HOME
The Info List - Eve


--- Advertisement ---



Eve
Eve
(/ˈiːv/; Hebrew: חַוָּה‬, Modern Chava, Tiberian Ḥawwāh; Arabic: حَوَّاء‎, translit. Ḥawwā’; Syriac: ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. According to the creation myth[1] of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman. In Islamic tradition, Eve
Eve
is known as Adam's wife and the first woman although she is not specifically named in the Quran. According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve
Eve
was created by God (Yahweh) by taking her from the rib[2] of Adam, to be Adam's companion. She succumbs to the serpent's temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She shares the fruit with Adam, and as a result the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden. Christian churches differ on how they view both Adam
Adam
and Eve's disobedience to God (often called the fall of man), and to the consequences that those actions had on the rest of humanity. Christian and Jewish teachings sometimes hold Adam (the first man) and Eve
Eve
to a different level of responsibility for the fall, although Islamic teaching holds both equally responsible. Although Eve
Eve
is not a saint's name, the traditional name day of Adam and Eve
Eve
has been celebrated on December 24 since the Middle Ages in many European countries such as Germany, Hungary, Scandinavia, Estonia, and Lithuania.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 In Genesis

2.1 Creation 2.2 Expulsion from Eden 2.3 Mother of humanity

3 In other works 4 Religious views

4.1 Judaism 4.2 Christianity 4.3 Gnosticism 4.4 Islam 4.5 Bahá'í Faith

5 Family tree 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

Etymology[edit]

Creation of Eve Marble relief by Lorenzo Maitani
Lorenzo Maitani
on the Orvieto Cathedral, Italy

Eve
Eve
in Hebrew is Ḥawwāh and is most commonly believed to mean "living one" or "source of life" as it is phonetically similar to ḥāyâ, "to live". The name is traditionally assumed to derive from the Semitic root ḥyw.[3] In truth, biblical names such as Eve
Eve
were frequently poetic alterations of existing words or based on ancient meanings lost to time, making their etymological origins more challenging to discern, as explained here by Robert Alter: "Like most of the explanations of names in Genesis, this is probably based on folk etymology or an imaginative playing with sound." and "In the Hebrew here, the phonetic similarity is between hawah (חוה), 'Eve,' and the verbal root hayah (חיה), 'to live.' It has been proposed that Eve's name conceals very different origins, for it sounds suspiciously like the Aramaic word for 'serpent'."[4] The difficulty in determining etymology--besides the passage of vast swaths of time--also lies in interpretation. Eve's original biblical name is Chava, which is similar to Chaya (meaning living), but it is also similar to Chiva (meaning serpent).[5] Hawwah has been compared to the Hurrian
Hurrian
goddess Kheba, who was shown in the Amarna letters
Amarna letters
to be worshipped in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Late Bronze Age. It has been suggested that the name Kheba may derive from Kubau, a woman who was the first ruler of the Third Dynasty of Kish.[6][7] The goddess Asherah, wife of El, mother of the elohim from the first millennium BCE was given the title Chawat, from which the name Hawwah in Aramaic was derived, Eve
Eve
in English.[8] It has been suggested that the Hebrew name Eve
Eve
(חַוָּה‬) also bears resemblance[9] to an Aramaic word for "snake" (Old Aramaic language חוה; Jewish Palestinian Aramaic חִוְיָא), see below. In Genesis[edit]

The Creation of Eve, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Sistine Chapel ceiling
by Michelangelo

In the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
of the Hebrew Bible, the first human female is called אישה‬, isha (English: woman) by the first human man, Adam. She is created by Elohim
Elohim
from the man's rib. The origin of this motif is compared to the Sumerian myth in which the goddess Ninhursag created a beautiful garden full of lush vegetation and fruit trees, called Edinu, in Dilmun, the Sumerian earthly Paradise, a place which the Sumerians believed to exist to the east of their own land, beyond the sea.[10] Ninhursag
Ninhursag
charged Enki, her lover and half brother, with controlling the wild animals and tending the garden, but Enki
Enki
became curious about the garden, and his assistant, Adapa, selected seven plants (eight in some version) and offered them to Enki, who ate them. This enraged Ninhursag, and she caused Enki
Enki
to fall ill. Enki
Enki
felt pain in his rib, which is a pun in Sumerian, as the word "ti" means both "rib" and "life". The other deities persuaded Ninhursag
Ninhursag
to relent. Ninhursag then created a new goddess (seven or eight to heal his seven or eight ailing organs, including his rib), who was named Ninti, (a name composed of "Nin", or "lady", and "ti", and which may be translated both as "Lady of Living" and "Lady of the Rib"), to cure Enki[11] Some scholars suggest that this served as the basis for the story of Eve
Eve
as "the mother of life" and lady of the rib, created from Adam's rib in the Book of Genesis.[12] Neither Ninhursag
Ninhursag
nor Ninti are exact parallels of Eve, since both differ from the character, however, given that the pun with rib is present only in Sumerian, linguistic criticism places the Sumerian account as the more ancient and therefore, a possible narrative influence on the Judeo-Christian story of creation.[13] Creation[edit]

William Blake's pencil illustration of The Creation of Eve
Eve
in response to the line "And She Shall Be Called Woman". The object was created c. 1803-05 and currently is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art[14]

Main article: Genesis creation narrative In Genesis 2:18–22, the woman is created to be ezer kenegdo, a term that is notably difficult to translate, to the man. Kenegdo means "alongside, opposite, a counterpart to him", and ezer means active intervention on behalf of the other person.[15] God's naming of the elements of the cosmos in Genesis 1 illustrated his authority over creation; now the man's naming of the animals (and of woman) illustrates his authority within creation.[16] The woman is called ishah, woman, with an explanation that this is because she was taken from ish, meaning "man"; the two words are not in fact connected. Later, after the story of the Garden is complete, she will be given a name, Ḥawwāh (Eve). This means "living" in Hebrew, from a root that can also mean "snake".[17] A long-standing exegetical tradition holds that the use of a rib from man's side emphasizes that both man and woman have equal dignity, for woman was created from the same material as man, shaped and given life by the same processes.[18] In fact, the word traditionally translated "rib" in English can also mean side, chamber, or beam.[19] In the King James Version, אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו‬ is translated as "one of his ribs". The contrary position is that the term צלע‬ or ṣelaʿ, occurring forty-one times in the Tanakh, is most often translated as "side" in general. "Rib" is, however, the etymologically primary meaning of the term, which is from a root ṣ-l-ʿ meaning "bend", a cognate to the Assyrian ṣêlu meaning "rib". Also God took "one" (ʾeḫad) of Adam's ṣelaʿ, suggesting an individual rib. The Septuagint
Septuagint
has μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ, with ἡ πλευρά choosing a Greek term that, like the Hebrew ṣelaʿ, may mean either "rib", or, in the plural, "side [of a man or animal]" in general. The specification "one of the πλευρά" thus closely imitates the Hebrew text. The Aramaic form of the word is עלע or ʿalaʿ, which appears, also in the meaning "rib", in Daniel 7:5. The third-century BC Septuagint
Septuagint
translation into Greek says: "ἔλαβε μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ", literally: "[God] took one of his (i.e. Adam's) pleurōn". The word pleurá in Greek means both "side", or "flank", and "rib"; it is used in the genitive plural (tőn pleurōn) in the Septuagint
Septuagint
text. Usage of the dual number would have rendered taīn pleuraīn rather than tőn pleurōn, and would have clearly directed exegesis towards "one of his [two] flanks" rather than towards "one of his [several] ribs"; however, the dual number is never used in the Septuagint, as it had become practically obsolete in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
by that time. Therefore, as it stands, the Septuagint
Septuagint
supports either reading. The term, "...a rib..."[Gen 2:21–24] – Hebrew tsala` or tsela (from Strong's Concordance #6760 Prime Root) can mean curve, limp, adversity and side. tsal'ah (fem of #6760) being side, chamber, rib, or beam. The traditional reading of "rib" has been questioned recently by feminist theologians who suggest it should instead be rendered as "side", supporting the idea that woman is man's equal and not his subordinate.[20] Such a reading shares elements in common with Aristophanes' story of the origin of love and the separation of the sexes in Plato's Symposium.[21] A recent suggestion, based upon observations that men and women have the same number of ribs, speculates that the bone was the baculum, a small structure found in the penis of many mammals, but not in humans.[22] Expulsion from Eden[edit] Main article: Adam
Adam
and Eve For the Christian doctrines, see Fall of man
Fall of man
and Original sin.

Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
expelled from Eden, by Hans Heyerdahl, 1877

Eva by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(1528)

Eve
Eve
is found in the Genesis 3 expulsion from Eden narrative which is characterized as a parable or "wisdom tale" in the wisdom tradition.[23] This narrative portion is attributed to Yahwist (J) by the documentary hypothesis due to the use of YHWH.[24] In the expulsion from Eden narrative a dialogue is exchanged between a legged serpent (possibly similar to that appearing on the Ishtar Gate of Babylon) and the woman (3:1–5).[25] The serpent is identified in 2:19 as an animal that was made by Yahweh
Yahweh
among the beasts of the field.[26] The woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by repeating Yahweh's prohibition from 2:17.[27] The serpent directly disputes Yahweh's command.[28] Adam
Adam
and the woman sin (3:6-8).[29] Yahweh
Yahweh
questions Adam, who blames the woman (3:9–13).[25] Yahweh
Yahweh
then challenges the woman to explain herself, who blames the serpent, who is cursed to crawl on its belly, so losing its limbs.[30]

Adam, Eve, and the (female) serpent at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, is the portrayal of the image of the serpent as a mirror of Eve
Eve
was common in earlier iconography as a result of the identification of women as the source of human original sin.

Divine pronouncement of three judgments are then laid against all culprits (3:14–19).[25] A judgement oracle and the nature of the crime is first laid upon the serpent, then the woman, and finally Adam. After the serpent is cursed by Yahweh,[31] the woman receives a penalty that impacts two primary roles: childbearing and her subservient relationship to her husband.[32] Adam's penalty thus follows.[33] The reaction of Adam, the naming of Eve, and Yahweh making skin garments are described in a concise narrative (3:20-21). The garden account ends with an intradivine monologue, determining the couple's expulsion, and the execution of that deliberation (3:22–24).[25] Mother of humanity[edit] According to the Bible, for her share in the transgression, Eve
Eve
(and womankind after her) is sentenced to a life of sorrow and travail in childbirth, and to be under the power of her husband. Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
had two sons, Cain
Cain
and Abel
Abel
(Qayin and Heḇel), the first a tiller of the ground, the second a keeper of sheep.[34] After the death of Abel, Eve gave birth to a third son, Seth
Seth
(Šet), from whom Noah
Noah
(and thus the whole of modern humanity) is descended. According to Genesis, Seth
Seth
was born when Adam
Adam
was 130[35] years old[36] "a son in his likeness and image".[36] Genesis 5:4 says that Eve
Eve
had sons and daughters beyond just Cain, Abel, and Seth. In other works[edit]

Lilith, by John Collier, 1887

Certain concepts such as the serpent being identified as Satan, Eve's sin being sexual temptation, or Adam's first wife being Lilith, come from literary works found in various Jewish apocrypha, but not found anywhere in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
or the Torah
Torah
itself. Writings dealing with these subjects are extant literature in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic, going back to ancient Jewish thought. Their influential concepts were then adopted into Christian theology, but not into modern Judaism. This marked a radical split between the two religions. Some of the oldest Jewish portions of apocrypha are called Primary Adam
Adam
Literature where some works became Christianized. Examples of Christianized works is The Book of Adam
Adam
and Eve, known as the Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan, translated from the Ethiopian Ge'ez by Solomon Caesar Malan
Solomon Caesar Malan
(1882)[37] and an original Syriac work entitled Cave of Treasures[38] which has close affinities to the Conflict as noted by August Dillmann.

In the Jewish book The Alphabet of Ben-Sira, Eve
Eve
is Adam's "second wife", where Lilith
Lilith
is his first. In this alternate version, which entered Europe from the East in the 6th century, it suggests that Lilith
Lilith
was created at the same time, from the same earth (Sumerian Ki), as Adam's equal, similar to the Babylonian Lilitu, Sumerian Ninlil
Ninlil
wife of Enlil. Lilith
Lilith
refuses to sleep or serve under Adam. When Adam
Adam
tried to force her into the "inferior" position, she flew away from Eden into the air where she copulated with demons, conceiving hundreds more each day (a derivation of the Arabic djinn). God sent three angels after her, who threatened to kill her brood if she refused to return to Adam. She refuses, leaving God to make a second wife for Adam, except this time from his rib. The Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve, and its Greek version Apocalypse of Moses, is a group of Jewish pseudepigraphical writings that recount the lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
after their expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
to their deaths. The deuterocanonical Book of Tobit
Book of Tobit
affirms that Eve
Eve
was given to Adam as a helper (viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6).

Religious views[edit] Judaism[edit] In the first creation narrative (Elohim) account, it says "male and female [Elohim] created them" (Genesis 1:27), which has been interpreted to imply simultaneous creation of the man and the woman. Whereas the second creation account states that YHWH
YHWH
created Eve
Eve
from Adam's rib, because he was lonely (Genesis 2:18 ff.). Thus to resolve this apparent discrepancy, some medieval rabbis suggested that Eve from the second account, and the woman of the Elohim
Elohim
account, were two separate individuals: Eve
Eve
and Lilith. Midrash Rabbah
Midrash Rabbah
Genesis VIII:1 interprets "male and female He created them" to mean that God originally created Adam
Adam
as a hermaphrodite. In this way, adam was bodily and spiritually male and female. God later decides that "it is not good for adam to be alone", and creates the separate beings, Adam
Adam
and Eve. This promotes the idea of two people joining together to achieve a union of the two separate spirits. The creation of Eve, according to Rabbi Joshua, is that: "God deliberated from what member He would create woman, and He reasoned with Himself thus: I must not create her from Adam's head, for she would be a proud person, and hold her head high. If I create her from the eye, then she will wish to pry into all things; if from the ear, she will wish to hear all things; if from the mouth, she will talk much; if from the heart, she will envy people; if from the hand, she will desire to take all things; if from the feet, she will be a gadabout. Therefore I will create her from the member which is hid, that is the rib, which is not even seen when man is naked."[39] According to the Midrash of Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
and other later sources, either Cain
Cain
had a twin sister, and Abel
Abel
had two twin sisters, or Cain had a twin sister named Lebuda, and Abel
Abel
a twin sister named Qelimath. The traditional Jewish belief is that Eve
Eve
is buried in the Cave of Machpelah. Christianity[edit] Some Early Church Fathers
Early Church Fathers
interpreted 2Cor.11:3 and 1Tim.2:13–14 that the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
promoted the silence and submission of women due to Eve's deception by the serpent, her tempting Adam
Adam
to eat the fatal fruit, and transgressing by eating of the fruit herself. Tertullian
Tertullian
told his female listeners, in the early 2nd century, that they "are the devil's gateway", and went on to explain that all women are responsible for the death of Christ: "On account of your desert – that is, death – even the Son of God had to die."[40] Saint Augustine, according to Elaine Pagels, used the sin of Eve
Eve
to justify his idiosyncratic view of humanity as permanently scarred by the Fall, which led to the Catholic doctrine of original sin. Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
reported that in the Council of Macon (585 CE), attended by 43 bishops, one bishop maintained that woman could not be included under the term "man" as she was responsible for Adam's sin, and had a deficient soul. However, his case was declined and did not press the issue further. Eve, in Christian art, is most usually portrayed as the temptress of Adam, and often during the Renaissance
Renaissance
the serpent in the Garden is portrayed as having a woman's face identical to that of Eve. She was also compared with the Greco-Roman myth of Pandora
Pandora
who was responsible for bringing evil into the world. Some Christians claim monogamy is implied in the story of Adam
Adam
and Eve as one woman is created for one man. Eve's being taken from his side implies not only her secondary role in the conjugal state (1 Corinthians 11:9), but also emphasizes the intimate union between husband and wife, and the dependence of her to him. In conventional Christianity, Eve
Eve
is a prefigurement of Mary, mother of Jesus who is also sometimes called "the Second Eve".

Original Sin, by Michiel Coxie

The snake in this piece, by the Workshop of Giovanni della Robbia, has a woman's face that resembles Eve's.[41]

Gnosticism[edit] In Gnosticism, Eve
Eve
is often seen as the embodiment of the supreme feminine principle, called Barbelo
Barbelo
(from Arb-Eloh), barbeloth, or barthenos. She is equated with the light-maiden of Sophia, creator of the word (Logos) of God, the thygater tou photos or simply the Virgin Maiden, Parthenos. In other texts she is equated with Zoe (Life).[42] In other Gnostic texts, such as The Hypostasis of the Archons
The Hypostasis of the Archons
(The Reality of the Rulers), the Pistis Sophia is equated with Eve's daughter, Norea, the wife of Seth. Especially among the Marcionites, women in Gnosticism
Gnosticism
were considered equal to men, being revered as prophets, teachers, traveling evangelists, faith healers, priests and even bishops. Islam[edit]

Painting from Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), depicting Adam and Eve. From Maragheh
Maragheh
in Iran, 1294–99

Adam's spouse is mentioned in the Quran
Quran
in verses 30–39 of Sura 2, verses 11–25 of Sura 7, verses 26–42 of Sura 15, verses 61–65 of Sura 17, verses 50–51 of Sura 18, verses 110–124 of Sura 20 and in verses 71–85 of Sura 38, but the name "Eve" (Arabic: حواء, Ḥawwā’) is never revealed or used in the Quran. Eve
Eve
is mentioned by name only in hadith.[43] Accounts of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
in Islamic texts, which include the Quran
Quran
and the books of Sunnah, are similar but different to that of the Torah and Bible. There is no Quranic basis for the view that Eve
Eve
was created from Adam's rib; instead the Quran
Quran
relates a gender-neutral account in which God created "one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women" (Surah Al-Nisa 4:1), but there are hadiths that support the creation of woman "from a rib" (Sahih Bukhari 4:55:548, Sahih Bukhari 7:62:114, Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim
8:3467, Sahih Muslim 8:3468). Eve
Eve
is not blamed for enticing Adam
Adam
to eat the forbidden fruit (nor is there the concept of original sin). On the contrary, the Quran
Quran
indicates that "they ate of it" and were both to blame for that transgression ( Quran
Quran
20:121-122). There are subsequent hadiths (narrated by Abu Hurairah), the authenticity of which is contested, that hold that Muhammad
Muhammad
designates Eve
Eve
as the epitome of female betrayal. "Narrated Abu Hurrairah: The Prophet said, 'Were it not for Bani Israel, meat would not decay; and were it not for Eve, no woman would ever betray her husband.'" (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith
Hadith
611, Volume 55) An identical but more explicit version is found in the second most respected book of prophetic narrations, Sahih Muslim. "Abu Hurrairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) as saying: Had it not been for Eve, woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards her husband." ( Hadith
Hadith
3471, Volume 8). Bahá'í Faith[edit] The Bahá'í account of Eve
Eve
is described in Some Answered Questions. `Abdu'l-Bahá describes Eve
Eve
as a symbol of the soul and as containing divine mysteries.[44] The Bahá'í Faith claims the account of Eve
Eve
in previous Abrahamic traditions is metaphorical.[45] Family tree[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam

 

Eve

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cain

 

 

 

Abel

 

 

 

Seth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enoch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mehujael

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahalalel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Methushael

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jared

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adah

 

Lamech

 

 

 

Zillah

 

 

 

Enoch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jabal

 

Jubal

 

Tubal-Cain

 

Naamah

 

Methuselah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lamech

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shem

 

Ham

 

Japheth

See also[edit]

Creationism portal Christianity portal Islam
Islam
portal Judaism portal

Hebat Mitochondrial Eve Paradise Lost Pre-Adamite Shatarupa Tomb of Eve Old Testament Pseudepigrapha:

Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Apocalypse of Adam Testament of Adam Books of Adam Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan

References[edit]

^ Womack 2005, p. 81, "Creation myths are symbolic stories describing how the universe and its inhabitants came to be. Creation myths develop through oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions." ^ Genesis 2:21 ^ American Heritage Dictionary ^ Alter, Robert (September 1, 1996). Genesis: Translation and Commentary (1st print edition ed.). Chapter 3-15 (Genesis 3:20): W. W. Norton & Company. p. 55. ISBN 978-0393039818. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ "Eve's Name: Adam
Adam
& Eve
Eve
Response on Ask the Rabbi". aish.com. Retrieved 24 February 2018.  ^ The Weidner "Chronicle" mentioning Kubaba
Kubaba
from A. K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (1975) ^ Munn, Mark (2004). "Kybele as Kubaba
Kubaba
in a Lydo-Phrygian Context": Emory University cross-cultural conference "Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia" (Abstracts) ^ Dever, William K (2005), "Did God Have A Wife? Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel" (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company) ^ Saul Olyan, Asherah
Asherah
(1988), pp. 70-71, contested by O. Keel ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah. "History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine "Firsts" in Recorded History" (1956) ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities.  ^ Meagher, Robert Emmet (1995). The meaning of Helen : in search of an ancient icon. United States: BOLCHAZY-CARDUCCI PUBS (IL). ISBN 0865165106.  ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah
Noah
(1944, republished 2007), "Sumerian Mythology: A Study of the Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C." (Forgotten Books) ^ Morris Eaves; Robert N. Essick; Joseph Viscomi (eds.). "The Creation of Eve: "And She Shall Be Called Woman", object 1 (Butlin 435) "The Creation of Eve: "And She Shall Be Called Woman""". William Blake Archive.  ^ Alter 2004, p. 22. ^ Turner 2009, p. 20. ^ Hastings 2003, p. 607. ^ Hugenberger 1988, p. 184. ^ Jacobs 2007, p. 37. ^ For the reading "side" in place of traditional "rib", see Jacobs 2007, p. 37 ^ Cf. Robert Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative, Basic Books, 1983, p. 31. ^ Gilbert, Scott F.; Zevit, Ziony (Jul 2001). "Congenital human baculum deficiency: the generative bone of Genesis 2:21–23". Am J Med Genet. 101 (3): 284–5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1387. PMID 11424148.  ^ Freedman, Meyers, Patrick (1983). Carol L. Meyers; Michael Patrick O'Connor; David Noel Freedman, eds. The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman. Eisenbrauns. pp. 343–344. ISBN 9780931464195.  ^ Reed, A. Y. (September 20, 2004). "Source Criticism, the Documentary Hypothesis, and Genesis 1-3" (PDF). RS 2DD3 – Five Books of Moses: 1, 2. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d Mathews 1996, p. 226 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 232 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 235 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 236 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 237 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 242 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 243 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 248 ^ Mathews 1996, p. 252 ^ "Genesis 4". Etext.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14. [permanent dead link] ^ 130 according to the Masoretic Text; 230 according to the Septuagint. Larsson, Gerhard. “The Chronology of the Pentateuch: A Comparison of the MT and LXX.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 102, no. 3, 1983, p. 402. www.jstor.org/stable/3261014. ^ a b Genesis 5:3 ^ First translated by August Dillmann
August Dillmann
(Das christl. Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh. d. Münch. Akad. xv., 1870-1881). ^ Die Schatzhöhle translated by Carl Bezold
Carl Bezold
from three Syriac MSS (1883), edited in Syriac (1888). ^ Polano, Hymen (1890). The Talmud. Selections from the contents of that ancient book... Also, brief sketches of the men who made and commented upon it, p. 280. F. Warne, ISBN 1-150-73362-4, digitized by Google Books on 7 July 2008 ^ "Tertullian, 'De Cultu Feminarum', Book I Chapter I, ''Modesty in Apparel Becoming to Women in Memory of the Introduction of Sin Through a Woman'' (in 'The Ante-Nicene Fathers')". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2012-03-14.  ^ " Adam
Adam
and Eve". The Walters Art Museum.  ^ Krosney, Herbert (2007) "The Lost Gospel: the quest for the Gospel of Judas Iscariot" (National Geographic) ^ Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories In Islamic Societies - Page 9, Amira El Azhary Sonbol - 2005 ^ Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahái̓́ Theology - Volume 8 - Page 215 Jack McLean - 1997 ^ Earth Circles: Baha'i Perspectives on Global Issues - Page 77, Michael Fitzgerald - 2003

Bibliography[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Eve.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Eve

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eve.

Alter, Robert (2004). The Five Books of Moses. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-33393-0.  A translation with commentary. Flood, John (2010). Representations of Eve
Eve
in Antiquity and the English Middle Ages. Routledge. Hastings, James (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 10. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-3682-3.  Hugenberger, G.P. (1988). "Rib". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia, Volume 4. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844.  Jacobs, Mignon R. (2007). Gender, Power, and Persuasion: The Genesis Narratives and Contemporary Perspectives. Baker Academic.  Mathews, K. A. (1996). Genesis 1–11:26. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 9780805401011.  Norris, Pamela (1998). The Story of Eve. MacMillan Books. Pagels, Elaine (1989). Adam, Eve
Eve
and the Serpent. Vintage Books. Paulinus Minorita. Compendium.[full citation needed] Tumanov, Vladimir (2011). "Mary versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women". Neophilologus: International Journal of Modern and Mediaeval Language and Literature 95.4: 507–521. Turner, Laurence A. (2009). Genesis (2nd ed.). Sheffield: Phoenix Press. ISBN 9781906055653.  Womack, Mari (2005). Symbols and Meaning: A Concise Introduction. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0322-1. 

v t e

Important women in Islam

Generations of Adam

Hawwa

Generations of Ibrāhīm and his sons

Sarah Hājar Rebecca Rāḥīl

Generation of Mūsa

Asiya Jochebed Miriam Ṣaffūrah

Reign of Kings

Bilquis, the Queen of Sheba

House of Amram

Hannah Mariam Elizabeth

Time of Muhammad

Aminah Khadija bint Khuwaylid Mothers of the Believers Fatimah Zaynab bint Ali

Early Sufism

Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya

v t e

Adam
Adam
and Eve

Source

Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book of Genesis Adam Eve

Offspring

Cain
Cain
and Abel Aclima Seth Awan Azura

Television

"Probe 7, Over and Out" (1963)

Film

Mama's Affair
Mama's Affair
(1921) Good Morning, Eve!
Good Morning, Eve!
(1934) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1937) The Original Sin
Original Sin
(1948) The Private Lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1960) El pecado de Adán y Eva
El pecado de Adán y Eva
(1969) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Annunciation (1984) Adipapam
Adipapam
(1988) Adam
Adam
(1992) Man's Best Friend (1998) Babs (2000) The Last Eve
The Last Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(2011) Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) Tropico (2013)

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1808) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(1861) The Creation of the World and Other Business
The Creation of the World and Other Business
(1972)

Musicals

The Apple Tree
The Apple Tree
(1966) Dude (1972) Up from Paradise
Up from Paradise
(1973) Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991)

Compositions

The Creation (1798)

structure

La mort d' Adam
Adam
(1809) Ève
Ève
(1875) Genesis Suite
Genesis Suite
(1945) Lilith
Lilith
(2001)

Literature

Apocalypse of Adam Book of Moses Book of Abraham Books of Adam Book of the Penitence of Adam Cave of Treasures "El y Ella" Genesis A
Genesis A
and Genesis B Harrowing of Hell Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Testament of Adam Testimony of Truth
Testimony of Truth
(3rd century) Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan
Satan
(6th century) "Old Saxon Genesis" (9th century) " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden" (15th century) Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) Le Dernier Homme
Le Dernier Homme
(1805) Extracts from Adam's Diary
Extracts from Adam's Diary
(1904) Eve's Diary
Eve's Diary
(1905) The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
(2009)

Art

Bernward Doors
Bernward Doors
(1015) Tapestry of Creation
Tapestry of Creation
(11th century) Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
(1425) Vienna Diptych
Vienna Diptych
(15th century) The Last Judgment (1482) The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of Earthly Delights
(1504) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1507) Paradise and Hell
Paradise and Hell
(1510) The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) The Haywain Triptych
The Haywain Triptych
(1516) Eve, the Serpent and Death
Eve, the Serpent and Death
(1510s or 1520s) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1528) The Fall of Man (1550) Maps of ancient Israel The Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
with the Fall of Man (1617) The Fall of Man (1628) The Four Seasons (1660s) The Koren Picture- Bible
Bible
(1692–1696) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(1888) Eve
Eve
(1931) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1932) The Serpent Chooses Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1958) Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1992)

Songs

"Dese Bones G'wine Rise Again" "Adam-ondi-Ahman" (1835) "Forbidden Fruit" (1915) "The Garden of Eden" (1956) "Let's Give Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
Another Chance" (1970) "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" (1979)

Albums

The Cainian Chronicle
The Cainian Chronicle
(1996) Visions of Eden
Visions of Eden
(2006)

Other cultures

Adam–God doctrine Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(LDS Church) Adam
Adam
in Islam Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature Al-A'raf Book of Moses Endowment Manu (Hinduism) Mashya and Mashyana Serpent seed Tree of Jiva and Atman Tree of life (Quran) Our Lady of Endor Coven

Geography

Adam-ondi-Ahman Tomb of Eve

Biology

Mitochondrial Eve Y-chromosomal Adam The Real Eve

Story within a story

Doraemon: Nobita's Diary of the Creation of the World Island of Love The Visitors

Games

Demon: The Fallen (2002)

Related theology

Fall of man Original sin Garden of Eden Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Serpents in the Bible Forbidden fruit

Apple Fig leaf

Figs in the Bible Adam's ale Adamic language Rosh Hashanah Camael Shamsiel Tree of life Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

Other

Pre-Adamite Generations of Adam Cave of the Patriarchs "In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela" "Simpsons Bible
Bible
Stories" Second Time Lucky Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
cylinder seal Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Genealogies of Genesis Carnal knowledge Legend of the Rood

Ystorya Adaf

Snakes for the Divine Ransom theory of atonement

v t e

Cain
Cain
and Abel

Book of Genesis

Biblical characters

Adam Eve Cain
Cain
and Abel Lucifer Enoch Awan

Portrayals in media

Film

East of Eden (film, 1952) Caín (1984) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Last Eve
The Last Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) Abel
Abel
Cain

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) Cain
Cain
(1821)

Musicals

Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991) Here's Where I Belong
Here's Where I Belong
(1968)

Literature

Book of the Penitence of Adam East of Eden (novel, 1952) Abel
Abel
Sánchez: The History of a Passion (1917) The Book of Lies (2008)

Songs

"Should the Bible
Bible
Be Banned" (1988) "Cain's Blood" (1995)

Other

La mort d' Abel
Abel
(composition, 1810) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(painting, 1888) Cain
Cain
and Abel
Abel
(TV series, 2009) Cain
Cain
and Abel
Abel
(DC Comics) Kane (Command & Conquer video game character)

Related theology

Adam
Adam
and Eve Curse and mark of Cain Serpent seed

Christian Identity

Cain
Cain
and Abel
Abel
in Islam Balbira and Kalmana Cainites

Other

Generations of Adam Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Land of Nod Dracul

.