Cerrejón
Cerrejón
coal mine in Colombia, and copper-mining business in Chile.[51][72] At the same time, it renewed its interest in oil shale by developing the Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Electrofrac in-situ extraction process. In 2014, the Bureau of Land Management approved their research and development project in Rio Blanco County, Colorado.[73][74] However, in November 2015 the company relinquished its federal research, development and demonstration lease.[75] In 2009, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
phased-out coal mining by selling its last operational coal mine in the United States.[76] In 2008, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
started to phase-out from the United States direct-served retail market by selling its service stations. The usage of Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
brands was franchised to the new owners.[77] In 2010, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
bought XTO Energy, the company focused on development and production of unconventional resources.[78] In 2011, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
started a strategic cooperation with Russian oil company Rosneft
Rosneft
to develop the East-Prinovozemelsky field
East-Prinovozemelsky field
in the Kara Sea and the Tuapse field in the Black Sea.[79] In 2012, ExxonMobil concluded an agreement with Rosneft
Rosneft
to assess possibilities to produce tight oil from Bazhenov and Achimov formations in Western Siberia.[80] In 2018, due to international sanctions imposed against Russia and Rosneft, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
announces that it will end ethese joint ventures with Rosneft, but will continue the Sakhalin-I
Sakhalin-I
project. The company estimates it would cost about $200 million after tax.[81][82] In 2012, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
started a coalbed methane development in Australia, but withdrew from the project in 2014.[83] In 2012, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
confirmed a deal for production and exploration activities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.[84] In November 2013, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
agreed to sell its majority stakes in a Hong Kong-based utility and power storage firm, Castle Peak Co Ltd, for a total of $3.4 billion, to CLP Holdings.[85] In 2014, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
had two "non-monetary" asset swap deals with LINN Energy LLC. In these transactions, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
gave to LINN interests in the South Belridge and Hugoton gas fields in the exchange of assets in the Permian Basin in Texas
Texas
and the Delaware Basin
Delaware Basin
in New Mexico.[86] On October 9, 2014, the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes awarded Exxon Mobil
Mobil
$1.6 billion in the case the company had brought against the Venezuelan government. ExxonMobil alleged that the Venezuelan government illegally expropriated its Venezuelan assets in 2007 and paid unfair compensation.[87] In September 2016, the Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission
contacted ExxonMobil, questioning why (unlike some other companies[88][89]) they had not yet started writing down the value of their oil reserves, given that much may have to remain in the ground to comply with future climate change legislation.[90][91][92][93] Mark Carney
Mark Carney
has expressed concerns about the industry's "stranded assets". In October 2016, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
conceded it may need to declare a lower value for its in-ground oil, and that it might write down about one-fifth of its reserves.[94][95] On December 13, 2016, the CEO of ExxonMobil, Rex Tillerson, was nominated as Secretary of State by President-elect Donald Trump.[96] In January 2017, Federal climate investigations of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
were considered less likely under the new Trump administration.[97] On January 9, 2017, it was revealed that Infineum, a joint venture of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
headquartered in England, conducted business with Iran, Syria, and Sudan while those states were under US sanctions. Exxon Mobil
Mobil
representatives said that because Infineum was based in Europe and the transactions did not involve any U.S. employees, this did not violate the sanctions.[98] Operations[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is the largest non-government owned company in the energy industry and produces about 3% of the world's oil and about 2% of the world's energy.[citation needed] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is organized functionally into a number of global operating divisions. These divisions are grouped into three categories for reference purposes, though the company also has several ancillary divisions, such as Coal & Minerals, which are stand alone. It also owns hundreds of smaller subsidiaries such as Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
Limited (69.6% ownership) in Canada, and SeaRiver Maritime, a petroleum shipping company.[citation needed]

Upstream (oil exploration, extraction, shipping, and wholesale operations) based in Houston, Texas Downstream (marketing, refining, and retail operations) based in Houston Chemical division based in Houston, Texas

Upstream[edit]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2017)

The upstream division makes up the majority of ExxonMobil's revenue, accounting for approximately 70% of the total.[citation needed] In 2014, the company had 25.3 billion barrels (4.02×10^9 m3) of oil-equivalent reserves.[99] In 2013, its reserves replacement ratio was 103%.[99] In the United States, ExxonMobil's petroleum exploration and production activities are concentrated in the Permian Basin, Bakken Formation, Woodford Shale, Caney Shale, and the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
has several gas developments in the regions of Marcellus Shale, Utica Shale, Haynesville Shale, Barnett Shale, and Fayetteville Shale. All natural gas activities are conducted by its subsidiary, XTO Energy. As of December 31, 2014, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
owned 14.6 million acres (59,000 km2) in the United States, of which 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2) were offshore, 1.5 million acres (6,100 km2) of which were in the Gulf of Mexico.[100] In California, it has a joint venture called Aera Energy LLC with Shell Oil. In Canada, the company holds 5.4 million acres (22,000 km2), including 1 million acres (4,000 km2) offshore and 0.7 million acres (2,800 km2) of the Kearl Oil Sands Project.[100] In Argentina, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
holds 0.9 million acres (3,600 km2), Germany 4.9 million acres (20,000 km2), in the Netherlands Exxon Mobil
Mobil
owns 1.5 million acres (6,100 km2), in Norway it ownes .4 million acres (1,600 km2) offshore, and the United Kingdom 0.6 million acres (2,400 km2) offshore. In Africa, upstream operations are concentrated in Angola where it owns 0.4 million acres (1,600 km2) offshore, Chad
Chad
where it owns 46,000 acres (19,000 ha), Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
where it owns 0.1 million acres (400 km2) offshore, and Nigeria where it owns 0.8 million acres (3,200 km2) offshore.[100] In addition, Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
plans to start exploration activities off the coast of Liberia and the Ivory Coast.[101][102] In the past, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
had exploration activities in Madagascar, however these operations were ended due to unsatisfactory results.[103] In Asia, it holds 9,000 acres (3,600 ha) in Azerbaijan, 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2) in Indonesia, of which 1.3 million acres (5,300 km2) are offshore, 0.7 million acres (2,800 km2) in Iraq, 0.3 million acres (1,200 km2) in Kazakhstan, 0.2 million acres (810 km2) in Malaysia, 65,000 acres (26,000 ha) in Qatar, 10,000 acres (4,000 ha) in Yemen, 21,000 acres (8,500 ha) in Thailand, and 81,000 acres (33,000 ha) in the United Arab Emirates.[100] In Russia, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
holds 85,000 acres (34,000 ha) in the Sakhalin-I
Sakhalin-I
project. Together with Rosneft, it has developed 63.6 million acres (257,000 km2) in Russia, including the East-Prinovozemelsky field. In Australia, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
held 1.7 million acres (6,900 km2), including 1.6 million acres (6,500 km2) offshore. It also operates the Longford Gas Conditioning Plant, and participates in the development of Gorgon LNG project. In Papua New Guinea, it holds 1.1 million acres (4,500 km2), including the PNG Gas project.[100] Downstream[edit] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
markets products around the world under the brands of Exxon, Mobil, and Esso. Mobil
Mobil
is ExxonMobil's primary retail gasoline brand in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Exxon
Exxon
is the primary brand in the rest of the United States, with the highest concentration of retail outlets located in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas
Texas
and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states. Esso
Esso
is ExxonMobil's primary gasoline brand worldwide except in Australia and New Zealand, where the Mobil
Mobil
brand is used exclusively. In Colombia, both the Esso
Esso
and Mobil
Mobil
brands are used.[citation needed] In Japan, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
has a 22% stake in TonenGeneral Sekiyu K.K., a refining company.[104][105] Chemicals[edit] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Chemical is a petrochemical company which was created by merging Exxon's and Mobil's chemical industries. Its principal products includes basic olefins and aromatics, ethylene glycol, polyethylene, and polypropylene along with speciality lines such as elastomers, plasticizers, solvents, process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins. The company also produces synthetic lubricant base stocks as well as lubricant additives, propylene packaging films and catalysts. The company was an industry leader in metallocene catalyst technology to make unique polymers with improved performance.[citation needed] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is the largest producer of butyl rubber.[106] Infineum, a joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell, is manufacturing and marketing crankcase lubricant additives, fuel additives, and specialty lubricant additives, as well as automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, and industrial oils.[107] Clean technology research[edit] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
conducts research on clean energy technologies, including algae biofuels, biodiesel made from agricultural waste, carbonate fuel cells, and refining crude oil into plastic by using a membrane and osmosis instead of heat.[108] However, it is unlikely the company will commercialize these projects before 2030.[108] Corporate affairs[edit] Financial data[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2016)

In 2005, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
surpassed Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
as the world's largest publicly held corporation when measured by revenue, although Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
remained the largest by number of employees.[109] ExxonMobil's $340 billion revenues in 2005 were a 25.5 percent increase over their 2004 revenues.[citation needed] In 2006, Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
recaptured the lead with revenues of $348.7 billion against ExxonMobil's $335.1. Exxon Mobil
Mobil
continued to lead the world in both profits ($39.5 billion in 2006) and market value ($460.43 billion).[110] In 2007, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
had a record net income of $40.61 billion on $404.552 billion of revenue, an increase largely due to escalating oil prices as their actual BOE production decreased by 1 percent, in part due to expropriation of their Venezuelan assets by the Chávez government.[111] As of December 2013, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
occupied five out of ten slots for Largest Corporate Annual Earnings of All Time and two out of ten on Largest Corporate Quarterly Earnings.[112][113] Headquarters[edit]

Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Building, former Exxon Mobil
Mobil
offices in Downtown Houston were vacated in early 2015.

ExxonMobil's headquarters are located in Irving, Texas.[114] As of May 2015, the company was nearing completion of its new campus located in a northern Houston
Houston
suburb of Spring, at the intersection of Interstate 45, the Hardy Toll Road, and the Grand Parkway
Grand Parkway
northern extension. It is an elaborate corporate campus, including twenty office buildings totaling 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2), a wellness center, laboratory, and three parking garages.[115] It is designed to house nearly 10,000 employees with an additional 1,500 employees located in a satellite campus in Hughes Landing in The Woodlands, Texas. In October 2010, the company stated that it would not move its headquarters to Greater Houston.[116] Management[edit] The current Chairman
Chairman
of the Board and CEO of Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. is Darren W. Woods. Woods was elected Chairman
Chairman
of the Board and CEO effective January 1, 2017 after the retirement of former Chairman
Chairman
and CEO Rex Tillerson. Before his election as Chairman
Chairman
and CEO, Woods was elected President of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and a member of the board of directors in 2016.[117] As of January 11, 2017[update], the current Exxon Mobil
Mobil
board members are:[118]

Michael Boskin, professor of economics Stanford University, director of Oracle Corp., Shinsei Bank, and Vodafone Group Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, Nestlé
Nestlé
chairman and former Nestlé
Nestlé
CEO Angela F. Braly, former CEO of WellPoint Ursula Burns, Xerox chairman and CEO Larry R. Faulkner, President, Houston
Houston
Endowment; President Emeritus, the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin Henrietta H. Fore, Holsman International Kenneth Frazier, President of Merck & Co. Douglas R. Oberhelman, Chairman
Chairman
and Chief Executive Officer, Caterpillar Inc. Samuel J. Palmisano, Chairman
Chairman
of the Board, IBM
IBM
Corp. Steven S Reinemund, retired Executive Chairman
Chairman
of the Board, PepsiCo William C. Weldon, past Johnson & Johnson chairman Darren W. Woods, Chairman
Chairman
of the Board and CEO, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Corporation

Environmental record[edit] ExxonMobil's environmental record has been a target of critics from outside organizations such as the environmental lobby group Greenpeace as well as some public employee pension funds that disagree with its stance on global warming.[119] The Political Economy Research Institute ranks Exxon Mobil
Mobil
sixth among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States. The ranking is based on the quantity (15.5 million pounds in 2005) and toxicity of the emissions.[120] In 2005, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
had committed less than 1 percent of their profits towards researching alternative energy,[121] less than other leading oil companies.[122] Climate change[edit]

Main article: Exxon Mobil
Mobil
climate change controversy ExxonMobil's activities related to climate change has varied over the decades. From the late 1970s through the 1980s, Exxon
Exxon
funded research broadly in line with the developing public scientific approach.[123] After the 1980s, Exxon
Exxon
curtailed its own climate research and was a leader in climate change denial.[124][125][126] In 2014, ExxonMobil publicly acknowledged climate change risk.[127] It nominally supports a carbon tax, though that support is weak.[128] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
funded organizations opposed to the Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol
and seeking to influence public opinion about the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels.[126] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
helped to found and lead the Global Climate Coalition, which opposed greenhouse gas emission regulation.[124] In 2007 the Union of Concerned Scientists
Union of Concerned Scientists
said that Exxon Mobil
Mobil
granted $16 million, between 1998 and 2005, towards 43 advocacy organizations which dispute the impact of global warming, and that Exxon Mobil
Mobil
used disinformation tactics similar to those used by the tobacco industry in its denials of the link between lung cancer and smoking, saying that the company used many of the same organizations and personnel to cloud the scientific understanding of climate change and delay action on the issue.[129] As of March 2016[update], the attorneys general of New York, California, Massachusetts, and the United States
United States
Virgin Islands are investigating, with the cooperation of 17 US states, whether Exxon Mobil
Mobil
misled consumers or investors regarding the risks of climate change. Exxon
Exxon
said the investigations were "politically motivated".[130][131][132] Sakhalin-I[edit] Main article: Sakhalin-I Scientists and environmental groups have voiced concern that the Sakhalin-I
Sakhalin-I
oil and gas project in the Russian Far East, operated by an Exxon Mobil
Mobil
subsidiary Exxon
Exxon
Neftegas, threatens the critically endangered western gray whale population.[133][134] Particular concerns were caused by the decision to construct a pier and to start shipping in Piltun Lagoon.[135] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
has responded that since 1997 the company has invested over $40 million to the western whale monitoring program.[136] New Jersey settlement[edit] Main article: ExxonMobil-New Jersey environmental contamination settlement In 2004, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
sued Exxon Mobil
Mobil
for $8.9 billion for lost wetland resources at Constable Hook in Bayonne and Bayway Refinery
Bayway Refinery
in Linden.[137] Although a New Jersey Superior Court justice was believed to be close to a ruling, the Christie Administration repeatedly asked the judge to wait, since they were reaching a settlement with ExxonMobil's attorneys.[138] On Friday, February 19th, 2015, lawyers for the Christie administration informed the judge that a deal had been reached. Details of the $225 million settlement - roughly 3% of what the state originally sought - were not immediately released. Christopher Porrino
Christopher Porrino
served as Chief Counsel to the Christie administration from January 2014 through July 2015 and handled negotiations in the case.[139][140] Human rights[edit] Main article: Accusations of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
human rights violations in Indonesia Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is the target of human rights activists for actions taken by the corporation in the Indonesian territory of Aceh. In June 2001, a lawsuit against Exxon Mobil
Mobil
was filed in the Federal District Court of the District of Columbia under the Alien Tort Claims Act. The suit alleges that the Exxon Mobil
Mobil
knowingly assisted human rights violations, including torture, murder and rape, by employing and providing material support to Indonesian military forces, who committed the alleged offenses during civil unrest in Aceh. Human rights complaints involving Exxon's ( Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
had not yet merged) relationship with the Indonesian military first arose in 1992; the company denies these accusations and filed a motion to dismiss the suit, which was denied in 2008 by a federal judge.[141] But another federal judge dismissed the lawsuit in August 2009.[142] The plaintiffs are currently[when?] appealing the dismissal.[citation needed] Geopolitical influence[edit] A July 2012 review of Steve Coll's book, Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power, in The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
says that he thinks that Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is "able to determine American foreign policy
American foreign policy
and the fate of entire nations".[15] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
increasingly drills in terrains leased to them by dictatorships, such as those in Chad
Chad
and Equatorial Guinea.[15] Steve Coll
Steve Coll
describes Lee Raymond, the corporation's chief executive until 2005, as "notoriously skeptical about climate change and disliked government interference at any level".[15] The book was also reviewed in The Economist, according to which "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is easy to caricature, and many critics have done so.... It is to Steve Coll's credit that Private Empire, his new book about ExxonMobil, refuses to subscribe to such a simplistic view." The review describes the company's power in dealing with the countries in which it drills as "constrained". It notes that the company shut down its operations in Indonesia
Indonesia
to distance itself from the abuses committed against the population by that country's army, and that it decided to drill in Chad
Chad
only after the World Bank agreed to ensure that the oil royalties were used for the population's benefit. The review closes by noting that "A world addicted to ExxonMobil's product needs to look in the mirror before being too critical of how relentlessly the company supplies it."[143] Accidents[edit] Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill[edit] Main article: Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill The March 24, 1989, Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill resulted in the discharge of approximately 11 million US gallons (42,000 m3) of oil into Prince William Sound,[144] oiling 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of the remote Alaskan coastline. The Valdez spill is 36th worst oil spill in history in terms of sheer volume.[citation needed] The State of Alaska's Exxon
Exxon
Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council stated that the spill "is widely considered the number one spill worldwide in terms of damage to the environment".[144] Carcasses were found of over 35,000 birds and 1,000 sea otters. Because carcasses typically sink to the seafloor, it is estimated the death toll may be 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles, and up to 22 killer whales. Billions of salmon and herring eggs were also killed.[145] As of 2001, oil remained on or under more than half the sound's beaches, according to a 2001 federal survey. The government-created Exxon
Exxon
Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council concluded that the oil disappears at less than 4 percent per year, adding that the oil will "take decades and possibly centuries to disappear entirely". Of the 27 species monitored by the Council, 17 have not recovered. While the salmon population has rebounded, and the orca whales are recovering, the herring population and fishing industry have not.[146][147][148] Exxon
Exxon
was widely criticized for its slow response to cleaning up the disaster. John Devens, the Mayor of Valdez, has said his community felt betrayed by Exxon's inadequate response to the crisis.[149] Exxon later removed the name "Exxon" from its tanker shipping subsidiary, which it renamed "SeaRiver Maritime". The renamed subsidiary, though wholly Exxon-controlled, has a separate corporate charter and board of directors, and the former Exxon
Exxon
Valdez is now the SeaRiver Mediterranean. The renamed tanker is legally owned by a small, stand-alone company, which would have minimal ability to pay out on claims in the event of a further accident.[150] After a trial, a jury ordered Exxon
Exxon
to pay $5 billion in punitive damages, though an appeals court reduced that amount by half. Exxon appealed further, and on June 25, 2008, the United States
United States
Supreme Court lowered the amount to $500 million.[151] In 2009, Exxon
Exxon
still uses more single-hull tankers than the rest of the largest ten oil companies combined, including the Valdez's sister ship, the SeaRiver Long Beach.[152] Exxon's Brooklyn oil spill[edit] Main article: Greenpoint oil spill New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo
Andrew Cuomo
announced on July 17, 2007 that he had filed suit against the Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. and ExxonMobil Refining and Supply Co. to force cleanup of the oil spill at Greenpoint, Brooklyn, and to restore Newtown Creek.[153] A study of the spill released by the US Environmental Protection Agency in September 2007 reported[154] that the spill consists of 17 to 30 million US gallons (64,000 to 114,000 m3) of petroleum products from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century.[155] The largest portion of these operations were by Exxon Mobil
Mobil
or its predecessors. By comparison, the Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill was approximately 11 million US gallons (42,000 m3).[144] The study reported that in the early 20th century Standard Oil
Standard Oil
of New York operated a major refinery in the area where the spill is located. The refinery produced fuel oils, gasoline, kerosene and solvents. Naptha and gas oil, secondary products, were also stored in the refinery area. Standard Oil
Standard Oil
of New York later became Mobil, a predecessor to Exxon/Mobil.[156] Baton Rouge Refinery
Baton Rouge Refinery
pipeline oil spill[edit] In April 2012, a crude oil pipeline, from the Exxon
Exxon
Corp Baton Rouge Refinery, burst and spilled at least 1,900 barrels of oil (80,000 gallons) in the rivers of Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana, shutting down the Exxon
Exxon
Corp Baton Refinery for a few days. Regulators opened an investigation in response to the pipeline oil spill.[157] Baton Rouge Refinery
Baton Rouge Refinery
benzene leak[edit] On June 14, 2012, a bleeder plug on a tank in the Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
Refinery failed and began leaking naphtha, a substance that is composed of many chemicals including benzene.[158] Exxon Mobil
Mobil
originally reported to the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) that 1,364 pounds of material had been leaked.[citation needed] On June 18, Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
refinery representatives told the LDEQ that ExxonMobil's chemical team determined that the June 14 spill was actually a level 2 incident classification which means that a significant response to the leak was required.[159] On the day of the spill the refinery did not report that their estimate of spilled materials was significantly different from what was originally reported to the department. Because the spill estimate and the actual amount of chemicals spilled varied drastically, the LDEQ launched an in-depth investigation on June 16 to determine the actual amounts of chemicals spilled as well as to find out what information the refinery knew and when they knew it.[160] On June 20, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
sent an official notification to the LDEQ saying that the leak had actually released 28,688 pounds of benzene, 10,882 pounds of toluene, 1,100 pounds of cyclohexane, 1,564 pounds of hexane and 12,605 pounds of additional volatile organic compound.[159][160] After the spill, people living in neighboring communities reported adverse health impacts such as severe headaches and respiratory difficulties.[161][161]

Exxon Mobil
Mobil
refinery in Baton Rouge

Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
oil spill[edit]

Map of the Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
watershed

The July 2011 Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
oil spill was an oil spill from an Exxon Mobil
Mobil
pipeline running from Silver Tip to Billings, Montana, which ruptured about 10 miles west of Billings on July 1, 2011, at about 11:30 pm.[162] The resulting spill leaked an estimated 1,500 barrels of oil into the Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
for about 30 minutes before it was shut down, resulting in about $135 million in damages.[163] As a precaution against a possible explosion, officials in Laurel, Montana
Laurel, Montana
evacuated about 140 people on Saturday (July 2) just after midnight, then allowed them to return at 4 am.[162] A spokesman for Exxon Mobil
Mobil
said that the oil is within 10 miles of the spill site. However, Montana Governor Brian Schweitzer
Brian Schweitzer
disputed the accuracy of that figure.[164] The governor pledged that "The parties responsible will restore the Yellowstone River."[165] Mayflower oil spill[edit] Main article: 2013 Mayflower oil spill On March 29, 2013, the Pegasus Pipeline, owned by Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and carrying Canadian Wabasca heavy crude, ruptured in Mayflower, Arkansas, releasing about 3,190 barrels (507 m3) of oil and forcing the evacuation of 22 homes.[166][167] The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the leak as a major spill.[168] In 2015, Exxon Mobil
Mobil
settled charges that it violated the federal Clean Water Act and state environmental laws, for $5.07 million, including $4.19 million in civil penalties. It did not admit liability.[166] See also[edit]

Exxon
Exxon
Corp. v Exxon
Exxon
Insurance Consultants International Ltd Kivalina v. Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. List of companies by revenue Save the Tiger Fund

Dallas-Fort Worth portal Companies portal Energy portal United States
United States
portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f EXXON MOBIL CORPORATION Form 10-K, Google Finance, March 21, 2015 ^ a b "ExxonMobil, Our History". Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. Retrieved November 20, 2007.  ^ "Apple loses title of world's most valuable company to Exxon". Fox News. April 17, 2013.  ^ " Forbes
Forbes
Global 2000: The World's Biggest Public Companies". Forbes.  ^ DeCarlo, Scott. "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
- In Photos: Global 2000: The World's Top 25 Companies". Forbes.  ^ Kell, John (June 11, 2015). "The 10 most profitable companies of the Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved October 19, 2015.  ^ "FT's profile of ExxonMobil". Financial Times. Retrieved April 21, 2008.  ^ "The new Seven Sisters: oil and gas giants dwarf western rivals". Financial Times. Retrieved April 21, 2008.  ^ "Will We Rid Ourselves of This Pollution?". Forbes. April 16, 2007. Retrieved April 22, 2008.  ^ "EIA – Statement of Jay Hakes". Tonto.eia.doe.gov. March 10, 1999. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corporation Announces 2013 Reserves Replacement Totaled". marketwatch.com.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
– Refining and supply". Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. Archived from the original on November 14, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2010.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
– Company profile". Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. Archived from the original on November 14, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2010.  ^ http://www.petrostrategies.org/Links/worlds_largest_refiners.htm Worlds Largest Refiners list ^ a b c d Ian Thompson (July 30, 2012). "Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power". The Telegraph. London.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "A Guide to the Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Historical Collection, 1790–2004: Part 1. Historical Note". Dolph Briscoe Center for American History. Retrieved January 4, 2016.  ^ "Anglo-American Oil Co". Grace Guide. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ a b c " Exxon
Exxon
Corporation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Clark, Peter (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. OUP Oxford. p. 816. ISBN 978-0-19-163769-8.  ^ Krabbendam, Hans; van Minnen, Cornelis A.; Scott-Smith, Giles (2009). Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations: 1609–2009. SUNY Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-1-4384-3013-3.  ^ Skinner, Walter R. (1983). Financial Times
Financial Times
Oil and Gas International Year Book. Financial Times. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-582-90315-9.  ^ Cochran, Sherman (2000). Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese, and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880–1937. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-92189-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Vassiliou, Marius (2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum
Petroleum
Industry. Scarecrow Press. pp. 186–189; 472–474. ISBN 978-0-8108-6288-3.  ^ "Business & Finance: Socony-Vacuum Corp". Time. August 10, 1931. Retrieved January 6, 2016.  ^ Shavit, David (1990). The United States
United States
in Asia: A Historical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-313-26788-8.  ^ Pound, Arthur (2013). The Turning Wheel – The story of General Motors through twenty-five years 1908–1933. Edizioni Savine. p. 360. ISBN 978-88-96365-39-7.  ^ Lesch, John (2013). The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 185–191. ISBN 978-94-015-9377-9.  ^ Herbert, Vernon; Bisio, Attilio (1985). Synthetic Rubber: A Project that Had to Succeed. Greenwood Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-313-24634-0. ISSN 0084-9235.  ^ Nowell, Gregory Patrick (1994). Mercantile States and the World Oil Cartel, 1900–1939. Cornell University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-8014-2878-4.  ^ "Butyl Rubber: A Techno-commercial Profile". Chemical Weekly. 55 (12): 207–211. November 3, 2009.  ^ Morton, M, ed. (2013). Rubber Technology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 285. ISBN 9789401729253.  ^ Rockoff, Hugh (2012). America's Economic Way of War: War and the US Economy from the Spanish–American War to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-107-37718-9.  ^ "Oil Port Can Service City of Half a Million". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. 64 (4): 543. 1935. ISSN 0032-4558.  ^ Darr, Alan. "The Gilmore Oil Company: 1900–1940". CrossRoads Access, Inc. Retrieved January 6, 2016.  ^ Tjemkes, Brian; VosBurgers, Pepijn; Burgers, Koen (2013). Strategic Alliance Management. Routledge. pp. 217–218. ISBN 9781136465727.  ^ Green, Michael S.; Stabler, Scott L., eds. (2015). Ideas and Movements that Shaped America: From the Bill of Rights to "Occupy Wall Street". ABC-CLIO. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-61069-252-6.  ^ a b Chakravarthy, Balaji S. (1981). Managing Coal: A Challenge in Adaption. SUNY Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780791498682.  ^ Kent, James A. (2013). Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry (9, illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 574. ISBN 978-1-4757-6431-4.  ^ a b c Weiand, Achim (2006). BP acquires Veba Oel and Aral. Post-Merger Integration and Corporate Culture (PDF). Bertelsmann Stiftung. pp. 24–27. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Williams, Neville (2005). Chasing the Sun: Solar Adventures Around the World. Working Paper 12-105. New Society Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-55092-312-4.  ^ Perlin, John (1999). From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity. Harvard University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-674-01013-0.  ^ a b c Jones, Geoffrey; Bouamane, Loubna (2012). "Power from Sunshine": A Business History of Solar Energy (PDF). Harvard Business School. pp. 22–23.  ^ Roston, Eric (November 4, 2015). " Exxon
Exxon
Predicted Today's Cheap Solar Boom Back in the 1980s". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Mühlbauer, Alfred (2008). History of Induction Heating and Melting. Vulkan-Verlag. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-8027-2946-1.  ^ "T.V.A. v. Exxon
Exxon
Nuclear Co., INC. Memorandum by Chief Judge Robert L. Taylor". Leagle, Inc. August 22, 1983. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ "AREVA Inc.'s Richland Fuel Manufacturing Facility Celebrates 45 Years of Innovation and Excellence" (Press release). Areva, Inc. October 30, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Ferguson, Robert L. (2014). Nuclear Waste in Your Backyard: Who’s to Blame and How to Fix It. Archway Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4808-0860-7.  ^ Roston, Eric (December 24, 1986). " Exxon
Exxon
Plans Sale Of Nuclear Unit". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ "Exxonmobil Highlands". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved January 15, 2016.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Corporation (State of Texas)". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved January 15, 2016.  ^ a b "Carbones del Cerrejón, Colombia". Mining Technology. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ O'Brien, Michael (2008). Exxon
Exxon
and the Crandon Mine Controversy. Badger Books Inc. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-932542-37-0.  ^ a b "Tosco Corporation". Funding Universe. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Symington, William A. (2008). Heat Conduction Modeling Tools for Screening In Situ Oil Shale Conversion Processes (PDF). 28th Oil Shale Symposium. Colorado School of Mines. Retrieved March 28, 2016.  ^ Dawson, Jennifer (January 15, 2010). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
campus 'clearly happening'". Houston
Houston
Business Journal. Retrieved July 24, 2010.  ^ Pearson, Anne and Ralph Bivins. " Exxon
Exxon
moving corporate headquarters to Dallas." Houston
Houston
Chronicle. Friday October 27, 1989. A1. Retrieved on July 29, 2009. ^ Bolstad, Erika (June 25, 2008). "Supreme Court slashes punitive award in Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill". McClatchyDC. Retrieved April 26, 2016.  ^ " Mobil
Mobil
establishes new European gas group". The Virginian-Pilot. November 10, 1994. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Commission clears joint venture between BP and Mobil" (Press release). European Commission. August 7, 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Sapulkas, Agis (1996-06-11). " Exxon
Exxon
Moves On Sakhalin Oilfield Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ a b "Oil merger faces monopoly probe". BBC News. December 2, 1998. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
and Mobil
Mobil
Announce $80 Billion Deal to Create World's Largest Company". NY Times. December 3, 1998. Retrieved March 6, 2017.  ^ "Commission agrees to dissolution of BP/ Mobil
Mobil
Joint Venture, a European fuel and lubricants producer and retailer; the dissolution was a condition of the Exxon Mobil
Mobil
merger clearance decision" (Press release). European Commission. September 29, 1999. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Wilke, John R.; Barrionuevo, Alexei; Liesman, Steve (December 1, 1999). "Exxon- Mobil
Mobil
Merger Gets Approval; FTC May Be Tougher on Future Deals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 24, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Commission agrees to dissolution of BP/ Mobil
Mobil
Joint Venture, a European fuel and lubricants producer and retailer; the dissolution was a condition of the Exxon Mobil
Mobil
merger clearance decision" (Press release). European Commission. March 2, 2000. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ "Exxon- Mobil
Mobil
merger wins approval in EU, awaits US decision". Oil & Gas Journal. 97 (43). Pennwell Corporation. October 25, 1999. p. 24. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ a b " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
to sell Mobil
Mobil
Europe Gas". Dallas Business Journal. April 3, 2000. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Rudnick, Leslie R., ed. (2013). Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology (2, illustrated, revised ed.). CRC Press. p. 920. ISBN 978-1-4398-5538-6.  ^ "Exxon- Mobil
Mobil
merger done". CNN. November 30, 1999. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ "Exxon/ Mobil
Mobil
Agree to Largest FTC Divestiture Ever in Order to Settle FTC Antitrust Charges; Settlement Requires Extensive Restructuring and Prevents Merger of Significant Competing U.S. Assets" (Press release). Federal Trade Commission. November 30, 1999. Retrieved January 26, 2016.  ^ "Valero acquires California refinery, outlets". Oil & Gas Journal. 98 (11). Pennwell Corporation. March 13, 2000. Retrieved May 7, 2016.  ^ "Anglo American to Buy Copper Mines In Chile From Exxon
Exxon
for $1.3 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. May 3, 2002. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Webb, Dennis (March 11, 2014). "Back in oil shale". The Daily Sentinel. Retrieved January 11, 2016.  ^ Peixe, Joao (March 18, 2014). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Takes Step Forward on Colorado Oil Shale". Oilprice.com. Retrieved January 11, 2016.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
again retreats from oil shale". The Daily Sentinel. March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2016.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
sells Monterey coal mine". The State Journal-Register. January 27, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ Erman, Michael (June 12, 2008). " Exxon
Exxon
to exit U.S. retail gas business". Reuters. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and XTO complete merger". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. June 25, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Klein, Ezra (August 30, 2011). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
signs Russian oil pact". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 2, 2011.  ^ Ordonez, Isabel; Stilwell, Victoria (June 15, 2012). " Exxon
Exxon
Expands Rosneft
Rosneft
Alliance to Siberian Shale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 24, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Foy, Henry; Crooks, Ed (2018-03-01). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
abandons joint ventures with Russia's Rosneft". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-03-02. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Scheyder, Ernest; Soldatkin, Vladimir (2018-02-28). " Exxon
Exxon
quits some Russian joint ventures citing sanctions". Reuters. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ Chambers, Matt (December 17, 2014). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
pulls out of Victorian coal-seam gas venture". The Australian. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
Confirms Deals With Iraqi Kurds". The Wall Street Journal. February 27, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012.  ^ Denny Thomas; Charlie Zhu (November 19, 2013). " Exxon
Exxon
to sell Hong Kong power operations for $3.4 billion". Reuters.  ^ "ExxonMobil, Linn to make second asset exchange this year". Oil & Gas Journal. Pennwell Corporation. September 19, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2016.  ^ Chamberlin, Alex. "The World Bank ruling on the Exxon
Exxon
Mobil Venezuela
Venezuela
case". Market Realist. Market Realist, Inc. Retrieved October 14, 2014.  ^ Shell Oil's Stark Climate Change Warning from 1991 on YouTube ^ Damian Carrington and Jelmer Mommers (February 28, 2017). "'Shell knew': oil giant's 1991 film warned of climate change danger". The Guardian. Retrieved March 8, 2017. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Clifford Krauss (September 20, 2016). "S.E.C. Is Latest to Look Into Exxon
Exxon
Mobil's Workings". NYT. Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ Aruna Viswanatha and Bradley Olson (September 20, 2016). "SEC Probes Exxon
Exxon
Over Accounting for Climate Change; Probe also examines company's practice of not writing down the value of oil and gas reserves". WSJ. Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ Liam Denning (September 21, 2016). "Just Another Cloud In Exxon's Sky". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ Hiroko Tabuchi and Clifford Krauss (September 20, 2016). "A New Debate Over Pricing the Risks of Climate Change". NYT. Retrieved September 27, 2016.  ^ "How to deal with worries about stranded assets, Oil companies need to heed investors' concerns". The Economist. November 26, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.  ^ Clifford Krauss (October 28, 2016). " Exxon
Exxon
Concedes It May Need to Declare Lower Value for Oil in Ground". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2016.  ^ "Rex Tillerson, Exxon
Exxon
C.E.O., Chosen as Secretary of State". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr.
December 13, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016.  ^ David Hasemyer (January 5, 2017). "Federal Climate Investigation of Exxon
Exxon
Likely to Fizzle Under Trump". InsideClimate News. Retrieved January 31, 2017.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and Iran did business under Secretary of State nominee Tillerson". USA Today. Retrieved January 9, 2017.  ^ a b Driver, Anna (February 23, 2015). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
2014 reserves up on oil sands, shale". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ a b c d e " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp (XOM)". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Toweh, Alphonso (November 13, 2015). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
to drill offshore post-Ebola Liberia". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Bavier, Joe (December 17, 2014). "Ivory Coast signs deals with Exxon Mobil
Mobil
for two oil blocks". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Rabary, Lovasoa (July 4, 2015). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
ends oil exploration in Madagascar after poor finds -minister". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
in Talks to Restructure Stake in Japan Refining Unit". January 5, 2012.  ^ Okada, Yuji; Adelman, Jacob (January 30, 2012). "TonenGeneral to Buy Exxon
Exxon
Japan Refining, Marketing Unit for $3.9 Billion". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 30, 2012.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
chemicals: petrochemicals since 1886". ExxonMobil.com.  ^ "Infineum". Retrieved September 23, 2015.  ^ a b Hirtenstein, Anna (November 3, 2017). " Exxon
Exxon
Quietly Researching Hundreds of Green Projects". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 18, 2018.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
dethrones Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
atop Fortune 500". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 3, 2006. Retrieved May 9, 2007.  ^ " Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
returns to top of the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
list". MSNBC. Associated Press. April 16, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.  ^ Huliq.com Exxon Mobil
Mobil
2007 results. ^ "Page Not Found - Yahoo!". July 11, 2012. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012.  ^ "Top corporate quarterly earnings of all time". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Business Headquarters." ExxonMobil. Retrieved March 6, 2012. ^ Sarnoff, Nancy (January 28, 2010). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
is considering a move". Houston
Houston
Chronicle. Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
changes its mind about Houston." Houston
Houston
Business Journal. October 11, 2010. Retrieved October 13, 2010. ^ " Rex Tillerson
Rex Tillerson
to Retire, Darren Woods Elected Chairman, CEO of Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corporation Exxon Mobil
Mobil
News Releases". news.exxonmobil.com. Retrieved January 11, 2017.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp. Board of Directors". Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corp.  ^ "Big US Pension Fund Joins Critics Of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Climate Stance". Energy-daily.com. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "(PERI) THE TOXIC 100: Top Corporate Air Polluters in the United State". Peri.umass.edu. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ Mufson, Steven (April 2, 2008). "Familiar Back and Forth With Oil Executives". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "ERES: Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Shareholders Relying on Fumes". Heatisonline.org. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ Jerving, Sara; Jennings, Katie; Hirsch, Masako Melissa; Rust, Susanne (October 9, 2015). "What Exxon
Exxon
knew about the Earth's melting Arctic". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 21, 2015.  ^ a b Banerjee, Neela; Song, Lisa; Hasemyer, David (September 21, 2015). "Exxon's Own Research Confirmed Fossil Fuels' Role in Global Warming Decades Ago; Top executives were warned of possible catastrophe from greenhouse effect, then led efforts to block solutions". InsideClimate News. Retrieved October 14, 2015. Exxon helped to found and lead the Global Climate Coalition, an alliance of some of the world's largest companies seeking to halt government efforts to curb fossil fuel emissions.  ^ Lever-Tracy, Constance (2010). Routledge Handbook of Climate Change and Society. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 9780203876213. major figures from the US (such as Exxon Mobil, conservative think-tanks and leading contrarian scientists) have helped spread climate change denial to other nations.  ^ a b Monbiot, George (September 19, 2006). "The denial industry". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 20, 2016.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Acknowledges Climate Change Risk To Business For First Time". International Business Times. April 1, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2016.  ^ Hasemyer, David; Simison, Bob (December 31, 2015). "Exxon's Support of a Tax on Carbon: Rhetoric or Reality?". InsideClimate News. Retrieved January 15, 2016.  ^ "Smoke Mirrors & Hot Air: How Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Uses Big Tobacco's Tactics to Manufacture Uncertainty on Climate Science" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists. January 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2016.  ^ Schwartz, John (March 29, 2016). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Climate Change Inquiry in New York Gains Allies". The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2016.  ^ Volcovici, Valerie; Lynch, Sarah N. (March 29, 2016). "Probe of Exxon's climate change disclosures expands". Reuters. Retrieved April 15, 2016.  ^ Dennis, Brady (March 31, 2016). "Investigation broadens into whether Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
misled public, investors on climate change". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 15, 2016.  ^ "Western Gray Whales Get a Break From Noisy Oil Development". Environmental News Service. 2009-04-24. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ "Gray whales granted rare reprieve". BBC News. April 24, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
operations threaten endangered western gray whales in Russia". World Wild Fund. 2016-07-11. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ Sheridan, Kerry (2016-07-11). "Deal with oil giant helps near-extinct whale recover". phys.org. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2018-03-02.  ^ NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION V. EXXON MOBIL CORPORATION, New Jersey Superior Court, Union County, Law Division: http://www.documentcloud.org/documents/2300322-exxon-decision.html#document/p50/a236839 ^ Weise, Benjamin (February 27, 2017). " Exxon
Exxon
Settles $9 Billion Pollution Case in New Jersey for Far Less". The New York Times.  ^ "Christie Aide Took Political Trips Before Exxon
Exxon
Settlement - NJ Spotlight". Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Weiser, Benjamin (March 4, 2015). "Christie's Office Drove Exxon Settlement, Ex-Official Says". Retrieved January 15, 2018 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ O'Reilly, Cary (August 27, 2008). "Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Must Face Lawsuit by Indonesian Villagers". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Judge Dismisses Indonesians' Lawsuit Against Exxon".  ^ "Oozing success". The Economist. August 11, 2012. Retrieved March 19, 2015.  ^ a b c "Frequently asked questions about the Exxon
Exxon
Valdez Oil Spill". State of Alaska's Exxon
Exxon
Valdez Oil Spill Trustee. Archived from the original on September 25, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2007.  ^ "The 13 largest oil spills in history".  ^ " Alaska
Alaska
fishermen still struggling 21 years after Exxon
Exxon
spill". CNN. May 7, 2010.  ^ "Twenty Years Later, Impacts of the Exxon
Exxon
Valdez Linger - Yale E360". e360.yale.edu.  ^ Chameides, Bill (March 18, 2009). " Exxon
Exxon
Valdez 20 Years Later". Huffington Post.  ^ "CSR case studies in crisis management – Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and Exxon Valdez". Mallenbaker.net. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ The Baltimore Sun. "Even Renamed, Exxon
Exxon
Valdez can't Outlive Stain on its Past." October 15, 2002.[1] ^ " Exxon
Exxon
seeks Supreme Court review of oil-spill fine". Seattle Times. August 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.  ^ Nightingale, Alaric; Tony Hopfinger (March 24, 2009). "Valdez Ghost Haunts Exxon
Exxon
With Spill-Prone Ships (Update2) - Bloomberg". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ "Cuomo sues Exxon Mobil
Mobil
over catastrophik Greenpoint oil spil". July 7, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.  ^ "Newton Creek/ Greenpoint oil spill
Greenpoint oil spill
study, Brookly, New York" (PDF). September 12, 2007. p. 4. Retrieved October 24, 2007.  ^ "Greenpoint Petroleum
Petroleum
Remediation Project – NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation". Dec.ny.gov. Archived from the original on June 27, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Newton Creek/ Greenpoint oil spill
Greenpoint oil spill
study, Brookly, New York" (PDF). September 12, 2007. p. 23. Retrieved October 24, 2007.  ^ [2] Reuters, April 30, 2012 ^ Wold, Amy. "La. DEQ demands timeline on spill from ExxonMobil". Article. The Advocate. Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013.  ^ a b "La. DEQ demands timeline on spill from Exxon Mobil
Mobil
- Home - The Advocate — Baton Rouge, LA". Archived from the original on May 2, 2013.  ^ a b "DEQ investigates spill - Home - The Advocate — Baton Rouge, LA". Archived from the original on May 2, 2013.  ^ a b "Plant neighbors complain of ailments - Home - The Advocate — Baton Rouge, LA". Archived from the original on May 1, 2013.  ^ a b Ruptured Pipeline Spills Oil Into Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
New York Times, July 2, 2011 ^ [3] US Department of Transportation October 30, 2012 ^ Hennesy-Fiske, Moll (July 4, 2011). " Yellowstone River
Yellowstone River
oil spill outrages Montana residents". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2011.  ^ Spill sends 40 km oil slick into river Herald Sun July 3, 2011 ^ a b Stempel, Jonathan (August 12, 2015). "Judge approves Exxon
Exxon
Mobil settlement over 2013 Arkansas spill". Reuters. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ " Exxon
Exxon
cleans up Arkansas oil spill; Keystone plan assailed". Reuters. March 31, 2013.  ^ Schwirtz, Michael (March 30, 2013). " Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Pipeline Ruptures in Central Arkansas". The New York Times. 

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Bender, Rob, and Tammy Cannoy-Bender. An Unauthorized Guide to: Mobil Collectibles – Chasing the Red Horse. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1999. Exxon
Exxon
Corp. Century of Discovery: An Exxon
Exxon
Album. 1982. Gibb, George S., and Evelyn H. Knowlton. The Resurgent Years, 1911–1927: History of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1956. Hidy, Ralph W., and Muriel E. Hidy. Pioneering in Big Business, 1882–1911: History of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1955. Larson, Henrietta M., and Kenneth Wiggins Porter. History of Humble Oil & Refining Co.: A Study in Industrial Growth. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1959. Larson, Henrietta M., Evelyn H. Knowlton, and Charles S. Popple. New Horizons, 1927–1950: History of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. (New Jersey). New York: Harper & Row, 1971. McIntyre, J. Sam. The Esso
Esso
Collectibles Handbook: Memorabilia from Standard Oil
Standard Oil
of New Jersey. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing Co., 1998. Sampson, Anthony. The Seven Sisters: The 100-year Battle for the World's Oil Supply. New York: Bantom Books, 1991. Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. (New Jersey). Ships of the Esso
Esso
Fleet in World War II. 1946. Tarbell, Ida M. All in a Day’s Work: An Autobiography.. New York: The MacMillan Co., 1939. Tarbell, Ida M., and David Mark Chalmers. The History of the Standard Oil Co.. New York: Harper & Row, 1966. Wall, Bennett H. Growth in a Changing Environment: A History of Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Co. (New Jersey) 1950–1972 and Exxon
Exxon
Corp. (1972–1975). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1988. Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Further reading[edit]

Coll, Steve (2012). Private Empire: Exxon Mobil
Mobil
and American Power. New York, NY: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-594-20335-0.  Painter, David S. (1987). Private Power and Public Policy: Multinational Oil Corporations and United States
United States
Foreign Policy, 1941–1954. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-850-43021-6.  Pratt, Joseph A. (2012). " Exxon
Exxon
and the Control of Oil". The Journal of American History. 99 (1): 145–154. doi:10.1093/jahist/jas149. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ExxonMobil.

Official website

Business data for Exxon
Exxon
Mobil
Mobil
Corporation: Google Finance Yahoo! Finance Reuters SEC filings

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138189733 ISNI: 0000 0004 1112 1641 GND: 10010088-0

v t e

ExxonMobil

Divisions

Aera Energy Esso Esso
Esso
Australia Exxon Exxon
Exxon
Neftegas Humble Oil Imperial Oil Magnolia Petroleum
Petroleum
Company Mobil Mobil
Mobil
Producing Nigeria Petron SeaRiver Maritime Superior Oil Company Syncrude Vacuum Oil Company XTO Energy

People

Michael Boskin Larry R. Faulkner William W. George James R. Houghton Samuel J. Palmisano Lee R. Raymond John D. Rockefeller Walter V. Shipley Walter C. Teagle Rex Tillerson

Facilities

Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
Refinery Baytown Refinery Milford Haven Exxon
Exxon
Building (New York) Fawley Refinery Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
Building Mossmorran Nanticoke Refinery

Controversies

Accusations of Exxon Mobil
Mobil
human rights violations in Indonesia Allison v. Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Corp. Exxon
Exxon
Corp. v Exxon
Exxon
Insurance Consultants International Ltd Exxon Mobil
Mobil
climate change controversy Kivalina v. Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Corporation Oil Pollution Act of 1990

Oil spills

2010 Exxon Mobil
Mobil
oil spill 2010 Port Arthur oil spill 2013 Mayflower oil spill Exxon
Exxon
Valdez oil spill Greenpoint oil spill SS Atlantic Empress SS Esso
Esso
Brussels

Brands

Coolanol Enco Hefty Mobil
Mobil
1 On the Run Speedpass

Oil and gas fields

Colony Shale Oil Project East-Prinovozemelsky field Goose Creek Oil Field Kearl Oil Sands Project Kizomba deepwater project Ormen Lange Pembina oil field Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Sable Offshore Energy Project Sakhalin-I Tengiz Field Tern oilfield Tuapse field West Qurna Field

Other

Exxon Mobil
Mobil
Electrofrac Mobil
Mobil
Showcase Network Save the Tiger Fund

v t e

Petroleum
Petroleum
industry

Petroleum Primary energy

Benchmarks

Argus Sour Bonny Light Brent Dubai Indian Basket Indonesian Isthmus-34 Light Japan Cocktail OPEC
OPEC
Reference Basket Tapis Urals West Texas
Texas
Intermediate Western Canadian Select

Data

Natural gas

Consumption Production Reserves Imports Exports Price

Petroleum

Consumption Production Reserves Imports Exports Price (of gasoline and diesel)

Exploration

Core sampling Geophysics Integrated asset modelling Petroleum
Petroleum
engineering

Reservoir simulation Seismic to simulation

Petroleum
Petroleum
geology Petrophysics Reflection seismology (Seismic inversion) Seismic source

Drilling

Blowout Completion (Squeeze job) Differential sticking Directional drilling (Geosteering) Drilling engineering Drilling fluid (invasion) Drill stem test Lost circulation Measurement Tracers Underbalanced drilling Well logging

Production

Petroleum
Petroleum
fiscal regime

Concessions Production sharing agreements

Artificial lift

Pumpjack Submersible pump
Submersible pump
(ESP) Gas lift

Downstream Enhanced oil recovery
Enhanced oil recovery
(EOR)

Steam injection Gas reinjection

Midstream Petroleum
Petroleum
product Pipeline transport Refining Upstream Water injection Well intervention XT

History

1967 Oil Embargo 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1980s oil glut 1990 oil price shock 2000s energy crisis 2010s oil glut Founders History of the petroleum industry Nationalization OPEC GECF Seven Sisters Standard Oil Oil market timelines

Provinces and fields

List of natural gas fields List of oil fields East Midlands Oil Province East Texas Gulf of Mexico Niger Delta North Sea Permian Basin Persian Gulf Prudhoe Bay Oil Field Russia Venezuela Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Other topics

Acronyms Oil shale
Oil shale
gas Peak oil

mitigation timing

People Petrocurrency Petrodollar recycling Shale band Shale gas Swing producer Unconventional oil

heavy crude oil sands oil shale

Companies and organisations

Major petroleum companies

Supermajors

BP Chevron Eni ExxonMobil Royal Dutch Shell Total

National oil companies

ADNOC (UAE) CNOOC (China) CNPC (China) Ecopetrol
Ecopetrol
(Colombia) Gazprom
Gazprom
(Russia) Iraq National Oil Company Indian Oil Corporation KazMunayGas
KazMunayGas
(Kazakhstan) Kuwait Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation Lotos (Poland) Nigerian National Petroleum
Petroleum
Corporation NIOC (Iran) NISOC (Iran) OGDCL (Pakistan) ONGC (India) PDVSA
PDVSA
(Venezuela) PKN Orlen
PKN Orlen
(Poland) Pemex
Pemex
(Mexico) Pertamina
Pertamina
(Indonesia) PetroBangla (Bangladesh) Petrobras
Petrobras
(Brazil) PetroChina Petronas
Petronas
(Malaysia) Petrovietnam PTT (Thailand) Qatar Petroleum Rosneft
Rosneft
(Russia) Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco
(Saudi Arabia) Sinopec
Sinopec
(China) SOCAR
SOCAR
(Azerbaijan) Sonangol (Angola) Sonatrach
Sonatrach
(Algeria) Statoil
Statoil
(Norway) TPAO (Turkey) YPF
YPF
(Argentina)

Energy trading

Glencore Gunvor Mercuria Naftiran Intertrade Trafigura Vitol

Other

Anadarko Apache BG Group Cenovus Energy Compañía Española de Petróleos ConocoPhillips Devon Galp Energia Hess Husky Energy Imperial Oil JXTG Holdings Lukoil Marathon Oil Occidental OMV Port Harcourt Refining Company Reliance Industries Repsol Suncor Energy Surgutneftegas TNK-BP Tullow Oil Tüpraş

Major services companies

Amec Foster Wheeler Baker Hughes Cameron CGG CH2M Hill Chicago Bridge & Iron Company China Oilfield Services Enbridge Ensco GE Oil & Gas Halliburton Nabors Industries Naftiran Intertrade National Oilwell Varco Petrofac Saipem Schlumberger Snam Subsea 7 TransCanada Transocean Weatherford Wood Group

Other

International Association of Oil & Gas Producers International Energy Agency International Petroleum
Petroleum
Exchange OPEC Society of Petroleum
Petroleum
Engineers World Petroleum
Petroleum
Council

Category  Commons

v t e

Components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

3M American Express Apple Boeing Caterpillar Chevron Cisco Systems Coca-Cola Disney DowDuPont ExxonMobil General Electric Goldman Sachs The Home Depot Intel IBM Johnson & Johnson JPMorgan Chase McDonald's Merck & Co. Microsoft Nike Pfizer Procter & Gamble Travelers UnitedHealth Group United Technologies Verizon Communica

.