EVANGELICALISM (/ˌiːvænˈdʒɛlɪkəlˌɪzəm/ , /ˌɛvən/ -),
EVANGELICAL CHRISTIANITY, or EVANGELICAL PROTESTANTISM is a
worldwide, transdenominational movement within
which maintains the belief that the essence of the gospel consists of
the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in
Jesus Christ 's
atonement . Evangelicals believe in the centrality of the conversion
or the "born again" experience in receiving salvation, in the
authority of the
God 's revelation to humanity, and in
spreading the Christian message. The movement has had a long presence
Anglosphere before spreading beyond it in the 20th and 21st
Its origins are usually traced back to the 1730s with various
theological streams contributing to its foundation, including English
Methodism , the
Moravian Church (in particular its bishop Nicolaus
Zinzendorf and his community at
Herrnhut ), and German Lutheran
Pietism . Preeminently,
John Wesley and other early Methodists were at
the root of sparking this new movement during the First Great
Awakening . Today, Evangelicals are found across many Protestant
branches, as well as in various denominations not subsumed to a
specific branch. Among leaders and major figures of the Evangelical
Protestant movement were
John Wesley ,
George Whitefield , Jonathan
Billy Graham ,
Harold John Ockenga ,
John Stott and Martyn
Lloyd-Jones . The movement gained great momentum during the 18th and
19th centuries with the
Great Awakenings in the United Kingdom and the
The Americas, Africa, and Asia are home to the majority of
Evangelicals. The United States has the largest concentration of
Evangelicals in the world; its community forms a quarter of the
population, is politically important and based mostly in the Bible
Belt . In the United Kingdom, Evangelicals are mostly represented in
Methodist Church ,
Baptist communities and among low church
Evangelicalism, a major part of popular Protestantism, is among the
most dynamic religious movements in the contemporary world, alongside
Islam . While on the rise globally, the developing world is
particularly influenced by its spread.
* 1 Usage
* 2 Characteristics
* 3 Diversity
* 3.2 Mainstream varieties
* 3.3 Non-conservative varieties
* 4 History
* 4.1 Background
* 4.2 18th century
* 4.3 19th century
* 4.4 20th century
* 5 Global statistics
* 6 Africa
East African Revival
* 7 Latin America
* 7.1 Brazil
* 7.2 Guatemala
* 8 Asia
* 8.1 South Korea
* 8.2 Philippines
* 9 United Kingdom
* 10 United States
* 11 See also
* 12 Footnotes
* 13 Notes
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 Further reading
* 15.1 Missions
* 16 External links
The word evangelical has its etymological roots in the Greek word for
"gospel " or "good news": εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, from eu
"good", angel- the stem of, among other words, angelos "messenger,
angel", and the neuter suffix -ion. By the English Middle Ages the
term had expanded semantically to include not only the message, but
New Testament which contained the message, as well as more
Gospels which portray the life, death and
resurrection of Jesus. The first published use of evangelical in
English came in 1531 when
William Tyndale wrote "He exhorteth them to
proceed constantly in the evangelical truth." One year later Sir
Thomas More produced the earliest recorded use in reference to a
theological distinction when he spoke of "Tyndale his evangelical
Protestant theologians embraced the label as
referring to "gospel truth".
Martin Luther referred to the
evangelische Kirche ("evangelical church") to distinguish Protestants
from Catholics in the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church . Into the 21st century,
evangelical has continued in use as a synonym for (mainline )
Protestant in continental Europe, and elsewhere. This usage is
reflected in the names of
Protestant denominations such as the
Evangelical Church in Germany
Evangelical Church in Germany (a union of
Lutheran and Reformed
churches) and the Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America .
In the English-speaking world, evangelical became a common label used
to describe the series of revival movements that occurred in Britain
and North America during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
David Bebbington writes that, "Although
'evangelical', with a lower-case initial, is occasionally used to mean
'of the gospel', the term 'Evangelical', with a capital letter, is
applied to any aspect of the movement beginning in the 1730s." The
term may also occur outside any religious context to characterize a
generic missionary, reforming, or redeeming impulse or purpose. For
Times Literary Supplement refers to "the rise and fall of
evangelical fervor within the Socialist movement".
Children worshipping at the Harvestime Church of Eau Claire,
One influential definition of
Evangelicalism has been proposed by
historian David Bebbington. Bebbington notes four distinctive aspects
of Evangelical faith: conversionism , biblicism , crucicentrism , and
activism, noting, "Together they form a quadrilateral of priorities
that is the basis of Evangelicalism."
Conversionism, or belief in the necessity of being "born again ", has
been a constant theme of
Evangelicalism since its beginnings. To
Evangelicals, the central message of the gospel is justification by
faith in Christ and repentance , or turning away, from sin .
Conversion differentiates the Christian from the non-Christian, and
the change in life it leads to is marked by both a rejection of sin
and a corresponding personal holiness of life. A conversion experience
can be emotional, including grief and sorrow for sin followed by great
relief at receiving forgiveness. The stress on conversion is further
differentiated from other forms of
Protestantism by the belief that an
assurance of salvation will accompany conversion. Among Evangelicals,
individuals have testified to both sudden and gradual conversions.
Biblicism is reverence for the
Bible and a high regard for biblical
authority . All Evangelicals believe in biblical inspiration , though
they disagree over how this inspiration should be defined. Many
Evangelicals believe in biblical inerrancy , while other Evangelicals
believe in biblical infallibility .
Crucicentrism is the attention that Evangelicals give to the
Atonement , the saving death and resurrection of
Jesus , that offers
forgiveness of sins and new life. This is understood most commonly in
terms of a substitutionary atonement , in which Christ died as a
substitute for sinful humanity by taking on himself the guilt and
punishment for sin.
Activism describes the tendency towards active expression and sharing
of the gospel in diverse ways that include preaching and social
action. This aspect of
Evangelicalism continues to be seen today in
the proliferation of Evangelical voluntary religious groups and
parachurch organizations .
* Nondenominational churches
* House churches
As a trans-denominational movement,
Evangelicalism occurs in nearly
Protestant denomination and tradition. The
Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ ,
Plymouth Brethren ,
Protestant , and nondenominational
have all had strong influence within modern Evangelicalism.
Evangelicals are also represented within the
The early 20th century saw the decline of Evangelical influence
Protestantism and the development of Christian
fundamentalism as a distinct religious movement. The second half of
the century witnessed the development of a new mainstream Evangelical
consensus that sought to be more inclusive and more culturally
relevant than fundamentalism, while maintaining conservative
Protestant teaching. According to professor of world Christianity
Brian Stanley , this new postwar consensus is termed
"Neo-Evangelicalism", the "New Evangelicalism", or simply
"Evangelicalism" in the United States, while in the United Kingdom and
in other English-speaking countries it is commonly termed conservative
Evangelicalism . Over the years, less conservative Evangelicals have
challenged this mainstream consensus to varying degrees, and such
movements have been described by a variety of labels, such as
progressive, open, post-conservative, and post-evangelical.
Fundamentalism regards biblical inerrancy, the virgin birth of Jesus
, penal substitutionary atonement, the literal resurrection of Christ
Second Coming of Christ
Second Coming of Christ as fundamental Christian doctrines.
Fundamentalism arose among Evangelicals in the 1920s to combat
modernist or liberal theology in mainline
Protestant churches. Failing
to reform the mainline churches, fundamentalists separated from them
and established their own churches, refusing to participate in
ecumenical organizations such as the
National Council of Churches
National Council of Churches .
They also made separatism (rigid separation from non-fundamentalist
churches and culture) a true test of faith. According to historian
George Marsden , most fundamentalists are
Evangelicalism is historically divided between two main
orientations: confessionalism and revivalism . These two streams have
been critical of each other. Confessional Evangelicals have been
suspicious of unguarded religious experience , while revivalist
Evangelicals have been critical of overly intellectual teaching that
(they suspect) stifles vibrant spirituality. In an effort to broaden
their appeal, many contemporary Evangelical congregations
intentionally avoid identifying with any single form of
Evangelicalism. These "generic Evangelicals" are usually theologically
and socially conservative, but their churches often present themselves
as nondenominational within the broader Evangelical movement.
In the words of
Albert Mohler , president of the Southern Baptist
Theological Seminary , confessional
Evangelicalism refers to "that
movement of Christian believers who seek a constant convictional
continuity with the theological formulas of the Protestant
Reformation". While approving of the Evangelical distinctives proposed
by Bebbington, confessional Evangelicals believe that authentic
Evangelicalism requires more concrete definition in order to protect
the movement from theological liberalism and from heresy . This
protection, according to confessional Evangelicals, is found in
subscription to the ecumenical creeds and to the Reformation-era
confessions of faith (such as the confessions of the
). Confessional Evangelicals are represented by conservative
Presbyterian churches (emphasizing the
Westminster Confession ),
Baptist churches that emphasize historic
like the Second London Confession , evangelical
Thirty-Nine Articles (such as in the
Anglican Diocese of
Sydney , Australia ), and some confessional Lutherans with pietistic
The emphasis on historic
Protestant orthodoxy among confessional
Evangelicals stands in direct contrast to an anti-creedal outlook that
has exerted its own influence on Evangelicalism, particularly among
churches heavily influenced by revivalism and by pietism . Revivalist
Evangelicals are represented by some quarters of
Methodism , the
Wesleyan Holiness churches, the Pentecostal/charismatic churches, some
Anabaptist churches, and some
Baptists and Presbyterians. Revivalist
Evangelicals tend to place greater emphasis on religious experience
than their confessional counterparts.
Evangelicals dissatisfied with the movement's conservative mainstream
have been variously described as progressive Evangelicals,
post-conservative Evangelicals, Open Evangelicals and
Post-evangelicals . Progressive Evangelicals, also known as the
Evangelical left , share theological or social views with other
progressive Christians , while also identifying with Evangelicalism.
Progressive Evangelicals commonly advocate for women's equality,
pacifism and social justice .
As described by
Roger E. Olson , post-conservative
Evangelicalism is a theological school of thought that adheres to the
four marks of Evangelicalism, while being less rigid and more
inclusive of other Christians. According to Olson, post-conservatives
believe that doctrine and propositional truth is secondary to
spiritual experience shaped by
Scripture . Post-conservative
Evangelicals seek greater dialogue with other Christian traditions and
support the development of a multicultural Evangelical theology that
incorporates the voices of women, racial minorities, and Christians in
the developing world. Some post-conservative Evangelicals also support
open theism and the possibility of near universal salvation .
The term "Open Evangelical" refers to a particular Christian school
of thought or churchmanship , primarily in the United Kingdom
(especially in the
Church of England
Church of England ). Open Evangelicals describe
their position as combining a traditional Evangelical emphasis on the
nature of scriptural authority , the teaching of the ecumenical creeds
and other traditional doctrinal teachings, with an approach towards
culture and other theological points-of-view which tends to be more
inclusive than that taken by other Evangelicals. Some Open
Evangelicals aim to take a middle position between conservative and
charismatic Evangelicals, while others would combine conservative
theological emphases with more liberal social positions.
British author Dave Tomlinson coined the phrase "post-evangelical" to
describe a movement comprising various trends of dissatisfaction among
Evangelicals. Others use the term with comparable intent, often to
distinguish Evangelicals in the so-called emerging church movement
from post-evangelicals and anti-Evangelicals. Tomlinson argues that
"linguistically, the distinction resembles the one that sociologists
make between the modern and postmodern eras".
Count von Zinzendorf
Count von Zinzendorf was a major influence on
John Wesley in
Evangelicalism did not take recognizable form until the 18th century,
first in Britain and its North American colonies. Nevertheless, there
were earlier developments within the larger
Protestant world that
preceded and influenced the later evangelical revivals. According to
religion scholar, social activist, and politician
Randall Balmer ,
Evangelicalism resulted "from the confluence of Pietism,
Presbyterianism, and the vestiges of Puritanism.
up the peculiar characteristics from each strain – warmhearted
spirituality from the Pietists (for instance), doctrinal precisionism
from the Presbyterians, and individualistic introspection from the
Mark Noll adds to this list High Church
Anglicanism, which contributed to
Evangelicalism a legacy of "rigorous
spirituality and innovative organization".
During the 17th century,
Pietism emerged in Europe as a movement for
the revival of piety and devotion within the
Lutheran church. As a
protest against "cold orthodoxy" or an overly formal and rational
Christianity, Pietists advocated for an experiential religion that
stressed high moral standards for both clergy and lay people. The
movement included both Christians who remained in the liturgical ,
state churches as well as separatist groups who rejected the use of
baptismal fonts, altars, pulpits, and confessionals. As Pietism
spread, the movement's ideals and aspirations influenced and were
absorbed into early Evangelicalism.
Presbyterian heritage not only gave
Evangelicalism a commitment
Protestant orthodoxy but also contributed a revival tradition that
stretched back to the 1620s in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Central
to this tradition was the communion season , which normally occurred
in the summer months. For Presbyterians, celebrations of Holy
Communion were infrequent but popular events preceded by several
Sundays of preparatory preaching and accompanied with preaching,
singing, and prayers.
Calvinism with teaching that conversion was a
prerequisite for church membership and a stress on the study of
Scripture by lay people. It took root in New England, where the
Congregational church was an established religion. The Half-Way
Covenant of 1662 allowed parents who had not testified to a conversion
experience to have their children baptized, while reserving Holy
Communion for converted church members alone. By the 18th century,
Puritanism was in decline and many ministers were alarmed at the loss
of religious piety. This concern over declining religious commitment
led many people to support evangelical revival.
Anglicanism also exerted influence on early
Evangelicalism. High Churchmen were distinguished by their desire to
adhere to primitive
Christianity . This desire included imitating the
faith and ascetic practices of early Christians as well as regularly
partaking of Holy Communion. High Churchmen were also enthusiastic
organizers of voluntary religious societies. Two of the most prominent
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge , which distributed
Bibles and other literature and built schools, and the Society for the
Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts , which was created to
facilitate missionary work in British colonies. Samuel and Susanna
Wesley , the parents of John and Charles Wesley, were both devoted
advocates of High
First Great Awakening
First Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards' account of
the revival in Northampton was published in 1737 as A Faithful
Narrative of the Surprising Work of
God in the Conversion of Many
Hundred Souls in Northampton
In the 1730s,
Evangelicalism emerged as a distinct phenomenon out of
religious revivals that began in Britain and New England. While
religious revivals had occurred within
Protestant churches in the
past, the evangelical revivals that marked the 18th century were more
intense and radical. Evangelical revivalism imbued ordinary men and
women with a confidence and enthusiasm for sharing the gospel and
converting others outside of the control of established churches, a
key discontinuity with the
Protestantism of the previous era.
It was developments in the doctrine of assurance that differentiated
Evangelicalism from what went before. Bebbington says, "The dynamism
of the Evangelical movement was possible only because its adherents
were assured in their faith." He goes on:
Puritans had held that assurance is rare, late and the
fruit of struggle in the experience of believers, the Evangelicals
believed it to be general, normally given at conversion and the result
of simple acceptance of the gift of God. The consequence of the
altered form of the doctrine was a metamorphosis in the nature of
popular Protestantism. There was a change in patterns of piety,
affecting devotional and practical life in all its departments. The
shift, in fact, was responsible for creating in
Evangelicalism a new
movement and not merely a variation on themes heard since the
The first local revival occurred in Northampton, Massachusetts, under
the leadership of Congregationalist minister Jonathan Edwards . In the
fall of 1734, Edwards preached a sermon series on "Justification By
Faith Alone", and the community's response was extraordinary. Signs of
religious commitment among the laity increased, especially among the
town's young people. The revival ultimately spread to 25 communities
in western Massachusetts and central Connecticut until it began to
wane by the spring of 1735. Edwards was heavily influenced by
Pietism, so much so that one historian has stressed his "American
Pietism." One practice clearly copied from European Pietists was the
use of small groups divided by age and gender, which met in private
homes to conserve and promote the fruits of revival.
At the same time, students at
Yale University (at that time Yale
College) in New Haven, Connecticut, were also experiencing revival.
Among them was
Aaron Burr, Sr.
Aaron Burr, Sr. , who would become a prominent
Presbyterian minister and future president of
Princeton University .
In New Jersey,
Gilbert Tennent , another
Presbyterian minister, was
preaching the evangelical message and urging the
to stress the necessity of converted ministers.
The spring of 1735 also marked important events in England and Wales.
Howell Harris , a Welsh schoolteacher, had a conversion experience on
May 25 during a communion service. He described receiving assurance of
God's grace after a period of fasting , self-examination, and despair
over his sins. Sometime later, Daniel Rowland , the
of Llangeitho, Wales, experienced conversion as well. Both men began
preaching the evangelical message to large audiences, becoming leaders
Welsh Methodist revival
Welsh Methodist revival . At about the same time that Harris
experienced conversion in Wales,
George Whitefield was converted at
Oxford University after his own prolonged spiritual crisis. Whitefield
later remarked, "About this time
God was pleased to enlighten my soul,
and bring me into the knowledge of His free grace, and the necessity
of being justified in His sight by faith only". John Wesley
Holy Club member and spiritual mentor, Charles
Wesley , reported an evangelical conversion in 1738. In the same
week, Charles' brother and future founder of
Methodism , John Wesley
was also converted after a long period of inward struggle. During this
John Wesley was directly influenced by Pietism. Two
years before his conversion, Wesley had traveled to the newly
established colony of Georgia as a missionary for the Society for
Promoting Christian Knowledge. He shared his voyage with a group of
Moravian Brethren led by
August Gottlieb Spangenberg . The Moravians'
faith and piety deeply impressed Wesley, especially their belief that
it was a normal part of Christian life to have an assurance of one's
salvation. Wesley recounted the following exchange with Spangenberg
on February 7, 1736:
said, "My brother, I must first ask you one or two questions. Have
you the witness within yourself? Does the Spirit of
God bear witness
with your spirit that you are a child of God?" I was surprised, and
knew not what to answer. He observed it, and asked, "Do you know Jesus
Christ?" I paused, and said, "I know he is the Savior of the world."
"True," he replied, "but do you know he has saved you?" I answered, "I
hope he has died to save me." He only added, "Do you know yourself?" I
said, "I do." But I fear they were vain words.
Wesley finally received the assurance he had been searching for at a
meeting of a religious society in London. While listening to a reading
Martin Luther 's preface to the
Epistle to the Romans
Epistle to the Romans , Wesley
felt spiritually transformed:
About a quarter before nine, while was describing the change which
God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart
strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for
salvation, and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my
sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.
Pietism continued to influence Wesley, who had translated 33 Pietist
hymns from German to English. Numerous German Pietist hymns became
part of the English Evangelical repertoire. By 1737, Whitefield had
become a national celebrity in England where his preaching drew large
crowds, especially in London where the
Fetter Lane Society had become
a center of evangelical activity. Whitfield joined forces with
Edwards to "fan the flame of revival" in the
Thirteen Colonies in
1739–40. Soon the
First Great Awakening
First Great Awakening stirred Protestants
Evangelical preachers emphasized personal salvation and piety more
than ritual and tradition. Pamphlets and printed sermons crisscrossed
the Atlantic, encouraging the revivalists. The Awakening resulted
from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal
revelation of their need of salvation by
Jesus Christ. Pulling away
from ritual and ceremony, the
Great Awakening made Christianity
intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of
spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection
and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality. It reached
people who were already church members. It changed their rituals,
their piety and their self-awareness. To the evangelical imperatives
Reformation Protestantism, 18th century American Christians added
emphases on divine outpourings of the Holy Spirit and conversions that
implanted within new believers an intense love for God. Revivals
encapsulated those hallmarks and forwarded the newly created
Evangelicalism into the early republic.
The start of the 19th century saw an increase in missionary work and
many of the major missionary societies were founded around this time
Timeline of Christian missions
Timeline of Christian missions ). Both the Evangelical and high
church movements sponsored missionaries.
Great Awakening (which actually began in 1790) was
primarily an American revivalist movement and resulted in substantial
growth of the
Baptist churches. Charles Grandison Finney
was an important preacher of this period.
William Wilberforce ,
British evangelical abolitionist
In Britain in addition to stressing the traditional Wesleyan
combination of "Bible, cross, conversion, and activism," the
revivalist movement sought a universal appeal, hoping to include rich
and poor, urban and rural, and men and women.
Special efforts were
made to attract children and to generate literature to spread the
"Christian conscience" was used by the British Evangelical movement
to promote social activism. Evangelicals believed activism in
government and the social sphere was an essential method in reaching
the goal of eliminating sin in a world drenched in wickedness. The
Evangelicals in the
Clapham Sect included figures such as William
Wilberforce who successfully campaigned for the abolition of slavery .
In the late 19th century, the revivalist
Holiness movement , based on
the doctrine of "entire sanctification," took a more extreme form in
rural America and Canada, where it ultimately broke away from
institutional Methodism. In urban Britain the Holiness message was
less exclusive and censorious.
John Nelson Darby
John Nelson Darby was a 19th-century Irish
Anglican minister who
devised modern dispensationalism , an innovative Protestant
theological interpretation of the
Bible that was incorporated in the
development of modern Evangelicalism.
Cyrus Scofield further promoted
the influence of dispensationalism through the explanatory notes to
his Scofield Reference
Bible . According to scholar Mark S. Sweetnam,
who takes a cultural studies perspective, dispensationalism can be
defined in terms of its Evangelicalism, its insistence on the literal
interpretation of Scripture, its recognition of stages in God's
dealings with humanity, its expectation of the imminent return of
Christ to rapture His saints, and its focus on both apocalypticism and
Notable figures of the latter half of the 19th century include
Charles Spurgeon in London and
Dwight L. Moody
Dwight L. Moody in Chicago. Their
powerful preaching reached very large audiences.
An advanced theological perspective came from the Princeton
theologians from the 1850s to the 1920s, such as
Charles Hodge ,
Archibald Alexander and B.B. Warfield .
Services at the
Pentecostal Church of
God in Lejunior, Kentucky,
Evangelicalism in the early part of the 20th century was dominated by
the Fundamentalist movement after 1910; it rejected liberal theology
and emphasized the inerrancy of the Scriptures.
Following the Welsh Revival, the
Azusa Street Revival
Azusa Street Revival in 1906 began
the spread of
Pentecostalism in North America.
In the post–World War II period, a split developed between
Evangelicals, as they disagreed among themselves about how a Christian
ought to respond to an unbelieving world. Many Evangelicals urged that
Christians must engage the culture directly and constructively, and
they began to express reservations about being known to the world as
Kenneth Kantzer put it at the time, the name
fundamentalist had become "an embarrassment instead of a badge of
honor". The evangelical revivalist
Billy Graham in
The term neo-evangelicalism was coined by
Harold Ockenga in 1947 to
identify a distinct movement within self-identified fundamentalist
Christianity at the time, especially in the English-speaking world. It
described the mood of positivism and non-militancy that characterized
that generation. The new generation of Evangelicals set as their goal
to abandon a militant
Bible stance. Instead, they would pursue
dialogue, intellectualism, non-judgmentalism, and appeasement. They
further called for an increased application of the gospel to the
sociological, political, and economic areas.
The self-identified fundamentalists also cooperated in separating
their "neo-Evangelical" opponents from the fundamentalist name, by
increasingly seeking to distinguish themselves from the more open
group, whom they often characterized derogatorily by Ockenga's term,
"neo-Evangelical" or just Evangelical.
The fundamentalists saw the Evangelicals as often being too concerned
about social acceptance and intellectual respectability, and being too
accommodating to a perverse generation that needed correction. In
addition, they saw the efforts of evangelist Billy Graham, who worked
with non-Evangelical denominations, such as the Roman Catholics (which
they claimed to be heretical ), as a mistake.
The post-war period also saw growth of the ecumenical movement and
the founding of the
World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches , which was generally
regarded with suspicion by the Evangelical community.
In the United Kingdom,
John Stott and
Martyn Lloyd-Jones emerged as
key leaders in Evangelical Christianity.
The charismatic movement began in the 1960s and resulted in
Pentecostal theology and practice being introduced into many mainline
denominations. New charismatic groups such as the Association of
Vineyard Churches and
Newfrontiers trace their roots to this period
British New Church Movement ).
The closing years of the 20th century saw controversial postmodern
influences entering some parts of Evangelicalism, particularly with
the emerging church movement.
Chinese evangelical church in
Madrid , Spain
In 2015, the
World Evangelical Alliance is "a network of churches in
129 nations that have each formed an evangelical alliance and over 100
international organizations joining together to give a world-wide
identity, voice, and platform to more than 600 million evangelical
Christians". The Alliance was formed in 1951 by Evangelicals from 21
countries. It has worked to support its members to work together
According to a 2011
Pew Forum study on global Christianity,
285,480,000 or 13.1 percent of all Christians are Evangelicals. These
figures do not include the Evangelical movements
Charismatic movement ; 584,080,000. The largest concentration of
Evangelicals can be found in the United States, with 28.9% of the U.S.
population or 91.76 million, the latter being roughly one third of
the world's Evangelicals. The next most populous is Brazil, with
26.3% or 51.33 million.
The World Christian Database estimates the number of Evangelicals at
300 million, Pentecostals and Charismatics at 600 million and "Great
Commission" Christians at 700 million. These groups are not mutually
exclusive. Operation World estimates the number of Evangelicals at 550
From 1960 to 2000, the global growth of the number of reported
Evangelicals grew three times the world's population rate, and twice
that of Islam.
In the 21st century, there are Evangelical churches active in Sudan,
Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, Ghana, Kenya,
Zambia, South Africa, and Nigeria. They have grown especially since
independence came in the 1960s, the strongest movements are based on
Pentecostal-charismatic beliefs, and comprise a way of life that has
led to upward social mobility and demands for democracy. There is a
wide range of theology and organizations, including some sponsored by
European missionaries and others that have emerged from African
culture such as the Apostolic and
Zionist Churches which enlist 40% of
black South Africans, and their Aladura counterparts in western
In Nigeria the Evangelical Church Winning All (formerly "Evangelical
Church of West Africa") is the largest church organization with five
thousand congregations and over three million members. It sponsors two
seminaries and eight
Bible colleges, and 1600 missionaries who serve
in Nigeria and other countries with the Evangelical
(EMS). There have been serious confrontations since 1999 between
Muslims and Evangelical Christians standing in opposition to the
expansion of Sharia law in northern Nigeria. The confrontation has
radicalized and politicized the Christians. Violence has been
In Kenya, mainstream Evangelical denominations have taken the lead in
promoting political activism and backers, with the smaller Evangelical
sects of less importance.
Daniel arap Moi was president 1978 to 2002
and claimed to be an Evangelical; he proved intolerant of dissent or
pluralism or decentralization of power.
Missionary Society (BMS) was one of four German Protestant
mission societies active in South Africa before 1914. It emerged from
the German tradition of
Pietism after 1815 and sent its first
missionaries to South Africa in 1834. There were few positive reports
in the early years, but it was especially active 1859–1914. It was
especially strong in the Boer republics. The World War cut off contact
with Germany, but the missions continued at a reduced pace. After 1945
the missionaries had to deal with decolonisation across Africa and
especially with the apartheid government. At all times the BMS
emphasized spiritual inwardness, and values such as morality, hard
work and self-discipline. It proved unable to speak and act decisively
against injustice and racial discrimination and was disbanded in 1972.
Since 1974, young professionals have been the active proselytizers of
Evangelicalism in the cities of Malawi.
In Mozambique, Evangelical
Christianity emerged around
1900 from black migrants whose converted previously in South Africa.
They were assisted by European missionaries, but, as industrial
workers, they paid for their own churches and proselytizing. They
prepared southern Mozambique for the spread of Evangelical
Protestantism. During its time as a colonial power in Mozambique, the
Catholic Portuguese government tried to counter the spread of
EAST AFRICAN REVIVAL
East African Revival
East African Revival was a renewal movement within Evangelical
churches in East Africa during the late 1920s and 1930s that began at
Missionary Society mission station in the Belgian territory
Ruanda-Urundi in 1929, and spread to: Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya
during the 1930s and 1940s contributing to the significant growth of
the church in East Africa through the 1970s and had a visible
influence on Western missionaries who were observer-participants of
In modern Latin America, the term "Evangelical" is often simply a
synonym for "
Protestantism in Brazil Temple of Solomon replica
built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of
God in São Paulo
Protestantism in Brazil largely originated with German immigrants and
British and American missionaries in the 19th century, following up on
efforts that began in the 1820s.
In the late nineteenth century, while the vast majority of Brazilians
were nominal Catholics, the nation was underserved by priests, and for
large numbers their religion was only nominal. The
Catholic Church in
Brazil was de-established in 1890, and responded by increasing the
number of dioceses and the efficiency of its clergy. Many Protestants
came from a large German immigrant community, but they were seldom
engaged in proselytism and grew mostly by natural increase.
Methodists were active along with Presbyterians and Baptists. The
Scottish missionary Dr.
Robert Reid Kalley , with support from the
Free Church of Scotland , moved to Brazil in 1855, founding the first
Evangelical church among the Portuguese-speaking population there in
1856. It was organized according to the Congregational policy as the
Igreja Evangélica Fluminense; it became the mother church of
Congregationalism in Brazil. The Seventh-day Adventists arrived in
1894, and the YMCA was organized in 1896. The missionaries promoted
schools colleges and seminaries, including a liberal arts college in
São Paulo, later known as Mackenzie, and an agricultural school in
Lavras . The
Presbyterian schools in particular later became the
nucleus of the governmental system. In 1887
Protestants in Rio de
Janeiro formed a hospital. The missionaries largely reached a
working-class audience, as the Brazilian upper-class was wedded either
Catholicism or to secularism. By 1914,
Protestant churches founded
by American missionaries had 47,000 communicants, served by 282
missionaries. In general, these missionaries were more successful than
they had been in Mexico, Argentina or elsewhere in Latin America.
There were 700,000
Protestants by 1930, and increasingly they were in
charge of their own affairs. In 1930, the
Methodist Church of Brazil
became independent of the missionary societies and elected its own
Protestants were largely from a working-class, but their
religious networks help speed their upward social mobility.
Protestants accounted for fewer than 5% of the population until the
1960s, but grew exponentially by proselytizing and by 2000 made up
over 15% of Brazilians affiliated with a church. Pentecostals and
charismatic groups account for the vast majority of this expansion.
Pentecostal missionaries arrived early in the 20th century.
Pentecostal conversions surged during the 1950s and 1960s, when native
Brazilians began founding autonomous churches. The most influential
included Brasil Para o Cristo (Brazil for Christ), founded in 1955 by
Manoel de Mello. With an emphasis on personal salvation, on God's
healing power, and on strict moral codes these groups have developed
broad appeal, particularly among the booming urban migrant
communities. In Brazil, since the mid-1990's, groups committed to
uniting black identity, antiracism, and Evangelical theology have
Pentecostalism arrived in Brazil with Swedish
and American missionaries in 1911. it grew rapidly, but endured
numerous schisms and splits. In some areas the Evangelical Assemblies
God churches have taken a leadership role in politics since the
1960s. They claimed major credit for the election of Fernando Collor
de Mello as president of Brazil in 1990.
According to the 2000 Census, 15.4% of the Brazilian population was
Protestant. A recent research conducted by the Datafolha institute
shows that 25% of Brazilians are Protestants, of which 19% are
Pentecostal denominations. The 2010 Census found out that
Protestant at that date.
Protestant denominations saw a
rapid growth in their number of followers since the last decades of
the 20th century. They are politically and socially conservative, and
emphasize that God's favor translates into business success. The rich
and the poor remained traditional Catholics, while most Evangelical
Protestants were in the new lower-middle class–known as the "C
class" (in a A–E classification system).
Chesnut argues that
Pentecostalism has become "one of the principal
organizations of the poor," for these churches provide the sort of
social network that teach members the skills they need to thrive in a
rapidly developing meritocratic society.
One large Evangelical church is the Universal Church of the Kingdom
God (IURD), a neo‐
Pentecostal denomination begun in 1977. It now
has a presence in many countries, and claims millions of members
Religion in Guatemala
Religion in Guatemala Cash Luna, an Evangelical
Protestant televangelist in Guatemala
Protestants remained a small portion of the population until the
late-twentieth century, when various
Protestant groups experienced a
demographic boom that coincided with the increasing violence of the
Guatemalan Civil War. Two former Guatemalan heads of state, General
Efraín Ríos Montt and
Jorge Serrano Elías have been practicing
Evangelical Protestants, as is Guatemala's current President, Jimmy
Morales . General Montt, an Evangelical from the Pentecostal
tradition, came to power through a coup. He escalated the war against
leftist guerilla insurgents as a holy war against atheistic "forces of
American pastor Johannes Maas preaching in Andhra Pradesh, India
in 1974. Spreading the revival is an essential part of work done by
Christianity in Korea
Protestant missionary activity in Asia was most successful in Korea.
American Presbyterians and Methodists arrived in the 1880s and were
well received. Between 1910 and 1945, when Korea was a Japanese
Christianity became in part an expression of nationalism in
opposition to Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the
Shinto religion. In 1914, out of 16 million people, there were 86,000
Protestants and 79,000 Catholics; by 1934, the numbers were 168,000
Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful.
Since the Korean War (1950–53), many Korean Christians have migrated
to the U.S., while those who remained behind have risen sharply in
social and economic status. Most Korean
Protestant churches in the
21st century emphasize their Evangelical heritage. Korean
Protestantism is characterized by theological conservatism coupled
with an emotional revivalistic style. Most churches sponsor revival
meetings once or twice a year.
Missionary work is a high priority,
with 13,000 men and women serving in missions across the world,
putting Korea in second place just behind the US.
Sukman argues that since 1945,
Protestantism has been widely seen by
Koreans as the religion of the middle class, youth, intellectuals,
urbanites, and modernists. It has been a powerful force supporting
South Korea's pursuit of modernity and emulation of the United States,
and opposition to the old Japanese colonialism and to the
authoritarianism of North Korea.
South Korea has been referred as an "evangelical superpower" for
being the home to some of the largest and most dynamic Christian
churches in the world; South Korea is also second to the U.S. in the
number of missionaries sent abroad.
According to 2015 South Korean census, 9.7 million or 19.7% of the
population described themselves as Protestants, many of whom belong to
Presbyterian churches shaped by Evangelicalism.
Evangelicalism in the Philippines
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June
Evangelicalism is a minor Christian denominations in the Philippines.
According to the 2010 census, 2.68% of the Filipino Population are
Evangelicals. However 2010 data such as Operation World and Joshua
Project estimate the evangelical population to be at most 13% of the
Clapham Sect , and Conservative
Evangelicalism in Britain
John Wesley (1703–1791) was an
Anglican cleric and theologian who,
with his brother
Charles Wesley (1707–1788) and fellow cleric George
Whitefield (1714 – 1770), founded
Methodism . After 1791 the
movement became independent of the
Anglican Church as the "Methodist
Connection." It became a force in its own right, especially among the
Clapham Sect was a group of
Church of England
Church of England evangelicals and
social reformers based in
Clapham, London ; they were active
John Newton (1725–1807) was the founder. They are
described by the historian Stephen Tomkins as "a network of friends
and families in England, with
William Wilberforce as its centre of
gravity, who were powerfully bound together by their shared moral and
spiritual values, by their religious mission and social activism, by
their love for each other, and by marriage".
Evangelicalism was a major force in the
Anglican Church from about
1800 to the 1860s. By 1848 when an evangelical
John Bird Sumner
John Bird Sumner became
Archbishop of Canterbury, between the fourth and third of all Anglican
clergy were linked to the movement, which by then had diversified
greatly in its goals and they were no longer considered an organized
In the 21st century there are an estimated 2 million Evangelicals in
the UK. According to research performed by the Evangelical Alliance
in 2013, 87% of UK evangelicals attend Sunday morning church services
every week and 63% attend weekly or fortnightly small groups. An
earlier survey conducted in 2012 found that 92% of evangelicals agree
it is a Christian's duty to help those in poverty and 45% attend a
church which has a fund or scheme that helps people in immediate need,
and 42% go to a church that supports or runs a foodbank. 63% believe a
tithing, and so give around 10% of their income to their church,
Christian organisations and various charities 83% of UK evangelicals
believe that the
Bible has supreme authority in guiding their beliefs,
views and behaviour and 52% read or listen to the
Bible daily. The
Evangelical Alliance , formed in 1846, was the first ecumenical
evangelical body in the world and works to unite evangelicals, helping
them listen to, and be heard by, the government, media and society.
Evangelicalism in the United States The Call
rally in 2008,
Washington, D.C. .
United States Capitol
United States Capitol in the
By the late 19th to early 20th century, most American Protestants
were Evangelicals. A divide had arisen between the more liberal
-modernist mainline denominations and the fundamentalist
denominations, the latter typically consisting of Evangelicals.
During and after World War II, Evangelicals became increasingly
organized. There was a great expansion of Evangelical activity within
the United States, "a revival of revivalism."
Youth for Christ was
formed; it later became the base for
Billy Graham 's revivals. The
National Association of Evangelicals formed in 1942 as a counterpoise
to the mainline Federal Council of Churches. In 1942–43, the
Old-Fashioned Revival Hour had a record-setting national radio
According to a
Pew Forum on
Religion and Public Life study,
Evangelicals can be broadly divided into three camps: traditionalist,
centrist, and modernist. A 2004 Pew survey identified Evangelicals as
26.3 percent of the population, while Catholics make up 22 percent and
Protestants make up 16 percent.
Evangelicals have been socially active throughout US history, a
tradition dating back to the abolitionist movement of the Antebellum
period and the prohibition movement. As a group, evangelicals are
most often associated with the
Christian right . However, a large
number of black self-labeled Evangelicals, and a small proportion of
liberal white self-labeled Evangelicals, gravitate towards the
Christian left .
Recurrent themes within American Evangelical discourse include
abortion, the creation–evolution controversy, secularism, and the
notion of the United States as a Christian nation.
Child evangelism movement
Christian eschatological views
Conservative Evangelicalism in Britain
Evangelical Council of Venezuela
Evangelical Fellowship of Canada
List of evangelical Christians
List of evangelical seminaries and theological colleges
National Association of Evangelicals
Pure Land Buddhism
Pure Land Buddhism , in some important respects a parallel
World Evangelical Alliance
* ^ Primarily in the United States, where
Protestants are usually
placed in one of two categories – Mainline or Evangelical.
* ^ A flexible term; defined as all forms of
Protestantism with the
notable exception of the historical denominations deriving from the
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. Despite the dominant usage of euangellismos in the New Testament,
its derivative, evangelical, was not widely or controversially
employed until the
Reformation period. Then it came into prominence
Martin Luther precisely because he reasserted Paul's teaching on
the euangellismos as the indispensable message of salvation. Its
light, he argued, was hidden under a bushel of ecclesiastical
authority, tradition, and liturgy. The essence of the saving message
for Luther was justification by faith alone, the article by which not
only the church stands or falls but each individual as well.
Thomas More , and
Johannes Eck denigrated those who accepted this view
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* ——— (2010), The Making of Evangelicalism: From
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* Sutton, Matthew Avery. American Apocalypse: A history of modern
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* ——— (1988), Guardians of the
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Look up EVANGELIST , EVANGELICAL , or EVANGELICALISM in Wiktionary,
the free dictionary.
* Institute for the Study of American Evangelicalism, Wheaton
* Spencer, Michael (March 10, 2009), "The Coming