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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Unification victory; Collapse of the Two Sicilies ; Papal States
Papal States
reduced to Latium ;

------------------------- Kingdom of Italy
Italy
created; (est. 17 March 1861)

Territorial changes Sicily, Southern Italy, Marche and Umbria ceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia

BELLIGERENTS

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Red Shirts Southern Army Sardinia Two Sicilies Papal States
Papal States

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

VICTOR EMMANUEL II Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Enrico Cialdini FRANCIS II Giosuè Ritucci Lukas von Mechel

PIUS IX Juchault de Lamoricière

* v * t * e

Expedition of the Thousand
Expedition of the Thousand

* Calatafimi * Palermo
Palermo
* Milazzo * Reggio * Castelfidardo * Volturno
Volturno
* Gaeta

The EXPEDITION OF THE THOUSAND (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento
Risorgimento
that took place in 1860. A corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
sailed from Quarto, near Genoa (now Quarto dei Mille and landed in Marsala
Marsala
, Sicily
Sicily
in order to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
, ruled by the Bourbons
Bourbons
.

The project was an ambitious and risky venture aiming to conquer, with a thousand men, a kingdom with a larger regular army and a more powerful navy. The expedition was a success and concluded with a plebiscite that brought Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
into the Kingdom of Sardinia , the last territorial conquest before the creation of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
on 17 March 1861.

The sea venture was the only desired action that was jointly decided by the "four fathers of the nation" Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini
, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II , and Camillo Cavour
Camillo Cavour
, pursuing divergent goals. However, the Expedition was instigated by Francesco Crispi , who utilized his political influence to bolster the Italian unification project.

The various groups participated in the expedition for a variety of reasons: for Garibaldi, it was to achieve a united Italy; to the Sicilian bourgeoisie, an independent Sicily
Sicily
as part of the kingdom of Italy, and for the mass farmers, land distribution and the end of oppression.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Search for a casus belli

* 2 The expedition

* 2.1 The Red Shirts * 2.2 Landing in Sicily
Sicily
* 2.3 Calatafimi and Palermo
Palermo
* 2.4 Neapolitan retreat and Battle of Milazzo * 2.5 Landing and conquest in Calabria
Calabria
* 2.6 The end

* 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Sources

BACKGROUND

The events of the Expedition took place within the overall process of the unification of Italy
Italy
, which was largely orchestrated by Camillo Cavour , Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont , as his life's work. After the annexation of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
, the Duchies of Modena and Parma and the Romagna
Romagna
to Piedmont in March 1860, Italian nationalists set their sights on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which comprised all of southern mainland Italy
Italy
and Sicily, as the next step toward their dream of unification of all Italian lands.

In 1860 Garibaldi, already the most famous Italian revolutionary leader, was in Genoa
Genoa
planning an expedition against Sicily
Sicily
and Naples, with the covert support of the United Kingdom . Sicilian leaders, among them Francesco Crispi , were discontented with Neapolitan rule over the island. Moreover, Britain was worried by the approaches of the Neapolitans towards the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in the latter's attempt to open its way to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
; the strategic importance of the Sicilian ports was also to be dramatically increased by the opening of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
. It has been also suggested (by Lorenzo del Boca, among the others) that British support for Garibaldi's expedition was spurred by the necessity to obtain more favourable economic conditions for Sicilian sulfur , which was needed in great quantities for the new steamers.

SEARCH FOR A CASUS BELLI

The Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont needed a presentable casus belli in order to attack the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. This was needed for the House of Savoy, which however never gave any declaration of war against the Bourbon kingdom, a necessary condition, since this was among the requirements presented to Cavour. The only occurrence that would have satisfied this requirement was an uprising from within. Such an event would have felt the alienation of the people to the dynasty that ruled in Naples
Naples
and, particularly, the inability of Francis of Bourbon, to ensure, in forms acceptable public policy in their domains. Sicily, as shown by the history of the past decades, was fertile ground, and the liberal south, especially those returning after an amnesty granted by the young King, who worked in this direction for some time.

THE EXPEDITION

RED SHIRT volunteers of the Thousand from Brescia
Brescia
, Lombardy (1860), hand-colored The steamship, Piemonte, one of the two steamships, that transported the Thousand to Sicily
Sicily

THE RED SHIRTS

In March 1860, exile Rosolino Pilo exhorted Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
to take charge of an expedition to liberate Southern Italy
Italy
from Bourbon rule. At first, Garibaldi was against it, but eventually agreed. By May 1860, Garibaldi had collected 1,089 volunteers for his expedition to Sicily.

The largest number of volunteers came from Lombardy
Lombardy
(434 volunteers). Other significant numbers of volunteers came from occupied Venetia (194 volunteers) Genoa
Genoa
(156 volunteers) and Tuscany
Tuscany
(78 volunteers).

There were about 45 Sicilian volunteers and 46 Neapolitan volunteers - but only 11 from Rome
Rome
and the Papal States
Papal States
. Thirty three (33) foreigners joined the expedition; amongst them István Türr and three other Hungarians
Hungarians
and fourteen (14) Italians from the Trentino
Trentino
of the Austrian Empire . The majority of the volunteers were students and artisans from the lower classes.

The 1,089 volunteers were poorly armed with dated muskets and were dressed in a minimalist uniform - consisting of a RED SHIRT and grey trousers.

During the night of 5 May, a small group led by Nino Bixio seized two steamships in Genoa
Genoa
from the Rubattino shipping company in order to transport the volunteers to Sicily. They took the two ships, which they had renamed Il Piemonte and Il Lombardo, to the nearby rocks at Quarto dei Mille , Genoa
Genoa
, where the volunteers (including Franceso Crispi\'s wife, Rosalia) embarked for Sicily.

LANDING IN SICILY

Francesco Crispi

The ships landed at Marsala
Marsala
, on the westernmost point of Sicily, on 11 May, with the help of British ships present in the harbour to deter the Bourbon ships. The Lombardo was attacked and sunk only after the disembarkation had been completed, while the Piemonte was captured. The landing had been preceded by the arrival of Francesco Crispi and others, who had the task of gaining the support of the locals for the volunteers.

On 14 May, at Salemi , Garibaldi announced that he was assuming dictatorship over Sicily
Sicily
in the name of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia.

CALATAFIMI AND PALERMO

Main article: Battle of Calatafimi
Battle of Calatafimi

The Mille won a first battle at Calatafimi against around 2,000 Neapolitan troops on 15 May. The battle boosted the morale of the Mille and, at the same time, depressed the Neapolitans, who were poorly led by their often corrupted higher officers, and started to feel themselves abandoned. Having promised land to every male who volunteered to fight against the Bourbons
Bourbons
the ranks of the Mille enlarged to 1,200 with local men. On 27 May, with the help of a popular insurrection, the Mille laid siege to Palermo
Palermo
, the island's capital. The city was defended by some 16,000 men, but these were under the confused and timid direction of general Ferdinando Lanza , aged 75 (probably one of the Neapolitan officers bribed with English money.

While two columns of Garibaldines attacked the perimeter, part of the population, strengthened by 2,000 prisoners liberated from the local jails, rose against the garrison. When his troops were driven back from most of their positions, Lanza ordered them to bombard the city for three days, causing the deaths of 600 civilians. By 28 May Garibaldi controlled much of the city and declared the Bourbon authority deposed. The following day a desperate Neapolitan counteroffensive was driven back, and Lanza asked for a truce. However, when a reinforcement party of well equipped and well trained troops arrived in the city, the situation became very serious for Garibaldi, who was saved only by Lanza's decision to surrender. Through the mediation of a British admiral, an armistice was signed and the Neapolitan fleet abandoned the port.

*

Battle of Calatafimi
Battle of Calatafimi
*

The thousand cross the "Admiral\'s Bridge " in Palermo
Palermo
*

Garibaldi marches through liberated Palermo
Palermo

NEAPOLITAN RETREAT AND BATTLE OF MILAZZO

Main article: Battle of Milazzo (1860) Lithograph
Lithograph
of Garibaldi and his Red Shirts at the Battle of Milazzo .

The Bourbon troops were ordered to retreat eastwards and evacuate the island. An insurrection that had broken out in Catania
Catania
on 31 May, led by Nicola Fabrizi , was crushed by the local garrison, but the order to leave for Messina
Messina
meant that this Neapolitan tactical success would have no practical results.

At the time only Syracuse , Augusta , Milazzo and Messina
Messina
remained in royal hands in Sicily. In the meantime Garibaldi issued his first law. A levy failed to muster more than 20,000 troops, while the peasants, who hoped to an immediate relief from the grievous conditions to which they were forced by the landowners, revolted in several localities. At Bronte , on 4 August 1860, Garibaldi's friend Nino Bixio bloodily repressed one of these revolts with two battalions of Redshirts.

The pace of Garibaldi's victories had worried Cavour, who in early July sent him a proposal of immediate annexation of Sicily
Sicily
to Piedmont. Garibaldi, however, refused vehemently to allow such a move until the end of the war. Cavour's envoy, La Farina, was arrested and expelled from the island. He was replaced by the more malleable Agostino Depretis , who gained Garibaldi's trust and was appointed as pro-dictator.

On 25 June 1860, King Francis II of the Two Sicilies had issued a constitution. However, this late attempt to conciliate his moderate subjects failed to rouse them to defend the regime, while liberals and revolutionaries were eager to welcome Garibaldi.

At the time, Garibaldi had created the Esercito Meridionale ("Southern Army"), reinforced by other volunteers from Italy
Italy
and some regular Piedmontese soldiers disguised as "deserters". The Neapolitans had mustered some 24,000 men for the defence of Messina
Messina
and the other fortresses.

On 20 July Garibaldi attacked Milazzo with 5,000 men. The Neapolitan defence was gallant, but again the absence of coordination and the refusal of Marshal Clary, commander-in-chief of the army in the island, to send reinforcements from Messina
Messina
granted the Mille another victory. Six days later Clary surrendered the city of Messina
Messina
to Garibaldi, leaving only 4,000 in the citadel and other forts. The other strongholds surrendered by the end of September.

LANDING AND CONQUEST IN CALABRIA

On 19 August Garibaldi's men disembarked in Calabria
Calabria
, a move opposed by Cavour, who had written the Dictator a letter urging him to not cross the strait . Garibaldi, however, disobeyed, an act which had the silent approval of King Victor Emmanuel.

The Bourbons
Bourbons
had some 20,000 men in Calabria, but, apart from some episodes like that of Reggio Calabria
Calabria
, which was conquered at high cost by Bixio on 21 August, they offered insignificant resistance, as numerous units of the Bourbon army disbanded spontaneously or even joined Garibaldi's ranks. On 30 August a conspicuous Sicilian army, led by general Ghio, was officially disbanded at Soveria Mannelli , while only minor and dispersed units continued the fight. The Neapolitan fleet behaved in a similar way.

THE END

Main article: Battle of Volturnus (1860)

King Francis II was thus forced to abandon Naples
Naples
and entrench himself in the formidable fortress of Gaeta , while a last stand was set up on the Volturno
Volturno
river, north of Naples. On 7 September Garibaldi took possession of Naples
Naples
with little harm (he entered the city by train), hailed as a liberator by the population.

In the meantime the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
invaded the Papal States conquering Central Italy
Italy
( Lazio
Lazio
excluded) through few battles such as the Battle of Castelfidardo , and entered the Kingdom of Two Sicilies joining Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
.

In the indecisive Battle of the Volturnus (1 and 2 October ), Garibaldi, with a force of 24,000 men, was not able to conclusively defeat the Neapolitan Army (about 25,000 men). Only the arrival of the Sardinian army obliged the last organized Bourbon force to entrench in Gaeta.

A few days later (21 October) a plebiscite confirmed the annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
by an overwhelming majority.

The end of the expedition is traditionally set with the famous meeting in Teano (northern Campania ) between Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi (26 October 1860). Others assign instead the end of the campaign to the King's entrance into Naples
Naples
on 7 November.

However, the military campaign was not yet fully completed, as Francis II held out in Gaeta until February of the next year, when he finally surrendered to the Sardinian army led by Enrico Cialdini , and left for exile in the Papal States
Papal States
. Shortly thereafter, in March 1861, the new Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Regno d'Italia) was formally established.

Garibaldi asked the King to remain in the former Two Sicilies for a year as dictator. He also asked that his officers be integrated in the new Italian Army. When Victor Emmanuel refused to accept his requests, he returned to Caprera .

*

Garibaldi captures Reggio , 21 August 1860 *

Garibaldi marching into Naples
Naples
on horseback, 7 September 1860 *

Battle of Volturnus , 1 October 1860 *

Meeting between King Victor Emmanuel II and Garibaldi at Teano , 26 October 1860

LEGACY

Giuseppe Barboglio a RED SHIRT volunteer of the Thousand wearing the MARSALA MEDAL

The Expedition of the Thousand
Expedition of the Thousand
has traditionally been one of the most celebrated events of the Italian Risorgimento
Risorgimento
, the process of the unification of Italy.

In the following years, the rise of local resistance (the so-called brigantaggio or brigandage), required at one point the presence of some 140,000 Piedmontese troops to maintain control of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Traditionally, the handling of the brigantaggio has received a negative judgement by Italian historians, in strict contrast with the heroism attributed to Garibaldi and his followers; the English historian Denis Mack Smith , for example, points out the deficiencies and reticence of the sources available for the period 1861-1946 , but the same historian also pointed out the backwardness of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
at the time of the unification, , .

The expedition, moreover, obtained the support of the powerful great landowners of southern Italy
Italy
in exchange for the promise that their properties be left intact in the upcoming political settlement. Numerous Sicilian peasants, however, had joined the Mille hoping instead for a redistribution of the land to the people working it. The consequences of this misunderstanding became evident at Bronte.

SEE ALSO

* Brigandage in Southern Italy
Italy
after 1861 * Siege of Gaeta (1860)

NOTES

* ^ Christopher Duggan (2000). Creare la nazione. Vita di Francesco Crispi. Laterza. * ^ Del Boca, Maledetti Savoia * ^ Lorenzo Del Boca, Maledetti Savoia, see chapter Il copyright inglese * ^ Gigi Di Fiore (it), I vinti del Risorgimento, Utet, Torino, 2004, p. 99. * ^ Giacinto de\' Sivo (it), Storia delle Due Sicilie 1847–1861, Edizioni Trabant, 2009, p. 331. * ^ A B C Bouchard, Norma (2005). Risorgimento
Risorgimento
In Modern Italian Culture. Cranbury. * ^ A B C D Trevelyan, George Macaulay (1912). Garibaldi and the Thousand. London. * ^ A B Riall, Lucy (2007). Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero. Yale University Press. * ^ A B C D Richter, Ronald (2011). Garibaldis "Zug der Tausend" in der Darstellung der deutschen Presse. Frankfurt. * ^ Joseph Conrad Society (2007). The Conradian: Vol.32-33. United Kingdom. * ^ Gelso, Aldo (2009). Events in Sicily. USA. * ^ Ridley, Jasper Godwin (1976). Garibaldi. New York. * ^ Chambers, Osborne William (1864). Garibaldi and Italian unity. London. * ^ These were: Stromboli (steam corvette), Valoroso (brigandine), Partenope (sail frigate) and the armed steamer Capri. The British had the two gunboats Argus and Intrepid. * ^ Riall, Lucy (1998-03-12). Sicily
Sicily
and the Unification of Italy: Liberal Policy and Local Power, 1859-1866. Clarendon Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780191542619 . * ^ Effective date of the end of the fightings is debated. * ^ Other sources (including Del Boca) set the location of the meeting at Taverna della Catena (it), in territory of the modern comune of Vairano Patenora . * ^ Denis Mack Smith, Italy
Italy
and Its Monarchy. * ^ Denis Mack Smith , I re d'Italia, Rizzoli , 1990 * ^ Italy: a modern history – Denis Mack Smith –University of Michigan – 1959 – page 3

* ^

This difference between North and South was fundamental. A peasant from Calabria
Calabria
had little in common with one from Piedmont, and Turin was infinitely more like Pans and London than Naples
Naples
and Palermo, for these two halves were on quite different levels of civilization. Poets might write of the South as the garden of the world, the land of Sybaris and Capri, and stay-at-home politicians sometimes believed them; but in fact most southerners lived in squalor, afflicted by drought, malaria, and earthquakes. The Bourbon rulers of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
before 1860 had been staunch supporters of a feudal system glamorized by the trappings of a courtly and corrupt society. They had feared the traffic of ideas and had tried to keep their subjects insulated from the agricultural and industrial revolutions of northern Europe. Roads were scanty or nonexistent, and passports necessary even for internal travel. In the “annus mirabilis” of 1860 these backward regions were conquered by Garibaldi and annexed by plebiscite to the North. — Italy: a modern history – Denis Mack Smith - page 3

SOURCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SPEDIZIONE DEI MILLE .

* Abba, Giuseppe Cesare (1880). Da Quarto al Volturno. Noterelle di uno dei Mille. * Banti, Anna (1967). Noi credevamo. * Bianciardi, Luciano (1969). Daghela avanti un passo. Bietti. * Del Boca, Lorenzo (1998). Maledetti Savoia. Piemme. * Mack Smith, Denis (1990). Italy
Italy
and Its Monarchy. * Zitara, Nicola (1971). L'unità d’Italia. Nascita di una colonia.

* v * t * e

Italian unification Risorgimento
Risorgimento

WARS AND REVOLTS

* Revolutions of 1820 * Revolutions of 1830 * Revolutions of 1848 * First Italian War of Independence
First Italian War of Independence
* Crimean War * Second Italian War of Independence * Expedition of the Thousand * Third Italian War of Independence * Capture of Rome
Rome

MAIN LEADERS

* Bettino Ricasoli
Bettino Ricasoli
* Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour * Carlo Cattaneo
Carlo Cattaneo
* Daniele Manin * Francesco Crispi * Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
* Giuseppe Mazzini
Giuseppe Mazzini
* Ruggero Settimo
Ruggero Settimo
* Victor Emmanuel II

OPPONENTS

* Pope Pius IX * Franz Joseph I of Austria * Francis II of the Two Sicilies * Klemens von Metternich
Klemens von Metternich
* Joseph Radetzky von Radetz

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