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The EXARCHATE OF RAVENNA or OF ITALY (Italian : _Esarcato d'Italia_) was a center of Byzantine (East Roman) power in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards .

CONTENTS

* 1 Introduction * 2 Lombard invasion and Byzantine reaction * 3 Exarchate * 4 End of the Exarchate * 5 Exarchs of Ravenna
Ravenna
* 6 References * 7 Sources

INTRODUCTION

Ravenna
Ravenna
became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 under Honorius , due to its fine harbour with access to the Adriatic and its ideal defensive location amidst impassable marshes. The city remained the capital of the Empire until its dissolution in 476, when it became the capital of Odoacer , and then of the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great .

It remained the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
, but in 540 during the Gothic War (535–554) , Ravenna
Ravenna
was occupied by the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) general Belisarius . After this reconquest it became the seat of the provincial governor. At that time, the administrative structure of Italy followed, with some modifications, the old system established by Emperor Diocletian , and retained by Odoacer and the Goths.

LOMBARD INVASION AND BYZANTINE REACTION

In 568, the Lombards under King Alboin , together with other Germanic allies, invaded Northern Italy . The area had only a few years ago been completely pacified, and had suffered greatly during the long Gothic War. The local Roman forces were weak, and after taking several towns, in 569 the Lombards conquered Milan
Milan
. They took Pavia
Pavia
after a three-year siege in 572, and made it their capital. In subsequent years, they took Tuscany
Tuscany
. Others, under Faroald and Zotto , penetrated into Central and Southern Italy , where they established the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento . However, after Alboin's murder in 573, the Lombards fragmented into several autonomous duchies (the " Rule of the Dukes ").

Emperor Justin II tried to take advantage of this, and in 576 he sent his son-in-law, Baduarius , to Italy. However, he was defeated and killed in battle, and the continuing crises in the Balkans and the East meant that another imperial effort at reconquest was not possible. Because of the Lombard incursions, the Roman possessions had fragmented into several isolated territories, and in 580, Emperor Tiberius II
Tiberius II
reorganized them into five provinces, now termed in Greek, _eparchies_: the _Annonaria_ in northern Italy around Ravenna, Calabria , Campania , Emilia and Liguria , and the _Urbicaria_ around the city of Rome (_Urbs_). Thus by the end of the 6th century the new order of powers had settled into a stable pattern. Ravenna, governed by its exarch, who held civil and military authority in addition to his ecclesiastical office, was confined to the city, its port and environs as far north as the Po , beyond which lay territory of the duke of Venice
Venice
, nominally in imperial service, and south to the Marecchia River , beyond which lay the Duchy of the Pentapolis on the Adriatic, also under a duke nominally representing the Emperor of the East.

EXARCHATE

The exarchate was organised into a group of duchies ( Rome , Venetia , Calabria , Naples , Perugia , Pentapolis , Lucania , etc.) which were mainly the coastal cities in the Italian peninsula since the Lombards held the advantage in the hinterland.

The civil and military head of these imperial possessions, the exarch himself, was the representative at Ravenna
Ravenna
of the emperor in Constantinople . The surrounding territory reached from the River Po which served as the boundary with Venice
Venice
in the north to the Pentapolis at Rimini in the south, the border of the "five cities" in the Marches along the Adriatic coast; and reached even cities not on the coast, as Forlì for instance. All this territory lies on the eastern flank of the Apennines ; this was under the exarch's direct administration and formed the Exarchate in the strictest sense. Surrounding territories were governed by dukes and _magistri militium_ more or less subject to his authority. From the perspective of Constantinople, the Exarchate consisted of the province of Italy.

The Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
was not the sole Byzantine province in Italy. Byzantine Sicily formed a separate government, and Corsica and Sardinia , while they remained Byzantine, belonged to the Exarchate of Africa .

The Lombards had their capital at Pavia
Pavia
and controlled the great valley of the Po . The Lombard wedge in Italy spread to the south, and established duchies at Spoleto and Beneventum ; they controlled the interior, while Byzantine governors more or less controlled the coasts.

The Piedmont , Lombardy , the interior mainland of Venetia , Tuscany and the interior of Campania belonged to the Lombards, and bit by bit the Imperial representative in Italy lost all genuine power, though in name he controlled areas like Liguria (completely lost in 640 to the Lombards), or Naples and Calabria (being overrun by the Lombard duchy of Benevento). In Rome, the pope was the real master.

At the end, 740, the Exarchate consisted of Istria , Venetia, Ferrara , Ravenna
Ravenna
(the exarchate in the limited sense), with the Pentapolis , and Perugia .

These fragments of the province of Italy, as it was when reconquered for Justinian , were almost all lost, either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna
Ravenna
itself in 751, or by the revolt of the pope, who finally separated from the Empire on the issue of the iconoclastic reforms .

The relationship between the Pope in Rome and the Exarch in Ravenna was a dynamic that could hurt or help the empire. The Papacy could be a vehicle for local discontent. The old Roman senatorial aristocracy resented being governed by an Exarch who was considered by many a meddlesome foreigner. Thus the exarch faced threats from without as well as from within, hampering much real progress and development.

In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the splintering influences which were leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism throughout Europe. Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became local landowners, the lesser owners of land were increasingly kinsmen or at least associates of these officials, and new allegiances intruded on the sphere of imperial administration. Meanwhile, the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent, as they were recruited entirely locally. These armed men formed the _exercitus romanae militiae_, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the Middle Ages . Other cities of the exarchate were organized on the same model.

END OF THE EXARCHATE

During the 6th and 7th centuries, the growing menace of the Lombards and the Franks , as well as the split between Eastern and Western Christendom inspired both by iconoclastic emperors and medieval developments in Latin theology and culminating in the acrimonious rivalry between the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople , made the position of the exarch more and more untenable.

Ravenna
Ravenna
remained the seat of the exarch until the revolt of 727 over iconoclasm. Eutychius , the last exarch of Ravenna, was killed by the Lombards in 751. The exarchate was reorganized as the Catapanate of Italy headquartered in Bari which was lost to the Saracens in 847 and only recovered in 871.

When in 756 the Franks drove the Lombards out, Pope Stephen II claimed the exarchate. His ally Pepin the Younger , King of the Franks, donated the conquered lands of the former exarchate to the Papacy in 756; this donation, which was confirmed by his son Charlemagne in 774, marked the beginning of the temporal power of the popes as the Patrimony of Saint Peter . The archbishoprics within the former exarchate, however, had developed traditions of local secular power and independence, which contributed to the fragmenting localization of powers. Three centuries later, that independence would fuel the rise of the independent communes.

So the Exarchate disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the Catapan of Italy , and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the 9th century the remnants were erected into the _themes_ of Calabria and Langobardia. Istria at the head of the Adriatic was attached to Dalmatia .

EXARCHS OF RAVENNA

_Note: For some exarchs there exists some uncertainty over their exact tenure dates._

* Decius (584–585) * Smaragdus (585–589) * Romanus (589–596) * Callinicus (596–603) * Smaragdus (603–608) * John I (608–616) * Eleutherius (616–619) * Isaac (625–643) * Theodore I Calliopas (643–645) * Plato (645–649) * Olympius (649–652) * Theodore I Calliopas (653 – c. 666) * Gregory (c. 666) * Theodore II (678–687) * John II Platyn (687–702) * Theophylactus (702–710) * John III Rizocopus (710–711) * Scholasticus (713–723) * Paul (723–727) * Eutychius (727–752)

REFERENCES

* ^ Paul the Deacon. "Book 2:ch. 26-27". _Historia Langobardorum_. * ^ Hodgkin. _The Lombard Invasion_. Italy and Her Invaders, Vol. 5, Book VI. pp. 71–73. * ^ John of Biclaro. _Chronicle_. * ^ Hallenbeck. " Pavia
Pavia
and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century".

SOURCES

* _ Byzantine Empire portal

* Borri, Francesco (July–December 2005). "Duces e magistri militum nell’Italia esarcale (VI-VIII secolo)" (PDF). Estratto da Reti Medievali Rivista_ (in Italian). Firenze University Press. VI (2). ISSN 1593-2214 . Retrieved 2008-05-21. * Brown, T. S. (1991). "Byzantine Italy c. 680 - c.876". In Rosamond McKitterick . _The New Cambridge Medieval History: II. c. 700 - c. 900_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36292-X . * Diehl, Charles. _Etudes sur l'Administration Byzantine dans l'Exarchat de Ravenne (568-751)_. Research & Source Works Series Byzantine Series No. 39 (in French). New York: Burt Franklin. ISBN 0-8337-0854-4 . * Hallenbeck, Jan T. (1982). " Pavia
Pavia
and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century". _Transactions of the American Philosophical Society_. 72 (4): 1–186. JSTOR 1006429 . doi :10.2307/1006429 . (ISBN) 0-87169-724-6. * Hartmann, Ludo M. (June 1971). _Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der byzantinischen Verwaltung in Italien (540-750)_. Research & Source Works Series No. 86 (in German). New York: Burt Franklin. ISBN 978-0-8337-1584-5 . * Hodgkin, Thomas . _553-600 The Lombard Invasion_. Italy and Her Invaders, Vol. 5, Book VI (Replica ed.). Boston: Elibron Classics. * John of Biclaro . _Chronicle_. * Norwich, John Julius (1982). _A History of Venice_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. * Paul the Deacon . "Book 2:ch. 26-27". _Historia Langobardorum (Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards_. trans. from Latin by William Dudley Foulke . University of Pennsylvania.

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Ancient History and early Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy * Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire (27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy (337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire (285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento * Duchy of Friuli * Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta * Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro * Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale * City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence * Duchy of Florence * March of Friuli * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont * Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy * Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena * Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire (395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
(584–751)

* Duchy of Rome (533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa (585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr * Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi * Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy * Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples * Sicily (theme) and Byzantine Sicily * Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari * Emirate of Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria * County of Aversa * County of Sicily * Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora * Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy * Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy * Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany
Tuscany
* Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan
Milan
(1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic (1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy (1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866) * Papal States (1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Byzantine Empire topics

HISTORY

PRECEDING

* Roman Empire

* _ Dominate _

(330–717) EARLY

* Constantinian dynasty * Valentinian dynasty * Theodosian dynasty * Leonid dynasty * Justinian dynasty * Heraclian dynasty * Twenty Years\' Anarchy

(717–1204) MIDDLE

* Isaurian dynasty * Nikephorian dynasty * Amorian dynasty * Macedonian dynasty * Doukas dynasty * Komnenos dynasty * Angelos dynasty

(1204–1453) LATE

* Fourth Crusade * Latin Empire / Nicaea / Epirus –Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond / _others _ * Palaiologos dynasty * Fall of Constantinople

GOVERNANCE

CENTRAL

* Emperors

* Basileus * Autokrator

* Senate * Imperial bureaucracy * Eparch

EARLY

* Praetorian prefects * Magister officiorum * Comes sacrarum largitionum * Comes rerum privatarum * Quaestor sacri palatii

MIDDLE

* Logothetes tou dromou * Sakellarios * Logothetes tou genikou * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Chartoularios tou sakelliou * Chartoularios tou vestiariou * Epi tou eidikou * Protasekretis * Epi ton deeseon

LATE

* Megas logothetes * Mesazon

PROVINCIAL

EARLY

* Praetorian prefectures * Dioceses * Provinces * Quaestura exercitus * Exarchate of Ravenna * Exarchate of Africa

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Bandon * Catepanates

LATE

* Kephale * Despotates

DIPLOMACY

* Treaties * Diplomats

MILITARY

ARMY

* Battle tactics * Military manuals * Wars * Battles * Revolts * Siege warfare * Generals * Mercenaries

EARLY

* Late Roman army

* East Roman army

* Foederati * Bucellarii * Scholae Palatinae * Excubitors

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Tourma * Droungos * Bandon * Tagmata * Domestic of the Schools * Hetaireia * Akritai * Varangian Guard

LATE

* Komnenian army

* Pronoia * Vestiaritai

* Palaiologan army

* Allagion * Paramonai

* Grand Domestic

NAVY

* Karabisianoi

* Maritime themata

* Cibyrrhaeot * Aegean Sea * Samos

* Dromon * Greek fire * Droungarios of the Fleet * Megas doux * Admirals * Naval battles

RELIGION AND LAW

RELIGION

* Eastern Orthodox Church * Byzantine Rite * Ecumenical councils * Saints * Patriarchate of Constantinople * Arianism * Monophysitism * Paulicianism * Iconoclasm * Great Schism * Bogomilism * Hesychasm * Mount Athos

* Missionary activity

* Bulgaria * Moravia * Serbs * Kievan Rus\'

* Jews * Muslims

LAW

* Codex Theodosianus * Corpus Juris Civilis * Ecloga * Basilika * Hexabiblos * Mutilation

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARCHITECTURE

* Secular

* Sacred

* Cross-in-square * Domes

CONSTANTINOPLE

* Great Palace of Constantinople * Blachernae Palace * Hagia Sophia * Hagia Irene * Chora Church * Pammakaristos Church * City Walls

THESSALONICA

* Arch of Galerius and Rotunda * Hagios Demetrios * Hagia Sophia * Panagia Chalkeon

RAVENNA

* San Vitale * Sant\'Apollinare in Classe * Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo

OTHER LOCATIONS

* Daphni Monastery * Hosios Loukas * Nea Moni of Chios * Saint Catherine\'s Monastery * Mystras

ART

* Icons * Enamel * Glass * Mosaics * Painters * Macedonian period art * Komnenian renaissance

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Coinage * Mints

* Trade

* silk * Silk Road * Varangians

* Dynatoi

LITERATURE

* Novel

* Acritic songs

* Digenes Akritas

* Alexander romance * Historians

EVERYDAY LIFE

* Calendar * Cuisine * Dance * Dress * Flags and insignia * Hippodrome

* Music

* Octoechos

* People

* Byzantine Greeks

* Slavery * Units of measurement

* Science * Learning

* Encyclopedias * Inventions * Medicine

* Philosophy

* Neoplatonism

* Scholars * University

IMPACT

* Byzantine commonwealth * Byzantine studies * Museums * Byzantinism * Cyrillic script * Neo- Byzantine architecture * Greek scholars in the Renaissance * Third Rome * Megali Idea

* BYZANTINE EMPIRE PORTAL

* v * t * e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

HISTORY

As found in the _ Notitia Dignitatum _. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian , c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I . Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

WESTERN EMPIRE (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

DIOCESE OF GAUL

* Alpes Poeninae et Graiae * Belgica I * Belgica II * Germania I * Germania II * Lugdunensis I * Lugdunensis II * Lugdunensis III * Lugdunensis IV * Maxima Sequanorum

DIOCESE OF VIENNE 1

* Alpes Maritimae * Aquitanica I * Aquitanica II * Narbonensis I * Narbonensis II * Novempopulania * Viennensis

DIOCESE OF SPAIN

* Baetica * Balearica * Carthaginensis * Gallaecia * Lusitania * Mauretania Tingitana * Tarraconensis

DIOCESE OF THE BRITAINS

* Britannia I * Britannia II * Flavia Caesariensis * Maxima Caesariensis * Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

DIOCESE OF SUBURBICARIAN ITALY

* Apulia et Calabria * Campania * Corsica * Lucania et Bruttii * Picenum Suburbicarium * Samnium * Sardinia * Sicilia * Tuscia et Umbria * Valeria

DIOCESE OF ANNONARIAN ITALY

* Alpes Cottiae * Flaminia et Picenum Annonarium * Liguria et Aemilia * Raetia I * Raetia II * Venetia et Istria

DIOCESE OF AFRICA 2

* Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) * Byzacena * Mauretania Caesariensis * Mauretania Sitifensis * Numidia Cirtensis * Numidia Militiana * Tripolitania

DIOCESE OF PANNONIA 3

* Dalmatia * Noricum mediterraneum * Noricum ripense * Pannonia I * Pannonia II * Savia * Valeria ripensis

EASTERN EMPIRE (395–C. 640)

Praetorian Prefecture of Illyricum

DIOCESE OF DACIA

* Dacia Mediterranea * Dacia Ripensis * Dardania * Moesia I * Praevalitana

DIOCESE OF MACEDONIA

* Achaea * Creta * Epirus nova * Epirus vetus * Macedonia I * Macedonia II Salutaris * Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

DIOCESE OF THRACE 5

* Europa * Haemimontus * Moesia II 4 * Rhodope * Scythia 4 * Thracia

DIOCESE OF ASIA 5

* Asia * Caria 4 * Hellespontus * Insulae 4 * Lycaonia (370) * Lycia * Lydia * Pamphylia * Pisidia * Phrygia Pacatiana * Phrygia Salutaris

DIOCESE OF PONTUS 5

* Armenia I 5 * Armenia II 5 * Armenia Maior 5 * Armenian Satrapies 5 * Armenia III (536) * Armenia IV (536) * Bithynia * Cappadocia I 5 * Cappadocia II 5 * Galatia I 5 * Galatia II Salutaris 5 * Helenopontus 5 * Honorias 5 * Paphlagonia 5 * Pontus Polemoniacus 5

DIOCESE OF THE EAST 5

* Arabia * Cilicia I * Cilicia II * Cyprus 4 * Euphratensis * Isauria * Mesopotamia * Osroene * Palaestina I * Palaestina II * Palaestina III Salutaris * Phoenice I * Phoenice II Libanensis * Syria I * Syria II Salutaris * Theodorias (528)

DIOCESE OF EGYPT 5

* Aegyptus I * Aegyptus II * Arcadia * Augustamnica I * Augustamnica II * Libya Superior * Libya Inferior * Thebais Superior * Thebais Inferior

OTHER TERRITORIES

* Taurica * Quaestura exercitus (536) * Spania (552)

* 1 Later the Septem Provinciae * 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa * 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum * 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 * 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I 's administrative reorganization in 534–536

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