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EVE (/ˈiːv/ ; Hebrew : חַוָּה‎, Classical Hebrew : ḤAWWāH, in Aramaean and Modern Israeli Hebrew : CHAVAH, Arabic : حَوَّاء‎, translit. Ḥawwā’‎, Syriac : ܚܘܐ) is a figure in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
. According to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions , she was the first woman . In Islamic tradition , Eve
Eve
is known as Adam's wife and the first woman although she is not specifically named in the Quran
Quran
.

According to the second chapter of Genesis, Eve
Eve
was created by God ( Yahweh
Yahweh
) by taking her from the rib of Adam
Adam
, to be Adam's companion. She succumbs to the serpent 's temptation to eat the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil . She shares the fruit with Adam, and as a result the first humans are expelled from the Garden of Eden . Christian churches differ on how they view both Adam
Adam
and Eve's disobedience to God (often called the fall of man ), and to the consequences that those actions had on the rest of humanity. Christian and Jewish teachings sometimes hold Adam (the first man) and Eve
Eve
to a different level of responsibility for the fall, although Islamic teaching holds both equally responsible.

Although Eve
Eve
is not a saint's name, the traditional name day of Adam and Eve
Eve
has been celebrated on December 24 since the Middle Ages in many European countries such as Germany, Hungary, Scandinavia, Estonia, and Lithuania.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 In Genesis

* 2.1 Creation * 2.2 Expulsion from Eden * 2.3 Mother of humanity

* 3 In other works

* 4 Religious views

* 4.1 Judaism * 4.2 Christianity * 4.3 Gnosticism
Gnosticism
* 4.4 Islam
Islam
* 4.5 Bahá\'í Faith

* 5 Family tree * 6 See also

* 7 References

* 7.1 Bibliography

ETYMOLOGY

Creation of Eve Marble relief by Lorenzo Maitani on the Orvieto Cathedral , Italy

Eve
Eve
in Hebrew is Ḥawwāh, meaning "living one" or "source of life", and is related to ḥāyâ, "to live". The name derives from the Semitic root ḥyw.

Hawwah has been compared to the Hurrian
Hurrian
goddess Kheba , who was shown in the Amarna letters to be worshipped in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. It has been suggested that the name Kheba may derive from Kubau , a woman who was the first ruler of the Third Dynasty of Kish .

The goddess Asherah
Asherah
, wife of El , mother of the elohim from the first millennium BCE was given the title Chawat, from which the name Hawwah in Aramaic was derived, Eve
Eve
in English.

It has been suggested that the Hebrew name Eve
Eve
(חַוָּה‎) also bears resemblance to an Aramaic word for "snake" (Old Aramaic language חוה; Jewish Palestinian Aramaic חִוְיָא), see below.

IN GENESIS

The Creation of Eve, from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Sistine Chapel ceiling
by Michelangelo
Michelangelo

In the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, the first human female is called אישה‎, isha (English: woman) by the first human man, Adam. She is created by Elohim from the man's rib. The origin of this motif is compared to the Sumerian myth in which the goddess Ninhursag created a beautiful garden full of lush vegetation and fruit trees, called Edinu , in Dilmun , the Sumerian earthly Paradise, a place which the Sumerians believed to exist to the east of their own land, beyond the sea.

Ninhursag charged Enki
Enki
, her lover and half brother, with controlling the wild animals and tending the garden, but Enki
Enki
became curious about the garden, and his assistant, Adapa
Adapa
, selected seven plants (eight in some version) and offered them to Enki, who ate them. This enraged Ninhursag, and she caused Enki
Enki
to fall ill. Enki
Enki
felt pain in his rib, which is a pun in Sumerian, as the word "ti" means both "rib" and "life". The other deities persuaded Ninhursag to relent. Ninhursag then created a new goddess (seven or eight to heal his seven or eight ailing organs, including his rib), who was named Ninti , (a name composed of "Nin", or "lady", and "ti", and which may be translated both as "Lady of Living" and "Lady of the Rib"), to cure Enki
Enki
Some scholars suggest that this served as the basis for the story of Eve
Eve
as "the mother of life" and lady of the rib, created from Adam
Adam
's rib in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
. Neither Ninhursag nor Ninti are exact parallels of Eve, since both differ from the character, however, given that the pun with rib is present only in Sumerian, linguistic criticism places the Sumerian account as the more ancient and therefore, a possible narrative influence on the Judeo-Christian story of creation.

CREATION

William Blake's pencil illustration of The Creation of Eve
Eve
in response to the line "And She Shall Be Called Woman". The object was created c. 1803-05 and currently is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art Main article: Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative

In Genesis 2:18–22, the woman is created to be ezer kenegdo, a term that is notably difficult to translate, to the man. Kenegdo means "alongside, opposite, a counterpart to him", and ezer means active intervention on behalf of the other person. God's naming of the elements of the cosmos in Genesis 1 illustrated his authority over creation; now the man's naming of the animals (and of woman) illustrates his authority within creation.

The woman is called ishah, woman, with an explanation that this is because she was taken from ish, meaning "man"; the two words are not in fact connected. Later, after the story of the Garden is complete, she will be given a name, Hawwah (Eve). This means "living" in Hebrew, from a root that can also mean "snake". A long-standing exegetical tradition holds that the use of a rib from man's side emphasizes that both man and woman have equal dignity, for woman was created from the same material as man, shaped and given life by the same processes. In fact, the word traditionally translated "rib" in English can also mean side, chamber, or beam.

In the King James Version
King James Version
, אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו‎ is translated as "one of his ribs". The contrary position is that the term צלע‎ or ṣelaʿ, occurring forty-one times in the Tanakh
Tanakh
, is most often translated as "side" in general. "Rib" is, however, the etymologically primary meaning of the term, which is from a root ṣ-l-ʿ meaning "bend", a cognate to the Assyrian ṣêlu meaning "rib". Also God took "one" (ʾeḫad) of Adam's ṣelaʿ, suggesting an individual rib. The Septuagint
Septuagint
has μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ, with ἡ πλευρά choosing a Greek term that, like the Hebrew ṣelaʿ, may mean either "rib", or, in the plural, "side " in general. The specification "one of the πλευρά" thus closely imitates the Hebrew text. The Aramaic form of the word is עלע or ʿalaʿ, which appears, also in the meaning "rib", in Daniel 7:5.

The third-century BC Septuagint
Septuagint
translation into Greek says: "ἔλαβε μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ", literally: " took one of his (i.e. Adam's) pleurōn". The word pleurá in Greek means both "side", or "flank", and "rib"; it is used in the genitive plural (tőn pleurōn) in the Septuagint
Septuagint
text. Usage of the dual number would have rendered taīn pleuraīn rather than tőn pleurōn, and would have clearly directed exegesis towards "one of his flanks" rather than towards "one of his ribs"; however, the dual number is never used in the Septuagint, as it had become practically obsolete in Koine Greek
Koine Greek
by that time. Therefore, as it stands, the Septuagint
Septuagint
supports either reading.

The term, "...a rib..." – Hebrew tsala` or tsela (from Strong's Concordance #6760 Prime Root) can mean curve, limp, adversity and side. tsal'ah (fem of #6760) being side, chamber, rib, or beam. The traditional reading of "rib" has been questioned recently by feminist theologians who suggest it should instead be rendered as "side", supporting the idea that woman is man's equal and not his subordinate. Such a reading shares elements in common with Aristophanes
Aristophanes
' story of the origin of love and the separation of the sexes in Plato
Plato
's Symposium .

A recent suggestion, based upon observations that men and women have the same number of ribs, speculates that the bone was the baculum , a small structure found in the penis of many mammals, but not in humans.

EXPULSION FROM EDEN

Main article: Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
For the Christian doctrines, see Fall of man and Original sin
Original sin
. Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
expelled from Eden, by Hans Heyerdahl , 1877 Eva by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(1528)

Eve
Eve
is found in the Genesis 3 expulsion from Eden narrative which is characterized as a parable or "wisdom tale" in the wisdom tradition . This narrative portion is attributed to Yahwist (J) by the documentary hypothesis due to the use of YHWH
YHWH
.

In the expulsion from Eden narrative a dialogue is exchanged between a legged serpent (possibly similar to that appearing on the Ishtar Gate of Babylon) and the woman (3:1–5). The serpent is identified in 2:19 as an animal that was made by Yahweh
Yahweh
among the beasts of the field. The woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by repeating Yahweh's prohibition from 2:17. The serpent directly disputes Yahweh's command. Adam
Adam
and the woman sin (3:6-8). Yahweh
Yahweh
questions Adam, who blames the woman (3:9–13). Yahweh
Yahweh
then challenges the woman to explain herself, who blames the serpent, who is cursed to crawl on its belly, so losing its limbs. Adam, Eve, and the (female) serpent at the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, is the portrayal of the image of the serpent as a mirror of Eve
Eve
was common in earlier iconography as a result of the identification of women as the source of human original sin .

Divine pronouncement of three judgments are then laid against all culprits (3:14–19). A judgement oracle and the nature of the crime is first laid upon the serpent, then the woman, and finally Adam. After the serpent is cursed by Yahweh, the woman receives a penalty that impacts two primary roles: childbearing and her subservient relationship to her husband. Adam's penalty thus follows. The reaction of Adam, the naming of Eve, and Yahweh
Yahweh
making skin garments are described in a concise narrative (3:20-21). The garden account ends with an intradivine monologue, determining the couple's expulsion, and the execution of that deliberation (3:22–24).

MOTHER OF HUMANITY

According to the Bible, for her share in the transgression, Eve
Eve
(and womankind after her) is sentenced to a life of sorrow and travail in childbirth, and to be under the power of her husband. Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
had two sons, Cain and Abel (Qayin and Heḇel), the first a tiller of the ground, the second a keeper of sheep. After the death of Abel, Eve gave birth to a third son, Seth
Seth
(Šet), from whom Noah
Noah
(and thus the whole of modern humanity) is descended. Genesis 5:4 says that Eve
Eve
had sons and daughters beyond just Cain, Abel, and Seth.

IN OTHER WORKS

Lilith, by John Collier , 1887

Certain concepts such as the serpent being identified as Satan
Satan
, Eve's sin being sexual temptation, or Adam's first wife being Lilith
Lilith
, come from literary works found in various Jewish apocrypha , but not found anywhere in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
or the Torah
Torah
itself. Writings dealing with these subjects are extant literature in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic, going back to ancient Jewish thought. There influential concepts were then adopted into Christian theology, but not into modern Judaism. This marked a radical split between the two religions. Some of the oldest Jewish portions of apocrypha are called Primary Adam
Adam
Literature where some works became Christianized. Examples of Christianized works is The Book of Adam
Adam
and Eve, known as the Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan
Satan
, translated from the Ethiopian Ge\'ez by Solomon Caesar Malan
Solomon Caesar Malan
(1882) and an original Syriac work entitled Cave of Treasures which has close affinities to the Conflict as noted by August Dillmann .

* In the Jewish book The Alphabet of Ben-Sira , Eve
Eve
is Adam's "second wife", where Lilith
Lilith
is his first. In this alternate version, which entered Europe from the East in the 6th century, it suggests that Lilith
Lilith
was created at the same time, from the same earth (Sumerian Ki ), as Adam's equal, similar to the Babylonian Lilitu , Sumerian Ninlil wife of Enlil. Lilith
Lilith
refuses to sleep or serve under Adam. When Adam
Adam
tried to force her into the "inferior" position, she flew away from Eden into the air where she copulated with demons, conceiving hundreds more each day (a derivation of the Arabic djinn ). God sent three angels after her, who threatened to kill her brood if she refused to return to Adam. She refuses, leaving God to make a second wife for Adam, except this time from his rib. * The Life of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
, and its Greek version Apocalypse of Moses , is a group of Jewish pseudepigraphical writings that recount the lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
after their expulsion from the Garden of Eden to their deaths. * The deuterocanonical Book of Tobit
Book of Tobit
affirms that Eve
Eve
was given to Adam
Adam
as a helper (viii, 8; Sept., viii, 6).

RELIGIOUS VIEWS

JUDAISM

In the first creation narrative ( Elohim ) account, it says "male and female created them" (Genesis 1:27), which has been interpreted to imply simultaneous creation of the man and the woman. Whereas the second creation account states that YHWH
YHWH
created Eve
Eve
from Adam's rib, because he was lonely (Genesis 2:18 ff.). Thus to resolve this apparent discrepancy, some medieval rabbis suggested that Eve
Eve
from the second account, and the woman of the Elohim account, were two separate individuals: Eve
Eve
and Lilith
Lilith
.

Midrash Rabbah Genesis VIII:1 interprets "male and female He created them" to mean that God originally created Adam
Adam
as a hermaphrodite . In this way, adam was bodily and spiritually male and female. God later decides that "it is not good for adam to be alone", and creates the separate beings, Adam
Adam
and Eve. This promotes the idea of two people joining together to achieve a union of the two separate spirits.

The creation of Eve, according to Rabbi Joshua , is that: "God deliberated from what member He would create woman, and He reasoned with Himself thus: I must not create her from Adam's head, for she would be a proud person, and hold her head high. If I create her from the eye, then she will wish to pry into all things; if from the ear, she will wish to hear all things; if from the mouth, she will talk much; if from the heart, she will envy people; if from the hand, she will desire to take all things; if from the feet, she will be a gadabout. Therefore I will create her from the member which is hid, that is the rib, which is not even seen when man is naked."

According to the Midrash of Genesis Rabba and other later sources, either Cain
Cain
had a twin sister, and Abel
Abel
had two twin sisters, or Cain had a twin sister named Lebuda, and Abel
Abel
a twin sister named Qelimath. The traditional Jewish belief is that Eve
Eve
is buried in the Cave of Machpelah .

CHRISTIANITY

Some Early Church Fathers interpreted 2Cor.11:3 and 1Tim.2:13–14 that the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
promoted the silence and submission of women due to Eve's deception by the serpent, her tempting Adam
Adam
to eat the fatal fruit, and transgressing by eating of the fruit herself.

Tertullian
Tertullian
told his female listeners, in the early 2nd century, that they "are the devil's gateway", and went on to explain that all women are responsible for the death of Christ: "On account of your desert – that is, death – even the Son of God had to die."

Saint Augustine , according to Elaine Pagels , used the sin of Eve
Eve
to justify his idiosyncratic view of humanity as permanently scarred by the Fall, which led to the Catholic doctrine of original sin .

Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
reported that in the Council of Macon (585 CE ), attended by 43 bishops, one bishop maintained that woman could not be included under the term "man" as she was responsible for Adam's sin, and had a deficient soul. However, his case was declined and did not press the issue further.

Eve, in Christian art, is most usually portrayed as the temptress of Adam, and often during the Renaissance
Renaissance
the serpent in the Garden is portrayed as having a woman's face identical to that of Eve. She was also compared with the Greco-Roman myth of Pandora who was responsible for bringing evil into the world.

Some Christians claim monogamy is implied in the story of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
as one woman is created for one man. Eve's being taken from his side implies not only her secondary role in the conjugal state (1 Corinthians 11:9), but also emphasizes the intimate union between husband and wife, and the dependence of her to him.

In conventional Christianity, Eve
Eve
is a prefigurement of Mary, mother of Jesus who is also sometimes called "the Second Eve".

*

Original Sin
Original Sin
, by Michiel Coxie *

The snake in this piece, by the Workshop of Giovanni della Robbia, has a woman's face that resembles Eve's.

GNOSTICISM

In Gnosticism
Gnosticism
, Eve
Eve
is often seen as the embodiment of the supreme feminine principle, called Barbelo (from Arb-Eloh), barbeloth, or barthenos. She is equated with the light-maiden of Sophia , creator of the word (Logos ) of God, the thygater tou photos or simply the Virgin Maiden, Parthenos . In other texts she is equated with Zoe (Life). In other Gnostic texts, such as The Hypostasis of the Archons
The Hypostasis of the Archons
(The Reality of the Rulers), the Pistis Sophia is equated with Eve's daughter, Norea , the wife of Seth. Especially among the Marcionites , women in Gnosticism
Gnosticism
were considered equal to men, being revered as prophets, teachers, traveling evangelists, faith healers, priests and even bishops.

ISLAM

Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
expelled from Paradise, from a Fal-nameh manuscript, Topkapi Palace library, Istanbul
Istanbul
.

Adam's spouse is mentioned in the Quran
Quran
in verses 30–39 of Sura 2, verses 11–25 of Sura 7, verses 26–42 of Sura 15, verses 61–65 of Sura 17, verses 50–51 of Sura 18, verses 110–124 of Sura 20 and in verses 71–85 of Sura 38, but the name "Eve" (Arabic : حواء, Hawwāʾ) is never revealed or used in the Quran. Eve
Eve
is mentioned by name only in hadith .

Accounts of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
in Islamic texts, which include the Quran and the books of Sunnah
Sunnah
, are similar but different to that of the Torah
Torah
and Bible
Bible
. There is no Quranic basis for the view that Eve
Eve
was created from Adam's rib; instead the Quran
Quran
relates a gender-neutral account in which God created "one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women" (Surah Al-Nisa 4:1), but there are hadiths that support the creation of woman "from a rib" (Sahih Bukhari 4:55:548, Sahih Bukhari 7:62:114, Sahih Muslim 8:3467, Sahih Muslim 8:3468). Eve
Eve
is not blamed for enticing Adam
Adam
to eat the forbidden fruit (nor is there the concept of original sin). On the contrary, the Quran
Quran
indicates that "they ate of it" and were both to blame for that transgression ( Quran
Quran
20:121-122).

There are subsequent hadiths (narrated by Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
), the authenticity of which is contested, that hold that Muhammad
Muhammad
designates Eve
Eve
as the epitome of female betrayal. "Narrated Abu Hurrairah: The Prophet said, 'Were it not for Bani Israel, meat would not decay; and were it not for Eve, no woman would ever betray her husband.'" (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith
Hadith
611, Volume 55) An identical but more explicit version is found in the second most respected book of prophetic narrations, Sahih Muslim. "Abu Hurrairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) as saying: Had it not been for Eve, woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards her husband." ( Hadith
Hadith
3471, Volume 8).

BAHá\'í FAITH

The Bahá'í account of Eve
Eve
is described in Some Answered Questions . `Abdu'l-Bahá describes Eve
Eve
as a symbol of the soul and as containing divine mysteries. The Bahá'í Faith claims the account of Eve
Eve
in previous Abrahamic traditions is metaphorical.

FAMILY TREE

Adam
Adam

Eve

Cain
Cain

Abel
Abel

Seth
Seth

Enoch

Enos

Irad

Kenan
Kenan

Mehujael

Mahalalel

Methushael

Jared

Adah

Lamech

Zillah

Enoch

Jabal

Jubal

Tubal- Cain
Cain

Naamah

Methuselah
Methuselah

Lamech

Noah
Noah

Shem
Shem

Ham

Japheth
Japheth

SEE ALSO

* Creationism portal * Christianity portal * Islam
Islam
portal * Judaism portal

* Hebat * Mitochondrial Eve
Mitochondrial Eve
* Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
* Pre-Adamite * Tomb of Eve

REFERENCES

* ^ Womack 2005 , p. 81, "Creation myths are symbolic stories describing how the universe and its inhabitants came to be. Creation myths develop through oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions." * ^ Genesis 2:21 * ^ American Heritage Dictionary * ^ The Weidner "Chronicle" mentioning Kubaba from A. K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (1975) * ^ Munn, Mark (2004). "Kybele as Kubaba in a Lydo-Phrygian Context": Emory University cross-cultural conference "Hittites, Greeks and Their Neighbors in Central Anatolia" (Abstracts) * ^ Dever, William K (2005), "Did God Have A Wife? Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel" (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company) * ^ Saul Olyan, Asherah
Asherah
(1988), pp. 70-71, contested by O. Keel * ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah
Noah
. "History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine "Firsts" in Recorded History" (1956) * ^ Charles Russell Coulter; Patricia Turner (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. * ^ Meagher, Robert Emmet (1995). The meaning of Helen : in search of an ancient icon. United States: BOLCHAZY-CARDUCCI PUBS (IL). ISBN 0865165106 . * ^ Kramer, Samuel Noah
Noah
(1944, republished 2007), "Sumerian Mythology: A Study of the Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C." (Forgotten Books) * ^ Morris Eaves; Robert N. Essick; Joseph Viscomi (eds.). "The Creation of Eve: "And She Shall Be Called Woman", object 1 (Butlin 435) "The Creation of Eve: "And She Shall Be Called Woman""". William Blake Archive . * ^ Alter 2004 , p. 22. * ^ Turner 2009 , p. 20. * ^ Hastings 2003 , p. 607. * ^ Hugenberger 1988 , p. 184. * ^ Jacobs 2007 , p. 37. * ^ For the reading "side" in place of traditional "rib", see Mignon R. Jacobs, Gender, Power, and Persuasion: The Genesis Narratives and Contemporary Perspectives, Baker Academic, 2007, p. 37. * ^ Cf. Robert Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative, Basic Books, 1983, p. 31. * ^ Gilbert, Scott F. ; Zevit, Ziony (Jul 2001). "Congenital human baculum deficiency: the generative bone of Genesis 2:21–23.". Am J Med Genet . 101 (3): 284–5. PMID 11424148 . doi :10.1002/ajmg.1387 .

* ^ Freedman, Meyers, Patrick (1983). Carol L. Meyers ; Michael Patrick O'Connor; David Noel Freedman , eds. The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman . Eisenbrauns . pp. 343–344. ISBN 9780931464195 . * ^ Reed, A. Y. (September 20, 2004). "Source Criticism, the Documentary Hypothesis, and Genesis 1-3" (PDF). RS 2DD3 – Five Books of Moses: 1, 2. * ^ A B C D Mathews 1996 , p. 226 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 232 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 235 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 236 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 237 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 242 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 243 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 248 * ^ Mathews 1996 , p. 252 * ^ "Genesis 4". Etext.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-14. * ^ First translated by August Dillmann (Das christl. Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh. d. Münch. Akad. xv., 1870-1881). * ^ Die Schatzhöhle translated by Carl Bezold from three Syriac MSS (1883), edited in Syriac (1888). * ^ Polano, Hymen (1890). The Talmud. Selections from the contents of that ancient book... Also, brief sketches of the men who made and commented upon it, p. 280. F. Warne, ISBN 1-150-73362-4 , digitized by Google Books on 7 July 2008 * ^ "Tertullian, \'De Cultu Feminarum\', Book I Chapter I, \'\'Modesty in Apparel Becoming to Women in Memory of the Introduction of Sin Through a Woman\'\' (in \'The Ante-Nicene Fathers\')". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2012-03-14. * ^ " Adam
Adam
and Eve". The Walters Art Museum
The Walters Art Museum
. * ^ Krosney, Herbert (2007) "The Lost Gospel: the quest for the Gospel of Judas Iscariot" (National Geographic) * ^ Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories In Islamic Societies - Page 9, Amira El Azhary Sonbol - 2005 * ^ Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahái̓́ Theology - Volume 8 - Page 215 Jack McLean - 1997 * ^ Earth Circles: Baha'i Perspectives on Global Issues - Page 77, Michael Fitzgerald - 2003

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article EVE .

Wikiquote has quotations related to: EVE

Wikimedia Commons has media related to EVE .

* Alter, Robert (2004). The Five Books of Moses. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-33393-0 . A translation with commentary. * Flood, John (2010). Representations of Eve
Eve
in Antiquity and the English Middle Ages. Routledge. * Mathews, K. A. (1996). Genesis 1–11:26. B&H Publishing Group . ISBN 9780805401011 . * Norris, Pamela (1998). The Story of Eve. MacMillan Books. * Pagels, Elaine (1989). Adam, Eve
Eve
and the Serpent. Vintage Books. * Paulinus Minorita. Compendium. * Tumanov, Vladimir (2011). "Mary versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women". Neophilologus: International Journal of Modern and Mediaeval Language and Literature 95.4: 507–521. * Turner, Laurence A. (2009). Genesis (2nd ed.). Sheffield: Phoenix Press. ISBN 9781906055653 .

* v * t * e

Important women in Islam
Islam

GENERATIONS OF ADAM

* Hawwa

GENERATIONS OF IBRāHīM AND HIS SONS

* Sarah * Hājar * Rebecca
Rebecca
* Rachel

GENERATION OF MūSA

* Asiya * Jochebed * Miriam * Ṣaffūrah

REIGN OF KINGS

* Bilquis, the Queen of Sheba
Queen of Sheba

HOUSE OF AMRAM

* Hannah * Mariam * Elizabeth

TIME OF MUHAMMAD

* Aminah * Khadija bint Khuwaylid * Mothers of the Believers * Fatimah * Zaynab bint Ali

EARLY SUFISM

* Rabi\'a al-\'Adawiyya

* v * t * e

Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve

SOURCE

* Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
* Adam
Adam
* Eve * Lucifer
Lucifer

OFFSPRING

* Cain and Abel * Aclima * Seth
Seth
* Awan * Azura

TELEVISION

* " Probe 7, Over and Out " (1963)

FILM

* Mama\'s Affair (1921) * Good Morning, Eve! (1934) * The Broken Jug (1937) * The Original Sin
Original Sin
(1948) * The Private Lives of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1960) * El pecado de Adán y Eva (1969) * La Biblia en pasta (1984) * The Annunciation (1984) * Adipapam (1988) * Adam
Adam
(1992) * Man\'s Best Friend (1998) * Babs (2000) * The Last Eve (2005) * Year One (2009) * The Tragedy of Man (2011) * Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) * Tropico (2013)

PLAYS

* Le Jeu d\' Adam
Adam
(12th century) * The Broken Jug (1808) * The Tragedy of Man (1861) * The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972)

MUSICALS

* The Apple Tree (1966) * Dude (1972) * Up from Paradise (1973) * Children of Eden (1991)

COMPOSITIONS

* The Creation (1798)

* structure

* La mort d\' Adam
Adam
(1809) * Ève (1875) * Genesis Suite (1945) * Lilith
Lilith
(2001)

LITERATURE

* Apocalypse of Adam
Adam
* Book of Moses * Book of Abraham * Books of Adam
Adam
* Book of the Penitence of Adam
Adam
* Cave of Treasures * " El y Ella " * Genesis A and Genesis B * Harrowing of Hell * Life of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
* Testament of Adam
Adam
* Testimony of Truth (3rd century) * Conflict of Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
with Satan
Satan
(6th century) * " Old Saxon Genesis " (9th century) * " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden " (15th century) * Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) * Le Dernier Homme (1805) * Extracts from Adam\'s Diary (1904) * Eve\'s Diary (1905) * The Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis
(2009)

ART

* Bernward Doors
Bernward Doors
(1015) * Tapestry of Creation (11th century) * Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (1425) * Vienna Diptych (15th century) * The Last Judgment (1482) * The Garden of Earthly Delights (1504) * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1507) * Paradise and Hell (1510) * The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) * The Haywain Triptych (1516) * Eve, the Serpent and Death (1510s or 1520s) * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1528) * The Fall of Man (1550) * Maps of Ancient Israel * The Garden of Eden with the Fall of Man (1617) * The Fall of Man (1628) * The Four Seasons (1660s) * The Koren Picture- Bible
Bible
(1692–1696) * The First Mourning (1888) * Eve
Eve
(1931) * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1932) * The Serpent Chooses Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1958) * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(1992)

SONGS

* "Dese Bones G\'wine Rise Again " * " Adam-ondi-Ahman " (1835) * "Forbidden Fruit " (1915) * "The Garden of Eden " (1956) * "Let\'s Give Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
Another Chance " (1970) * " Man Gave Names to All the Animals " (1979)

ALBUMS

* The Cainian Chronicle (1996) * Visions of Eden (2006)

OTHER CULTURES

* Adam–God doctrine * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(LDS Church) * Adam
Adam
in Islam
Islam
* Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature * Al-A\'raf * Book of Moses * Endowment * Manu (Hinduism)
Manu (Hinduism)
* Mashya and Mashyana * Serpent seed * Tree of Jiva and Atman * Tree of life (Quran) * Our Lady of Endor Coven

GEOGRAPHY

* Adam-ondi-Ahman * Tomb of Eve

BIOLOGY

* Mitochondrial Eve
Mitochondrial Eve
* Y-chromosomal Adam
Adam
* The Real Eve

STORY WITHIN A STORY

* Doraemon: Nobita\'s Diary of the Creation of the World * Island of Love * The Visitors

GAMES

* Demon: The Fallen (2002)

RELATED THEOLOGY

* Fall of man * Original sin
Original sin
* Garden of Eden * Tree of the knowledge of good and evil * Serpents in the Bible
Bible

* Forbidden fruit
Forbidden fruit

* Apple * Fig leaf

* Figs in the Bible
Bible
* Adam\'s ale * Adamic language * Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
* Camael * Shamsiel * Tree of life * Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

OTHER

* Pre-Adamite * Generations of Adam
Adam
* Cave of the Patriarchs
Cave of the Patriarchs
* " In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela " * "Simpsons Bible
Bible
Stories " * Second Time Lucky * Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
cylinder seal * Timeline of Genesis patriarchs * Genealogies of Genesis * Carnal knowledge

* Legend of the Rood

* Ystorya Adaf

* Snakes for the Divine * Ransom theory of atonement

* v * t * e

Cain and Abel

Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis

BIBLICAL CHARACTERS

* Adam
Adam
* Eve * Cain and Abel * Lucifer
Lucifer
* Enoch * Awan

PORTRAYALS IN MEDIA

FILM

* East of Eden (film, 1952) * Caín (1984) * La Biblia en pasta (1984) * The Last Eve (2005) * Year One (2009) * Abel
Abel
Cain
Cain

PLAYS

* Le Jeu d\' Adam
Adam
(12th century) * Cain
Cain
(1821)

MUSICALS

* Children of Eden (1991) * Here\'s Where I Belong (1968)

LITERATURE

* Book of the Penitence of Adam
Adam
* East of Eden (novel, 1952) * Abel
Abel
Sánchez: The History of a Passion (1917) * The Book of Lies (2008)

SONGS

* "Should the Bible
Bible
Be Banned " (1988) * "Cain\'s Blood " (1995)

OTHER

* La mort d\' Abel
Abel
(composition, 1810) * The First Mourning (painting, 1888) * Cain and Abel (TV series, 2009) * Cain and Abel (DC Comics) * Kane (Command border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
* Curse and mark of Cain
Cain

* Serpent seed

* Christian Identity

* Cain and Abel in Islam
Islam
* Balbira and Kalmana * Cainites

OTHER

* Generations of Adam
Adam
* Timeline of Genesis patriarchs * La

.