Evil, in a general context, is the absence or opposite of that which
is described as being good. Often, evil denotes profound
immorality. In certain religious contexts, evil has been described
as a supernatural force. Definitions of evil vary, as does the
analysis of its motives. However, elements that are commonly
associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving anger,
revenge, fear, hatred, psychological trauma, expediency, selfishness,
ignorance, or neglect.
In cultures with an
Abrahamic religious backdrop, evil is usually
perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, (possibly
following Persia's Zoroastrian influence) in which good should
prevail and evil should be defeated. In cultures with Buddhist
spiritual influence, both good and evil are perceived as part of an
antagonistic duality that itself must be overcome through achieving
The philosophical question of the nature of evil leads to
investigations about morality that have instructed approaches such as
moral absolutism, amoralism, moral relativism, moral pluralism and
While the term is applied to events and conditions without agency, the
forms of evil addressed in this article presume an evildoer or doers.
2 Chinese moral philosophy
3 European philosophy
4.1 Carl Jung
4.2 Philip Zimbardo
5.1 Bahá'í Faith
5.2 Ancient Egyptian Religion
6 Philosophical questions
6.2 Usefulness as a term
6.3 Necessary evil
7 See also
9 External links
The modern English word evil (
Old English yfel) and its cognates such
as the German Übel and Dutch euvel are widely considered to come from
Proto-Germanic reconstructed form of *ubilaz, comparable to the
Hittite huwapp- ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European form *wap- and
suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. Other later Germanic forms include
Middle English evel, ifel, ufel,
Old Frisian evel (adjective and
Old Saxon ubil,
Old High German
Old High German ubil, and Gothic ubils.
The root meaning of the word is of obscure origin though shown to
be akin to modern German Das Übel (although evil is normally
translated as Das Böse) with the basic idea of transgressing.
Chinese moral philosophy
Main: Confucian Ethics,
Confucianism and Taoist Ethics
As with Buddhism, in
Taoism there is no direct
analogue to the way good and evil are opposed although reference to
demonic influence is common in Chinese folk religion. Confucianism's
primary concern is with correct social relationships and the behavior
appropriate to the learned or superior man. Thus evil would correspond
to wrong behavior. Still less does it map into Taoism, in spite of the
centrality of dualism in that system, but the opposite of the cardinal
virtues of Taoism, compassion, moderation, and humility can be
inferred to be the analogue of evil in it.
Benedict de Spinoza states
1. By good, I understand that which we certainly know is useful to us.
2. By evil, on the contrary I understand that which we certainly know
hinders us from possessing anything that is good.
Spinoza assumes a quasi-mathematical style and states these further
propositions which he purports to prove or demonstrate from the above
definitions in part IV of his Ethics :
Proposition 8 "Knowledge of good or evil is nothing but affect of joy
or sorrow in so far as we are conscious of it."
Proposition 30 "Nothing can be evil through that which it possesses in
common with our nature, but in so far as a thing is evil to us it is
contrary to us."
Proposition 64 "The knowledge of evil is inadequate knowledge."
Corollary "Hence it follows that if the human mind had none but
adequate ideas, it would form no notion of evil."
Proposition 65 "According to the guidance of reason, of two things
which are good, we shall follow the greater good, and of two evils,
follow the less."
Proposition 68 "If men were born free, they would form no conception
of good and evil so long as they were free."
Friedrich Nietzsche, in a rejection of the Judeo-Christian morality,
addresses this in two works Beyond
Evil and On the Genealogy
of Morals where he essentially says that the natural, functional
non-good has been socially transformed into the religious concept of
evil by the slave mentality of the weak and oppressed masses who
resent their masters (the strong).
Carl Jung, in his book
Answer to Job and elsewhere, depicted evil as
the dark side of God. People tend to believe evil is something
external to them, because they project their shadow onto others. Jung
interpreted the story of
Jesus as an account of God facing his own
Even though the book may have had a sudden birth, its gestation period
in Jung's unconscious was long. The subject of God, and what Jung
saw as the dark side of God, was a lifelong preoccupation. An
emotional and theoretical struggle with the core nature of deity is
evident in Jung's earliest fantasies and dreams, as well as in his
complex relationships with his father (a traditional minister), his
mother (who had a strong spiritual-mystical dimension), and the
Christian church itself. Jung's account of his childhood in his
quasi-autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections (New York: Vintage,
1963; henceforth MDR), provides deep, personal background about his
early religious roots and conflicts.
Philip Zimbardo suggested that people may act in evil ways as
a result of a collective identity. This hypothesis, based on his
previous experience from the Stanford prison experiment, was published
in the book The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How
Good People Turn
Main article: Problem of evil
Bahá'í Faith asserts that evil is non-existent and that it is a
concept for lack of good, just as cold is the state of no heat,
darkness is the state of no light, forgetfulness the lacking of
memory, ignorance the lacking of knowledge. All of these are states of
lacking and have no real existence.
Thus, evil does not exist, and is relative to man. `Abdu'l-Bahá, son
of the founder of the religion, in
Some Answered Questions
Some Answered Questions states:
"Nevertheless a doubt occurs to the mind—that is, scorpions and
serpents are poisonous. Are they good or evil, for they are existing
beings? Yes, a scorpion is evil in relation to man; a serpent is evil
in relation to man; but in relation to themselves they are not evil,
for their poison is their weapon, and by their sting they defend
Thus, evil is more of an intellectual concept than a true reality.
Since God is good, and upon creating creation he confirmed it by
saying it is
Good (Genesis 1:31) evil cannot have a true reality.
Ancient Egyptian Religion
Evil in the religion of
Ancient Egypt is known as Isfet,
"disorder/violence". It is the opposite of Maat, "order", and embodied
by the serpent god Apep, who routinely attempts to kill the sun god Ra
and is stopped by nearly every other deity. Isfet is not a primordial
force, but the consequence of free will and an individual's struggle
against the non-existence embodied by Apep, as evidenced by the fact
that it was born from Ra's umbilical cord instead of being recorded in
the religion's creation myths.
Extermination of Evil, The God of Heavenly Punishment, from the
Chinese tradition of yin and yang. Late
Heian period (12th Century
Main: Buddhist Ethics
The primal duality in
Buddhism is between suffering and enlightenment,
so the good vs. evil splitting has no direct analogue in it. One may
infer however from the general teachings of the Buddha that the
catalogued causes of suffering are what correspond in this belief
system to 'evil.
Practically this can refer to 1) the three selfish emotions—desire,
hate and delusion; and 2) to their expression in physical and verbal
actions. See ten unvirtuous actions in Buddhism. Specifically, evil
means whatever harms or obstructs the causes for happiness in this
life, a better rebirth, liberation from samsara, and the true and
complete enlightenment of a buddha (samyaksambodhi).
"What is evil? Killing is evil, lying is evil, slandering is evil,
abuse is evil, gossip is evil: envy is evil, hatred is evil, to cling
to false doctrine is evil; all these things are evil. And what is the
root of evil? Desire is the root of evil, illusion is the root of
evil." Gautama Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism, 563–483 BC.
In Hinduism the concept of
Dharma or righteousness clearly divides the
world into good and evil, and clearly explains that wars have to be
waged sometimes to establish and protect Dharma, this war is called
Dharmayuddha. This division of good and evil is of major importance in
both the Hindu epics of
Ramayana and Mahabharata. However, the main
emphasis in Hinduism is on bad action, rather than bad people. The
Hindu holy text, the Bhagavad Gita, speaks of the balance of good and
evil. When this balance goes off, divine incarnations come to help to
restore this balance.
In adherence to the core principle of spiritual evolution, the Sikh
idea of evil changes depending on one's position on the path to
liberation. At the beginning stages of spiritual growth, good and evil
may seem neatly separated. However, once one's spirit evolves to the
point where it sees most clearly, the idea of evil vanishes and the
truth is revealed. In his writings
Guru Arjan explains that, because
God is the source of all things, what we believe to be evil must too
come from God. And because God is ultimately a source of absolute
good, nothing truly evil can originate from God.
Nevertheless, Sikhism, like many other religions, does incorporate a
list of "vices" from which suffering, corruption, and abject
negativity arise. These are known as the Five Thieves, called such due
to their propensity to cloud the mind and lead one astray from the
prosecution of righteous action. These are:
Moh, or Attachment
Lobh, or Greed
Karodh, or Wrath
Kaam, or Lust
Ahankar, or Egotism
One who gives in to the temptations of the
Five Thieves is known as
"Manmukh", or someone who lives selfishly and without virtue.
Inversely, the "Gurmukh, who thrive in their reverence toward divine
knowledge, rise above vice via the practice of the high virtues of
Sikhism. These are:
Sewa, or selfless service to others.
Nam Simran, or meditation upon the divine name.
See also: Islamic views on sin
There is no concept of absolute evil in Islam, as a fundamental
universal principle that is independent from and equal with good in a
dualistic sense. Within Islam, it is considered essential to believe
that all comes from God, whether it is perceived as good or bad by
individuals; and things that are perceived as evil or bad are either
natural events (natural disasters or illnesses) or caused by
humanity's free will. Much more the behavior of beings with free will,
then they disobey God's orders, harming others or putting themselves
over Allah or others, is considered to be evil.
A typical understanding of evil is reflected by
Al-Ash`ari founder of
Asharism. Accordingly qualfifying something as evil depends on the
circumstaces of the observer. An event or an action itself is neutral,
but it receives its qualification by God. Since God is omnipotenct and
nothing can exist outside of God's power, God's will determine, wether
or not something is evil.
According to the
Ahmadiyya understanding of Islam, evil does not have
a positive existence in itself and is merely the lack of good, just as
darkness is the result of lack of light.
See also: Satan in Judaism
In Judaism, evil is not real, it is per se not part of God's creation,
but comes into existence through man's bad actions. Human beings are
responsible for their choices. However Jews and non-Jews have the free
will to choose good (life in olam haba) or bad (death in heaven).
Judaism stresses obedience to God's 613
commandments of the
Written Torah (see also Tanakh) and the collective
body of Jewish religious laws expounded in the
Oral Torah and Shulchan
Aruch (see also
Mishnah and the Talmud). In Judaism, there is no
prejudice in one's becoming good or evil at time of birth, since full
responsibility comes with Bar and Bat Mitzvah, when Jewish boys become
13, and girls become 12 years old.
Devil in Christianity
Evil according to a Christian worldview is any action, thought or
attitude that is contrary to the character or will of God. This is
shown through the law given in both the Old and New Testament. There
is no moral action given in the Bible that is contrary to God's
character or God's will. Therefore, evil in a
Christian world view is contrasted by and in conflict with God's
character or God's will. This evil shows itself through deviation from
the character or will of God.
The devil, in opposition to the will of God, represents evil and
tempts Christ, the personification of the character and will of God.
Ary Scheffer, 1854.
Christian theology draws its concept of evil from the Old and New
Christian Bible exercises "the dominant influence upon
ideas about God and evil in the Western world." In the Old
Testament, evil is understood to be an opposition to God as well as
something unsuitable or inferior such as the leader of the fallen
angels Satan  In the
New Testament the Greek word poneros is used
to indicate unsuitability, while kakos is used to refer to opposition
to God in the human realm. Officially, the Catholic Church
extracts its understanding of evil from its canonical antiquity and
the Dominican theologian, Thomas Aquinas, who in Summa Theologica
defines evil as the absence or privation of good. French-American
Henri Blocher describes evil, when viewed as a theological
concept, as an "unjustifiable reality. In common parlance, evil is
'something' that occurs in experience that ought not to be."
In Mormonism, mortal life is viewed as a test of faith, where one's
choices are central to the Plan of Salvation. See Agency (LDS Church).
Evil is that which keeps one from discovering the nature of God. It is
believed that one must choose not to be evil to return to God.
Christian Science believes that evil arises from a misunderstanding of
the goodness of nature, which is understood as being inherently
perfect if viewed from the correct (spiritual) perspective.
Misunderstanding God's reality leads to incorrect choices, which are
termed evil. This has led to the rejection of any separate power being
the source of evil, or of God as being the source of evil; instead,
the appearance of evil is the result of a mistaken concept of good.
Christian Scientists argue that even the most evil person does not
pursue evil for its own sake, but from the mistaken viewpoint that he
or she will achieve some kind of good thereby.
In the originally Persian religion of Zoroastrianism, the world is a
battle ground between the god
Ahura Mazda (also called Ormazd) and the
Angra Mainyu (also called Ahriman). The final
resolution of the struggle between good and evil was supposed to occur
on a day of Judgement, in which all beings that have lived will be led
across a bridge of fire, and those who are evil will be cast down
forever. In afghan belief, angels and saints are beings sent to help
us achieve the path towards goodness.
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A fundamental question is whether there is a universal, transcendent
definition of evil, or whether evil is determined by one's social or
cultural background. C. S. Lewis, in The Abolition of Man, maintained
that there are certain acts that are universally considered evil, such
as rape and murder. However the numerous instances in which rape or
murder is morally affected by social context call this into question.
Up until the mid-19th century, the United States—along with many
other countries—practiced forms of slavery. As is often the case,
those transgressing moral boundaries stood to profit from that
exercise. Arguably, slavery has always been the same and objectively
evil, but men with a motivation to transgress will justify that
Adolf Hitler is sometimes used as a modern definition of evil.
Hitler's policies and orders resulted in the deaths of about 50
million people in Europe.
The Nazis, during World War II, considered genocide to be
acceptable, as did the
Interahamwe in the Rwandan
genocide. One might point out, though, that the actual
perpetrators of those atrocities probably avoided calling their
actions genocide, since the objective meaning of any act accurately
described by that word is to wrongfully kill a selected group of
people, which is an action that at least their victims will understand
to be evil. Universalists consider evil independent of culture, and
wholly related to acts or intents. Thus, while the ideological leaders
Nazism and the
Hutu Interhamwe accepted (and considered it moral)
to commit genocide, the belief in genocide as fundamentally or
universally evil holds that those who instigated this genocide are
actually evil.[improper synthesis?] Other universalists might argue
that although the commission of an evil act is always evil, those who
perpetrate may not be wholly evil or wholly good entities. To say that
someone who has stolen a candy bar, for instance, becomes wholly evil
is a rather untenable position. However, universalists might also
argue that a person can choose a decidedly evil or a decidedly good
life career, and genocidal dictatorship plainly falls on the side of
Views on the nature of evil tend to fall into one of four opposed
Moral absolutism holds that good and evil are fixed concepts
established by a deity or deities, nature, morality, common sense, or
some other source.
Amoralism claims that good and evil are meaningless, that there is no
moral ingredient in nature.
Moral relativism holds that standards of good and evil are only
products of local culture, custom, or prejudice.
Moral universalism is the attempt to find a compromise between the
absolutist sense of morality, and the relativist view; universalism
claims that morality is only flexible to a degree, and that what is
truly good or evil can be determined by examining what is commonly
considered to be evil amongst all humans.
Plato wrote that there are relatively few ways to do good, but there
are countless ways to do evil, which can therefore have a much greater
impact on our lives, and the lives of other beings capable of
Usefulness as a term
One school of thought that holds that no person is evil, and that only
acts may be properly considered evil. Psychologist and mediator
Marshall Rosenberg claims that the root of violence is the very
concept of evil or badness. When we label someone as bad or evil,
Rosenberg claims, it invokes the desire to punish or inflict pain. It
also makes it easy for us to turn off our feelings towards the person
we are harming. He cites the use of language in Nazi Germany as being
a key to how the German people were able to do things to other human
beings that they normally would not do. He links the concept of evil
to our judicial system, which seeks to create justice via
punishment—punitive justice—punishing acts that are seen as bad or
wrong.He contrasts this approach with what he found
in cultures[which?] where the idea of evil was non-existent. In such
cultures when someone harms another person, they are
believed to be out of harmony with themselves and their community, are
seen as sick or ill and measures are taken to restore them to a sense
of harmonious relations with themselves and others.
Psychologist Albert Ellis agrees, in his school of psychology called
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, or REBT. He says the root of
anger, and the desire to harm someone, is almost always related to
variations of implicit or explicit philosophical beliefs about other
human beings. He further claims that without holding variants of those
covert or overt belief and assumptions, the tendency to resort to
violence in most cases is less likely.
M. Scott Peck on the other hand, describes evil
as militant ignorance. The original Judeo-Christian concept of sin
is as a process that leads one to miss the mark and not achieve
perfection. Peck argues that while most people are conscious of this
at least on some level, those that are evil actively and militantly
refuse this consciousness. Peck describes evil as a malignant type of
self-righteousness which results in a projection of evil onto selected
specific innocent victims (often children or other people in
relatively powerless positions). Peck considers those he calls evil to
be attempting to escape and hide from their own conscience (through
self-deception) and views this as being quite distinct from the
apparent absence of conscience evident in sociopaths.
Genghis Khan is considered by many people to be 'evil'. He is
responsible for over 40 million deaths.
According to Peck, an evil person:
Is consistently self-deceiving, with the intent of avoiding guilt and
maintaining a self-image of perfection
Deceives others as a consequence of their own self-deception
Psychologically projects his or her evils and sins onto very specific
targets, scapegoating those targets while treating everyone else
normally ("their insensitivity toward him was selective") 
Commonly hates with the pretense of love, for the purposes of
self-deception as much as the deception of others
Abuses political or emotional power ("the imposition of one's will
upon others by overt or covert coercion") 
Maintains a high level of respectability and lies incessantly in order
to do so
Is consistent in his or her sins.
Evil people are defined not so much
by the magnitude of their sins, but by their consistency (of
Is unable to think from the viewpoint of their victim
Has a covert intolerance to criticism and other forms of narcissistic
He also considers certain institutions may be evil, as his discussion
My Lai Massacre
My Lai Massacre and its attempted coverup illustrate. By this
definition, acts of criminal and state terrorism would also be
Martin Luther believed that occasional minor evil could have a
Martin Luther argued that there are cases where a little evil is a
positive good. He wrote, "Seek out the society of your boon
companions, drink, play, talk bawdy, and amuse yourself. One must
sometimes commit a sin out of hate and contempt for the Devil, so as
not to give him the chance to make one scrupulous over mere
nothings ... "
According to certain[which?] schools of political philosophy, leaders
should be indifferent to good or evil, taking actions based only upon
practicality; this approach to politics was put forth by Niccolò
Machiavelli, a 16th-century Florentine writer who advised politicians
"... it is far safer to be feared than loved."
The international relations theories of realism and neorealism,
sometimes called realpolitik advise politicians to explicitly ban
absolute moral and ethical considerations from international politics,
and to focus on self-interest, political survival, and power politics,
which they hold to be more accurate in explaining a world they view as
explicitly amoral and dangerous. Political realists usually justify
their perspectives by laying claim to a higher moral duty specific to
political leaders, under which the greatest evil is seen to be the
failure of the state to protect itself and its citizens. Machiavelli
wrote: "... there will be traits considered good that, if
followed, will lead to ruin, while other traits, considered vices
which if practiced achieve security and well being for the
Anton LaVey, founder of the Church of Satan, was a materialist and
claimed that evil is actually good. He was responding to the common
practice of describing sexuality or disbelief as evil, and his claim
was that when the word evil is used to describe the natural pleasures
and instincts of men and women, or the skepticism of an inquiring
mind, the things called evil are really good.
Banality of evil
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
Theodicy and the Bible
^ a b "Evil". Oxford University Press. 2012.
^ Ervin Staub. Overcoming evil: genocide, violent conflict, and
terrorism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, p. 32.
^ Caitlin Matthews, John Matthews. Walkers Between the Worlds: The
Western Mysteries from Shaman to Magus. Inner Traditions / Bear &
Co, Jan 14, 2004. p. 173.
^ Izaak J. de Hulster, "Iconographic Exegesis and Third Isaiah",
^ a b Paul O. Ingram, Frederick John Streng. Buddhist-Christian
Dialogue: Mutual Renewal and Transformation. University of Hawaii
Press, 1986. pp. 148–49.
^ See 'Evil' entry in OED
^ Harper, Douglas (2001). "Etymology for evil".
Evil in Chinese
Philosophy Archived 2006-05-29 at the
Wayback Machine. C.W. Chan
^ History of Chinese
Philosophy Feng Youlan, Volume II The Period of
Classical Learning (from the Second Century B.C. to the Twentieth
Century A.D). Trans. Derk Bodde. Ch. XIV Liu Chiu-Yuan, Wang Shou-jen,
and Ming Idealism. part 6 § 6 Origin of Evil. Uses strikingly similar
language to that in the etymology section of this article, in the
context of Chinese Idealism.
^ a b Benedict de Spinoza, Ethics, Part IV Of Human Bondage or of the
Strength of the Affects Definitions translated by W. H. White, Revised
by A. H. Stirling, Great Books vol 31, Encyclopædia Britannica 1952
^ Stephen Palmquist, Dreams of Wholeness: A course of introductory
lectures on religion, psychology and personal growth (Hong Kong:
Philopsychy Press, 1997/2008), see especially Chapter XI.
^ a b c Coll, 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). Some answered questions.
Translated by Barney, Laura Clifford (Repr. ed.). Wilmette, Illinois:
Bahá'í Publ. Trust. ISBN 0-87743-162-0.
^ Kemboly, Mpay. 2010. The Question of
Evil in Ancient Egypt. London:
Golden House Publications.
Philosophy of Religion Charles Taliaferro, Paul J. Griffiths, eds.
Evil Martin Southwold p. 424
'^ Lay Outreach and the Meaning of '
Evil Person Taitetsu Unno Archived
2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Singh, Gopal (1967). Sri guru-granth sahib [english version]. New
York: Taplinger Publishing Co.
^ Singh, Charan. "
Ethics and Business: Evidence from Sikh Religion".
Social Science Research Network. Indian Institute of Management,
Bangalore. SSRN 2366249 . Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Sandhu, Jaswinder (February 2004). "The Sikh Model of the Person,
Suffering, and Healing: Implications for Counselors". International
Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. 26 (1): 33–46.
^ Singh, Arjan (January 2000). "The universal ideal of sikhism".
Global Dialogue. 2 (1).
^ B. Silverstein
Islam and Modernity in Turkey Springer 2011
ISBN 978-0-230-11703-7 p. 124
^ P. Koslowski The Origin and the Overcoming of
Evil and Suffering in
the World Religions Springer Science & Business Media 2013
ISBN 978-9-401-59789-0 page 37
^ Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge & Truth (PDF). p. 193.
Retrieved June 25, 2014.
^ David Ray Griffin, God, Power, and Evil: a Process Theodicy
(Westminster, 1976/2004), 31.
^ Hans Schwarz, Evil: A Historical and Theological Perspective (Lima,
Ohio: Academic Renewal Press, 2001): 42–43.
^ Schwarz, Evil, 75.
^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, translated by the Fathers of the
English Dominican Province (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1947) Volume
3, q. 72, a. 1, p. 902.
^ Henri Blocher,
Evil and the Cross (Downers Grove: InterVarsity
Press, 1994): 10.
^ Sanburn, Josh (February 4, 2011). "Top 25 Political Icons - Adolf
Hitler". Time. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
^ Del Testa, David W; Lemoine, Florence; Strickland, John (2003).
Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists.
Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-57356-153-2.
^ Gaymon Bennett, Ted Peters, Martinez J. Hewlett, Robert John Russell
(2008). The evolution of evil. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 318.
^ Gourevitch, Philip (1999). We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We
Will be Killed With our Families. Picador.
^ "Frontline: the triumph of evil". Retrieved 2007-04-09.
^ Cherniss, Harold (1954). The Sources of
Evil According to Plato.
American Philosophical Society. pp. 23–30.
ISBN 90-04-05235-6. JSTOR 3143666.
^ a b Peck, M. Scott. (1983, 1988). People of the Lie: The hope for
healing human evil. Century Hutchinson.
^ "9 Lessons on Power and Leadership from Genghis Khan". Forbes. 7 May
^ Peck, M. Scott. (1978, 1992), The Road Less Travelled. Arrow.
^ Peck, 1983/1988, p. 105
^ Peck, 1978/1992, p. 298
^ Martin Luther, Werke, XX, p. 58
^ a b Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince, Dante University of America
Press, 2003, ISBN 0-937832-38-3 ISBN 978-0-937832-38-7
^ Anton LaVey, The Satanic Bible, Avon, 1969, ISBN 0-380-01539-0
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Shermer, M. (2004). The Science of
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Stark, Ryan. Rhetoric, Science, and Magic in Seventeenth-Century
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Look up evil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Evil in Everyday Life
Psychology Today: Indexing Evil
Booknotes interview with Lance Morrow on Evil: An Investigation,
October 19, 2003.
Good and Evil",
BBC Radio 4 discussion with Leszek Kolakowski and
Galen Strawson (In Our Time, Apr. 1, 1999).
BBC Radio 4 discussion with Jones Erwin, Stefan Mullhall and
Margaret Atkins (In Our Time, May 3, 2001)
Good and evil
Christian views on sin
Imputation of sin
Other views on sin
Logical order of God's decrees
See also Apologetics
Philosophy of psychiatry
Philosophy of perception
Space and time
Schools of thought
Acintya bheda abheda
Foundationalism / Coherentism
Internalism and Externalism
Ordinary language philosophy
Rationalism / Reasonism
Philosophy by region
Women in philosophy