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The EXARCHATE OF RAVENNA or OF ITALY (Italian : Esarcato d'Italia) was a center of Byzantine (East Roman) power in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards
Lombards
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Introduction * 2 Lombard invasion and Byzantine reaction * 3 Exarchate * 4 End of the Exarchate * 5 Exarchs of Ravenna
Ravenna
* 6 References * 7 Sources

INTRODUCTION

Ravenna
Ravenna
became the capital of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 402 under Honorius , due to its fine harbour with access to the Adriatic
Adriatic
and its ideal defensive location amidst impassable marshes. The city remained the capital of the Empire until its dissolution in 476, when it became the capital of Odoacer
Odoacer
, and then of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
under Theodoric the Great .

It remained the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
, but in 540 during the Gothic War (535–554)
Gothic War (535–554)
, Ravenna
Ravenna
was occupied by the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) general Belisarius
Belisarius
. After this reconquest it became the seat of the provincial governor. At that time, the administrative structure of Italy
Italy
followed, with some modifications, the old system established by Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
, and retained by Odoacer
Odoacer
and the Goths.

LOMBARD INVASION AND BYZANTINE REACTION

In 568, the Lombards
Lombards
under King Alboin
Alboin
, together with other Germanic allies, invaded Northern Italy
Italy
. The area had only a few years ago been completely pacified, and had suffered greatly during the long Gothic War. The local Roman forces were weak, and after taking several towns, in 569 the Lombards
Lombards
conquered Milan
Milan
. They took Pavia
Pavia
after a three-year siege in 572, and made it their capital. In subsequent years, they took Tuscany
Tuscany
. Others, under Faroald and Zotto , penetrated into Central and Southern Italy
Italy
, where they established the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento
Benevento
. However, after Alboin's murder in 573, the Lombards
Lombards
fragmented into several autonomous duchies (the " Rule of the Dukes ").

Emperor Justin II
Justin II
tried to take advantage of this, and in 576 he sent his son-in-law, Baduarius , to Italy. However, he was defeated and killed in battle, and the continuing crises in the Balkans
Balkans
and the East meant that another imperial effort at reconquest was not possible. Because of the Lombard incursions, the Roman possessions had fragmented into several isolated territories, and in 580, Emperor Tiberius II
Tiberius II
reorganized them into five provinces, now termed in Greek, eparchies: the Annonaria in northern Italy
Italy
around Ravenna, Calabria
Calabria
, Campania
Campania
, Emilia and Liguria
Liguria
, and the Urbicaria around the city of Rome
Rome
(Urbs). Thus by the end of the 6th century the new order of powers had settled into a stable pattern. Ravenna, governed by its exarch, who held civil and military authority in addition to his ecclesiastical office, was confined to the city, its port and environs as far north as the Po , beyond which lay territory of the duke of Venice
Venice
, nominally in imperial service, and south to the Marecchia River , beyond which lay the Duchy of the Pentapolis on the Adriatic, also under a duke nominally representing the Emperor of the East.

EXARCHATE

The exarchate was organised into a group of duchies ( Rome
Rome
, Venetia , Calabria
Calabria
, Naples , Perugia
Perugia
, Pentapolis , Lucania , etc.) which were mainly the coastal cities in the Italian peninsula since the Lombards held the advantage in the hinterland.

The civil and military head of these imperial possessions, the exarch himself, was the representative at Ravenna
Ravenna
of the emperor in Constantinople
Constantinople
. The surrounding territory reached from the River Po which served as the boundary with Venice
Venice
in the north to the Pentapolis at Rimini
Rimini
in the south, the border of the "five cities" in the Marches along the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast; and reached even cities not on the coast, as Forlì
Forlì
for instance. All this territory lies on the eastern flank of the Apennines ; this was under the exarch's direct administration and formed the Exarchate in the strictest sense. Surrounding territories were governed by dukes and magistri militium more or less subject to his authority. From the perspective of Constantinople, the Exarchate consisted of the province of Italy.

The Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
was not the sole Byzantine province in Italy. Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
formed a separate government, and Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia
Sardinia
, while they remained Byzantine, belonged to the Exarchate of Africa .

The Lombards
Lombards
had their capital at Pavia
Pavia
and controlled the great valley of the Po . The Lombard wedge in Italy
Italy
spread to the south, and established duchies at Spoleto and Beneventum ; they controlled the interior, while Byzantine governors more or less controlled the coasts.

The Piedmont
Piedmont
, Lombardy
Lombardy
, the interior mainland of Venetia , Tuscany and the interior of Campania
Campania
belonged to the Lombards, and bit by bit the Imperial representative in Italy
Italy
lost all genuine power, though in name he controlled areas like Liguria
Liguria
(completely lost in 640 to the Lombards), or Naples and Calabria
Calabria
(being overrun by the Lombard duchy of Benevento). In Rome, the pope was the real master.

At the end, 740, the Exarchate consisted of Istria
Istria
, Venetia, Ferrara , Ravenna
Ravenna
(the exarchate in the limited sense), with the Pentapolis , and Perugia
Perugia
.

These fragments of the province of Italy, as it was when reconquered for Justinian , were almost all lost, either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna
Ravenna
itself in 751, or by the revolt of the pope, who finally separated from the Empire on the issue of the iconoclastic reforms .

The relationship between the Pope
Pope
in Rome
Rome
and the Exarch
Exarch
in Ravenna was a dynamic that could hurt or help the empire. The Papacy could be a vehicle for local discontent. The old Roman senatorial aristocracy resented being governed by an Exarch
Exarch
who was considered by many a meddlesome foreigner. Thus the exarch faced threats from without as well as from within, hampering much real progress and development.

In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the splintering influences which were leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism throughout Europe. Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became local landowners, the lesser owners of land were increasingly kinsmen or at least associates of these officials, and new allegiances intruded on the sphere of imperial administration. Meanwhile, the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards
Lombards
led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent, as they were recruited entirely locally. These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Other cities of the exarchate were organized on the same model.

END OF THE EXARCHATE

During the 6th and 7th centuries, the growing menace of the Lombards and the Franks
Franks
, as well as the split between Eastern and Western Christendom inspired both by iconoclastic emperors and medieval developments in Latin theology and culminating in the acrimonious rivalry between the Pope
Pope
of Rome
Rome
and the Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
, made the position of the exarch more and more untenable.

Ravenna
Ravenna
remained the seat of the exarch until the revolt of 727 over iconoclasm. Eutychius , the last exarch of Ravenna, was killed by the Lombards
Lombards
in 751. The exarchate was reorganized as the Catapanate of Italy
Italy
headquartered in Bari
Bari
which was lost to the Saracens
Saracens
in 847 and only recovered in 871.

When in 756 the Franks
Franks
drove the Lombards
Lombards
out, Pope
Pope
Stephen II claimed the exarchate. His ally Pepin the Younger , King of the Franks, donated the conquered lands of the former exarchate to the Papacy in 756; this donation, which was confirmed by his son Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in 774, marked the beginning of the temporal power of the popes as the Patrimony of Saint Peter . The archbishoprics within the former exarchate, however, had developed traditions of local secular power and independence, which contributed to the fragmenting localization of powers. Three centuries later, that independence would fuel the rise of the independent communes.

So the Exarchate disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the Catapan of Italy
Italy
, and when Sicily
Sicily
was conquered by the Arabs in the 9th century the remnants were erected into the themes of Calabria
Calabria
and Langobardia. Istria
Istria
at the head of the Adriatic
Adriatic
was attached to Dalmatia
Dalmatia
.

EXARCHS OF RAVENNA

Note: For some exarchs there exists some uncertainty over their exact tenure dates.

* Decius (584–585) * Smaragdus (585–589) * Romanus (589–596) * Callinicus (596–603) * Smaragdus (603–608) * John I (608–616) * Eleutherius (616–619) * Isaac (625–643) * Theodore I Calliopas (643–645) * Plato (645–649) * Olympius (649–652) * Theodore I Calliopas (653 – c. 666) * Gregory (c. 666) * Theodore II (678–687) * John II Platyn (687–702) * Theophylactus (702–710) * John III Rizocopus (710–711) * Scholasticus (713–723) * Paul (723–727) * Eutychius (727–752)

REFERENCES

* ^ Paul the Deacon. "Book 2:ch. 26-27". Historia Langobardorum. * ^ Hodgkin. The Lombard Invasion. Italy
Italy
and Her Invaders, Vol. 5, Book VI. pp. 71–73. * ^ John of Biclaro. Chronicle. * ^ Hallenbeck. " Pavia
Pavia
and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century".

SOURCES

* Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

* Borri, Francesco (July–December 2005). "Duces e magistri militum nell’Italia esarcale (VI-VIII secolo)" (PDF). Estratto da Reti Medievali Rivista (in Italian). Firenze University Press. VI (2). ISSN 1593-2214 . Retrieved 2008-05-21. * Brown, T. S. (1991). "Byzantine Italy
Italy
c. 680 - c.876". In Rosamond McKitterick . The New Cambridge Medieval History: II. c. 700 - c. 900. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36292-X . * Diehl, Charles. Etudes sur l'Administration Byzantine dans l'Exarchat de Ravenne (568-751). Research & Source Works Series Byzantine Series No. 39 (in French). New York: Burt Franklin. ISBN 0-8337-0854-4 . * Hallenbeck, Jan T. (1982). " Pavia
Pavia
and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 72 (4): 1–186. JSTOR
JSTOR
1006429 . doi :10.2307/1006429 . (ISBN) 0-87169-724-6. * Hartmann, Ludo M. (June 1971). Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der byzantinischen Verwaltung in Italien (540-750). Research & Source Works Series No. 86 (in German). New York: Burt Franklin. ISBN 978-0-8337-1584-5 . * Hodgkin, Thomas . 553-600 The Lombard Invasion. Italy
Italy
and Her Invaders, Vol. 5, Book VI (Replica ed.). Boston: Elibron Classics. * John of Biclaro . Chronicle. * Norwich, John Julius (1982). A History of Venice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. * Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
. "Book 2:ch. 26-27". Historia Langobardorum
Historia Langobardorum
(Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards. trans. from Latin by William Dudley Foulke . University of Pennsylvania.

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta

Ancient History and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome
Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia
Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Praetorian prefecture of Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento * Duchy of Friuli * Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta
Duchy of Aosta
* Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro * Commune of Rome
Rome
* Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara
Ferrara
* Marquisate of Finale * City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
* Duchy of Florence * March of Friuli
March of Friuli
* Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
* Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria
Istria
* Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca
Republic of Lucca
* Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
* Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
* March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
* Principality of Piedmont
Piedmont
* Principality of Piombino
Principality of Piombino
* Republic of Pisa
Republic of Pisa
* Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy
County of Savoy
* Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena
Republic of Siena
* Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
* Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino
Duchy of Urbino
* March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
(584–751)

* Duchy of Rome
Rome
(533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado
Dogado
* Stato da Màr
Stato da Màr
* Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi
Duchy of Amalfi
* Duchy of Gaeta
Duchy of Gaeta
* Catepanate of Italy
Catepanate of Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples * Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari
Bari
* Emirate of Sicily
Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento
Benevento
* Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
* County of Aversa * County of Sicily
Sicily
* Principality of Taranto

Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari
Giudicato of Cagliari
* Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Corsica
Corsica
* Corsican Republic
Corsican Republic
(1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
(1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke
Duke
of San Donato * Duchy of Sora * Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate
Malta Protectorate
* Crown Colony of Malta
Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria
Liguria
* Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont
Piedmont
* Rome
Rome
* Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento
Benevento
* Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples * Pontecorvo * Tuscany
Tuscany
* Elba * Corsica
Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara
Duchy of Massa and Carrara
(1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Duchy of Modena and Reggio
(1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan
Milan
(1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia
Sardinia
(1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
topics

HISTORY

PRECEDING

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire

* Dominate
Dominate

(330–717) EARLY

* Constantinian dynasty * Valentinian dynasty * Theodosian dynasty * Leonid dynasty * Justinian dynasty * Heraclian dynasty * Twenty Years\' Anarchy

(717–1204) MIDDLE

* Isaurian dynasty * Nikephorian dynasty
Nikephorian dynasty
* Amorian dynasty * Macedonian dynasty * Doukas dynasty * Komnenos dynasty * Angelos dynasty

(1204–1453) LATE

* Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
* Latin Empire
Latin Empire
/ Nicaea / Epirus –Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond / others * Palaiologos dynasty * Fall of Constantinople
Constantinople

GOVERNANCE

CENTRAL

* Emperors

* Basileus * Autokrator

* Senate * Imperial bureaucracy * Eparch

EARLY

* Praetorian prefects * Magister officiorum
Magister officiorum
* Comes sacrarum largitionum * Comes rerum privatarum * Quaestor sacri palatii
Quaestor sacri palatii

MIDDLE

* Logothetes tou dromou * Sakellarios * Logothetes tou genikou * Logothetes tou stratiotikou * Chartoularios tou sakelliou * Chartoularios tou vestiariou * Epi tou eidikou * Protasekretis * Epi ton deeseon

LATE

* Megas logothetes * Mesazon

PROVINCIAL

EARLY

* Praetorian prefectures * Dioceses * Provinces * Quaestura exercitus * Exarchate of Ravenna * Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Bandon * Catepanates

LATE

* Kephale * Despotates

DIPLOMACY

* Treaties * Diplomats

MILITARY

ARMY

* Battle tactics * Military manuals * Wars * Battles * Revolts * Siege warfare * Generals * Mercenaries

EARLY

* Late Roman army

* East Roman army
East Roman army

* Foederati
Foederati
* Bucellarii * Scholae Palatinae * Excubitors

MIDDLE

* Themata * Kleisourai * Tourma * Droungos * Bandon * Tagmata * Domestic of the Schools * Hetaireia * Akritai * Varangian Guard

LATE

* Komnenian army

* Pronoia
Pronoia
* Vestiaritai

* Palaiologan army

* Allagion * Paramonai

* Grand Domestic

NAVY

* Karabisianoi

* Maritime themata

* Cibyrrhaeot * Aegean Sea * Samos

* Dromon * Greek fire
Greek fire
* Droungarios of the Fleet * Megas doux * Admirals * Naval battles

RELIGION AND LAW

RELIGION

* Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
* Byzantine Rite * Ecumenical councils * Saints * Patriarchate of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Arianism
Arianism
* Monophysitism
Monophysitism
* Paulicianism
Paulicianism
* Iconoclasm * Great Schism * Bogomilism
Bogomilism
* Hesychasm
Hesychasm
* Mount Athos
Mount Athos

* Missionary activity

* Bulgaria * Moravia * Serbs * Kievan Rus\'

* Jews * Muslims

LAW

* Codex Theodosianus
Codex Theodosianus
* Corpus Juris Civilis
Corpus Juris Civilis
* Ecloga * Basilika * Hexabiblos * Mutilation

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARCHITECTURE

* Secular

* Sacred

* Cross-in-square * Domes

CONSTANTINOPLE

* Great Palace of Constantinople
Constantinople
* Blachernae Palace * Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Hagia Irene * Chora Church * Pammakaristos Church
Pammakaristos Church
* City Walls

THESSALONICA

* Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
Arch of Galerius and Rotunda
* Hagios Demetrios * Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
* Panagia Chalkeon

RAVENNA

* San Vitale * Sant\'Apollinare in Classe * Sant\'Apollinare Nuovo

OTHER LOCATIONS

* Daphni Monastery * Hosios Loukas
Hosios Loukas
* Nea Moni of Chios
Nea Moni of Chios
* Saint Catherine\'s Monastery * Mystras
Mystras

ART

* Icons * Enamel * Glass * Mosaics * Painters * Macedonian period art * Komnenian renaissance

ECONOMY

* Agriculture * Coinage * Mints

* Trade

* silk * Silk Road
Silk Road
* Varangians

* Dynatoi

LITERATURE

* Novel

* Acritic songs
Acritic songs

* Digenes Akritas

* Alexander romance * Historians

EVERYDAY LIFE

* Calendar * Cuisine * Dance * Dress * Flags and insignia * Hippodrome

* Music

* Octoechos

* People

* Byzantine Greeks

* Slavery * Units of measurement

* Science * Learning

* Encyclopedias * Inventions * Medicine

* Philosophy

* Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism

* Scholars * University

IMPACT

* Byzantine commonwealth * Byzantine studies
Byzantine studies
* Museums * Byzantinism * Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
* Neo- Byzantine architecture * Greek scholars in the Renaissance * Third Rome
Rome
* Megali Idea

* BYZANTINE EMPIRE PORTAL

* v * t * e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

HISTORY

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian
Diocletian
, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I
Constantine I
. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna
Ravenna
and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

WESTERN EMPIRE (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

DIOCESE OF GAUL

* Alpes Poeninae et Graiae * Belgica I * Belgica II * Germania I * Germania II * Lugdunensis I * Lugdunensis II * Lugdunensis III * Lugdunensis IV * Maxima Sequanorum

DIOCESE OF VIENNE 1

* Alpes Maritimae
Alpes Maritimae
* Aquitanica I * Aquitanica II * Narbonensis I * Narbonensis II * Novempopulania * Viennensis

DIOCESE OF SPAIN

* Baetica * Balearica * Carthaginensis * Gallaecia
Gallaecia
* Lusitania
Lusitania
* Mauretania Tingitana * Tarraconensis

DIOCESE OF THE BRITAINS

* Britannia I * Britannia II * Flavia Caesariensis * Maxima Caesariensis * Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy
Italy

DIOCESE OF SUBURBICARIAN ITALY

* Apulia et Calabria
Calabria
* Campania
Campania
* Corsica
Corsica
* Lucania et Bruttii * Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium * Samnium
Samnium
* Sardinia
Sardinia
* Sicilia * Tuscia et Umbria * Valeria

DIOCESE OF ANNONARIAN ITALY

* Alpes Cottiae * Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium * Liguria
Liguria
et Aemilia * Raetia
Raetia
I * Raetia
Raetia
II * Venetia et Istria
Istria

DIOCESE OF AFRICA 2

* Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) * Byzacena
Byzacena
* Mauretania Caesariensis * Mauretania Sitifensis * Numidia Cirtensis * Numidia Militiana * Tripolitania
Tripolitania

DIOCESE OF PANNONIA 3

* Dalmatia
Dalmatia
* Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum * Noricum
Noricum
ripense * Pannonia I * Pannonia II * Savia * Valeria ripensis
Valeria ripensis

EASTERN EMPIRE (395–C. 640)

Praetorian Prefecture of Illyricum

DIOCESE OF DACIA

* Dacia Mediterranea * Dacia Ripensis
Dacia Ripensis
* Dardania * Moesia
Moesia
I * Praevalitana
Praevalitana

DIOCESE OF MACEDONIA

* Achaea * Creta * Epirus nova * Epirus vetus * Macedonia I * Macedonia II Salutaris * Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

DIOCESE OF THRACE 5

* Europa * Haemimontus
Haemimontus
* Moesia
Moesia
II 4 * Rhodope * Scythia 4 * Thracia

DIOCESE OF ASIA 5

* Asia * Caria
Caria
4 * Hellespontus * Insulae 4 * Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) * Lycia
Lycia
* Lydia
Lydia
* Pamphylia
Pamphylia
* Pisidia
Pisidia
* Phrygia
Phrygia
Pacatiana * Phrygia
Phrygia
Salutaris

DIOCESE OF PONTUS 5

* Armenia I 5 * Armenia II 5 * Armenia Maior 5 * Armenian Satrapies 5 * Armenia III (536) * Armenia IV (536) * Bithynia
Bithynia
* Cappadocia I 5 * Cappadocia II 5 * Galatia I 5 * Galatia II Salutaris 5 * Helenopontus 5 * Honorias 5 * Paphlagonia
Paphlagonia
5 * Pontus Polemoniacus 5

DIOCESE OF THE EAST 5

* Arabia * Cilicia I * Cilicia II * Cyprus 4 * Euphratensis * Isauria
Isauria
* Mesopotamia * Osroene
Osroene
* Palaestina I * Palaestina II * Palaestina III Salutaris * Phoenice I * Phoenice II Libanensis * Syria I * Syria II Salutaris * Theodorias (528)

DIOCESE OF EGYPT 5

* Aegyptus I * Aegyptus II * Arcadia * Augustamnica I * Augustamnica II * Libya Superior * Libya Inferior * Thebais Superior * Thebais Inferior

OTHER TERRITORIES

* Taurica
Taurica
* Quaestura exercitus (536) * Spania
Spania
(552)

* 1 Later the Septem Provinciae
Septem Provinciae
* 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa * 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum
Diocese of Illyricum
* 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 * 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I
Justinian I
's administrative reorganization in 534–536

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