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An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

Contents

1 Definition 2 Origin 3 Disputes

3.1 Potential disputes 3.2 Resolved disputes

4 Transboundary stocks 5 By country

5.1 Argentina 5.2 Australia 5.3 Brazil 5.4 Canada 5.5 Chile 5.6 China 5.7 Cyprus 5.8 Denmark 5.9 France 5.10 Greece 5.11 India 5.12 Israel 5.13 Japan 5.14 Mexico 5.15 New Zealand 5.16 Norway 5.17 Philippines 5.18 Poland 5.19 Portugal 5.20 Russia 5.21 Somalia 5.22 South Africa 5.23 South Korea 5.24 United Kingdom 5.25 United States

6 Rankings by area 7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 External links

Definition[edit]

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370.4 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone. Origin[edit] The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century. Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nautical miles or 6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nautical miles (~22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States
United States
in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile
Chile
and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6] It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted. Disputes[edit] The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Norway
Norway
and Russia
Russia
dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard
Svalbard
archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[7] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on September 15, 2010.[8] The South China Sea
South China Sea
(and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations. Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy
Italy
and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union. A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea
Beaufort Sea
is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves. France
France
claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon
Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon
is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ. Mauritius
Mauritius
claims EEZ for Tromelin
Tromelin
from France
France
and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK. Turkey
Turkey
claims Cyprus
Cyprus
is only entitled to a 12 nautical mile EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey
Turkey
is entitled to, resulting in an area to the south of Cyprus, containing an offshore gas field, being claimed by both states. Cyprus
Cyprus
recognizes neither the land nor sea claims of the Northern Cyprus, which was created by a Turkish invasion.[9][10] Lebanon
Lebanon
claims that the agreement between Cyprus
Cyprus
and Israel
Israel
overlapped its own EEZ.

Potential disputes[edit] Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[11] Resolved disputes[edit]

The Cod Wars
Cod Wars
between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Iceland
Iceland
occurred periodically over many centuries, until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976. In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen
Yemen
and Eritrea
Eritrea
should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.[12][13] In 2009, in a dispute between Romania
Romania
and Ukraine
Ukraine
over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.[14]

Transboundary stocks[edit] See also: Highly migratory species Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[15] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[16] By country[edit] Argentina[edit]

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine
Argentine
reaches 6 581 500 km²

Australia[edit]

Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

See also: Australia– Indonesia
Indonesia
border, Timor Sea Treaty, and Australian Whale Sanctuary Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia
Australia
and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[17][18] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia
Australia
has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France
France
and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory. The United Nations
United Nations
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[19][20] Australia
Australia
also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[21] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[20]

EEZ Area (km2)[20]

Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722

 Christmas Island 463,371

 Cocos Islands 325,021

 Norfolk Island 428,618

Macquarie Island 471,837

Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681

Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]

Total 10,148,250

Brazil[edit]

Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZ Area (km2)[22]

 Brazil 2 400 917

Fernando de Noronha 363 362

St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636

Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599

Total 3 646 514

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[23] Canada[edit]

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada
Canada
is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[24] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
(about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago. Chile[edit]

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[25] Land area Total

Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517

Desventuradas 449 836

Easter 720 412 164 720 576

Juan Fernandez 502 524

Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

There is a dispute with Peru
Peru
over the extent of Chile's EEZ: Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute China[edit]

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:   China's EEZ 877,019 km2   EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan   EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others 3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus[edit]

Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
between Israel
Israel
and Cyprus
Cyprus
as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus
Cyprus
covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel
Israel
and Lebanon
Lebanon
Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia
Nicosia
in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[26] Cyprus
Cyprus
and Israel
Israel
as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece
Greece
and then to the rest of Europe
Europe
or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel
Israel
and then leading to Greece
Greece
via Cyprus.[27][28] Denmark[edit]

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland
Greenland
and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[29] Land area Total

 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083

 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394

 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340

Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

France[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France
France
possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States
United States
is the second largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France
France
covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[20] Land area Total

 Metropolitan France 334,604 551,695 886,299

 French Guiana 133,949 83,846 217,795

 Guadeloupe 95,978 1,628 97,606

 Martinique 47,640 1,128 48,768

 Réunion 315,058 2,512 317,570

 French Polynesia 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409

 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12,334 242 12,576

 Mayotte 63,078 376 63,454

 Wallis and Futuna 258,269 264 258,533

 Saint-Martin 1,000 53 1,053

 Saint-Barthélemy 4,000 21 4,021

 New Caledonia 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118

 Clipperton Island 431,263 6 431,269

Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910

Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947

Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161

Tromelin
Tromelin
Island 270,455 1 270,456

Total 11,691,000 675,417 12,366,417

Greece[edit] Greece
Greece
has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[30] According to published maps, the Israel
Israel
government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece
Greece
and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel
Israel
recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece
Greece
can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[31] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel
Israel
has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[32] India[edit]

India's exclusive economic zones

Mainland India
India
and Lakshadweep, 1,641,514 km2 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 663,629 km2 Total: 2,305,143 km2

India
India
is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[33] Israel[edit] In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus
Cyprus
concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel
Israel
and Cyprus
Cyprus
at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau
Uzi Landau
and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources. Japan[edit]

Japan's exclusive economic zones:   Japan's EEZ   Joint regime with Republic of Korea   EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Minami-Tori-shima: 428,875 km2 Ogasawara Islands: 862,782 km2 Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
(Japan): 1,162,334 km2 Ryukyu Islands: 1,394,676 km2 Sea of Japan: 630,721 km2 Sea of Okhotsk: little Total: 4,479,358

Japan
Japan
has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China
China
and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[34][35] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims. Japan
Japan
also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications. Mexico[edit]

Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico
Mexico
among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[36] New Zealand[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of New Zealand

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2,[37][38] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[39] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand
New Zealand
(Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency). Norway[edit]

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway
Norway
has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen.[40] In April 2009, the United Nations
United Nations
Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway
Norway
and Russia
Russia
both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[41]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total

Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284

Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576

Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491

Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053

Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

Philippines[edit]

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines
Philippines
shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2[42] Poland[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of Poland The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 within the Baltic Sea.[43] Portugal[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of Portugal

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[44]

Portugal
Portugal
has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Continental Portugal
Portugal
327,667 km2 Azores
Azores
953,633 km2 Madeira
Madeira
446,108 km2 Total : 1,727,408 km2

Portugal
Portugal
submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[45] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website. Spain
Spain
disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira
Madeira
and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands
Savage Islands
do not have a separate continental shelf,[46] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[47] Russia[edit]

Russia's exclusive economic zone

Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 Barents Sea – 1,308,140 Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 Pacific – 3,419,202 Siberia – 3,277,292 Total – 8,095,881 km2[48]

Somalia[edit] Main article: Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of Somalia

Somalia's exclusive economic zone

825,052 km2

South Africa[edit]

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[49]

Mainland – 1,068,659 km2 Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea[edit]

South Korean exclusive economic zone:   Korean EEZ   EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea, disputed by Japan   Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom[edit]

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in blue, including the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica
Antarctica
is shown in shaded blue.[50]

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[51] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago
Chagos archipelago
also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius
Mauritius
which considers the EEZ as part of its territory. Only the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
are part of the EU. The Channel Islands, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar
Gibraltar
or the Sovereign Base Areas
Sovereign Base Areas
in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[49]

Territory km2 sq mi Notes

United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall
Rockall
and the Isle of Man

Anguilla 92,178 35,590

Ascension Island† 441,658 170,525

Bermuda 450,370 173,890

British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius

British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933

Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999

Channel Islands 11,658 4,501

Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina

Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain

Montserrat 7,582 2,927

Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823

Saint Helena† 444,916 171,783

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina

Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
archipelago† 754,720 291,400

Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486

Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km. United States[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[52]

Alaska
Alaska
– 3,770,021 km2 (1,455,613 sq mi) Hawaii
Hawaii
– Northwest Islands – 1,579,538 km2 (609,863 sq mi) U.S. East Coast
U.S. East Coast
– 915,763 km2 (353,578 sq mi) Hawaii
Hawaii
– Main Islands – 895,346 km2 (345,695 sq mi) U.S. West Coast
U.S. West Coast
– 825,549 km2 (318,746 sq mi) Northern Marianas
Northern Marianas
– 749,268 km2 (289,294 sq mi) Mainland Gulf Coast – 707,832 km2 (273,295 sq mi) Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
– 442,635 km2 (170,902 sq mi) Howland and Baker Islands – 434,921 km2 (167,924 sq mi) Wake Island
Wake Island
– 407,241 km2 (157,237 sq mi) American Samoa
American Samoa
– 404,391 km2 (156,136 sq mi) Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll
and Kingman Reef
Kingman Reef
– 352,300 km2 (136,000 sq mi) Jarvis Island
Jarvis Island
– 316,665 km2 (122,265 sq mi) Guam
Guam
– 221,504 km2 (85,523 sq mi) Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
– 177,685 km2 (68,605 sq mi) U.S. Virgin Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
– 33,744 km2 (13,029 sq mi)

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi) Rankings by area[edit] This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[49] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2

1  France 11,691,000 389,422 12,366,417

2  United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306

3  Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464

4  Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915

5  United Kingdom 6,805,586 722,891 7,048,486

6  Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601

7  Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077

8  Japan 4,479,388 454,976 4,857,318

9  New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424

10  Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381

11  Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832

12  Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536

13  Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968

14  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121

15  Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811

16  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128

17  Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404

18  India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406

19  Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711

20  Portugal 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498

21  Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780

22  Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373

23  South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575

24  Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014

25  Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037

26  Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250

27  Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300

28  Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[53]

29  Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600

30  Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225

31  Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622

32  Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670

33  China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980

34  Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709

35  Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906

36  Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594

37  Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345

38  Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816

39  Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440

40  Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305

41  Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658

42  Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437

43  Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576

44  Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780

45  Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825

46  Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864

47  Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637

48  Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251

49  Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680

50  Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353

51  Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229

52  Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133

53  Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529

54  South Korea 475,469 292,522 575,469

55  Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950

56  Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875

57  Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583

58  Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129

59  Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637

60  Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163

61  Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474

62  Nauru 308,480 41 308,501

63  Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560

64  Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517

65  Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911

66  Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451

67  Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216

68  Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128

69  Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569

70  Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103

71  Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034

72  Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975

73  Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888

74  Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323

75  Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081

76  Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351

77  Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458

78  Barbados 186,898 426 187,328

79  Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717

80  Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468

81  Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858

82  Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987

83  Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255

84  Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583

85  Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345

85  Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818

86  Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381

87  Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734

88  North Korea 132,826 54,566 253,364

89  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361

90  Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781

91  Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592

92  Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510

93  Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094

94  Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254

95  Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850

96  Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309

97  Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059

98  Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531

99  Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467

100  Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958

101  El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003

102  Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590

103  Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390

104  Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419

105  Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328

106  Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329

107  East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200

108  Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216

109  Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550

110  Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283

111  Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626

112  United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818

113  Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599

114  Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139

115  Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219

116  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691

117  Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317

118  Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186

119  Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843

120  Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176

121  Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017

122  Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482

123  Dominica 28,985 659 29,736

124  Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011

125  Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770

126  Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424

127  Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018

128  Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407

129  Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646

130  Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968

131  Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989

132  Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156

133  Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439

134  Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830

135  Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844

136  Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683

137  Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975

138  Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855

139  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235

140  Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557

141  Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659

142  Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331

143  Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975

144  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464

145  Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772

146  Iraq 771 771 439,088

147  Monaco 288 2 290

148  Palestine 256 256 6,276

149  Slovenia 220 220 20,493

150  Jordan 166 59 89,508

151  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259

152  Kazakhstan

2,724,900

153  Mongolia

1,564,100

154  Chad

1,284,000

155  Niger

1,267,000

156  Mali

1,240,192

157  Ethiopia

1,104,300

158  Bolivia

1,098,581

159  Zambia

752,612

160  Afghanistan

652,090

161  Central African Republic

622,984

162  South Sudan

619,745

163  Botswana

582,000

164  Turkmenistan

488,100

165  Uzbekistan

447,400

166  Paraguay

406,752

167  Zimbabwe

390,757

168  Burkina Faso

274,222

169  Uganda

241,038

170  Laos

236,800

171  Belarus

207,600

172  Kyrgyzstan

199,951

173    Nepal

147,181

174  Tajikistan

143,100

175  Malawi

118,484

176  Hungary

93,028

177  Azerbaijan

86,600

178  Austria

83,871

179  Czech Republic

78,867

180  Serbia

77,474

181  Slovakia

49,035

182   Switzerland

41,284

183  Bhutan

38,394

184  Moldova

33,846

185  Lesotho

30,355

186  Armenia

29,743

187  Burundi

27,834

188  Rwanda

26,338

189  Macedonia

25,713

190  Swaziland

17,364

191  Kosovo[a]

10,887

192  Luxembourg

2,586

193  Andorra

468

194  Liechtenstein

160

195  San Marino

61

196   Vatican City

0.44

See also[edit]

Business and economics portal

Air Defense Identification Zone Baseline Continental shelf Exclusive economic zone
Exclusive economic zone
of islands International waters R v Marshall Special
Special
economic zone Territorial waters

Notes and references[edit] Notes:

a. ^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia
Australia
as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

References:

^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28.  ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.  ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea. ^ The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Russia
Russia
and Norway
Norway
Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010 ^ Russia
Russia
and Norway
Norway
resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010 ^ "Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Makris, A. " Cyprus
Cyprus
Calls on Turkey
Turkey
to Steer Away From Threats – GreekReporter.com". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region Archived 2006-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION)". Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.  ^ Kwiatkowska, Barbara (January 2001). "The Eritrea- Yemen
Yemen
Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty
Sovereignty
and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation". Ocean Development and International Law. 32 (1). doi:10.1080/00908320150502177.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
Decision year: 2009 ^ FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special
Special
studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7 ^ FAO
FAO
(2007) Report of the FAO
FAO
workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829. ^ The Australian Fishing Zone ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions Archived 2005-04-05 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Archived 2009-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-11-13.  ^ a b c d Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Brazil
Brazil
2,400,917 km², Fernando de Noronha 363,362 km², St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413,636 km², Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468,599 km²  ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature Archived 2005-12-21 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile
Chile
1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²  ^ Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ (PDF) http://www.cyprusgasconference.com/pdf/George%20Pamboridis.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2012.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ EEZ Waters Of Cyprus. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Danish foreign ministry Archived 2008-11-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Indirect Proclamation of EEZ – Greece
Greece
Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. Hellasfrappe.blogspot.com.es (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Israel
Israel
Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. World.greekreporter.com (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Israel
Israel
defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus
Cyprus
ICEJ UK. Uk.icej.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Sunderarajan, P. " India
India
hopes to double its EEZ". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Japan
Japan
(main islands) The Sea Around Us Project ^ Japan
Japan
(outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project ^ Geographic location[permanent dead link] ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
Sea Around Us Project ^ Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project ^ New Zealand
New Zealand
Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper – Introduction Archived 2012-02-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-978-478-30160-1 Accessed 2006-01-07. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008 ^ UN backs Norway
Norway
claim to Arctic seabed extension Archived 2009-12-11 at the Wayback Machine., Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project
Sea Around Us Project
– Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "404" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf Archived 2009-12-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Portugal
Portugal
applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011 ^ Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano ^ "PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ " Sea Around Us Project
Sea Around Us Project
– Data and Visualization". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ a b c "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved 1 April 2017.  ^ 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2010-01-16.  ^ "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. ^ Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine
Argentine
reaches 6 581 500 km²

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Exclusive economic zones.

marineregions.org interactive map, showing boundaries and disputes United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
– Part V Sea Around Us Project
Sea Around Us Project
– View the EEZ of all nations (Note that this site does not distinguish between territorial waters and the EEZ, and so tends to overstate EEZ areas.) The USA zone since 1977 GIS
GIS
data: VLIZ.be Foreign Military Activities in Asian EEZs: Conflict Ahead? by Mark J. Valencia (May 2011) EEZ Management

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