Eva María Duarte de
Perón (7 May 1919 – 26 July 1952) was the wife
of Argentine President
Juan Perón (1895–1974) and First Lady of
Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. She is usually referred
Eva Perón or Evita.
She was born in poverty in the rural village of Los Toldos, in the
Pampas, as the youngest of five children. At 15 in 1934, she moved to
the nation's capital of
Buenos Aires to pursue a career as a stage,
radio, and film actress. She met Colonel
Juan Perón there on 22
January 1944 during a charity event at the Luna Park Stadium to
benefit the victims of an earthquake in San Juan, Argentina. The two
were married the following year.
Juan Perón was elected President of
Argentina in 1946; during the next 6 years,
Eva Perón became powerful
within the pro-Peronist trade unions, primarily for speaking on behalf
of labor rights. She also ran the Ministries of Labor and Health,
founded and ran the charitable
Eva Perón Foundation, championed
women's suffrage in Argentina, and founded and ran the nation's first
large-scale female political party, the Female Peronist Party.
Eva Perón announced her candidacy for the Peronist
nomination for the office of Vice President of Argentina, receiving
great support from the Peronist political base, low-income and
working-class Argentines who were referred to as descamisados or
"shirtless ones". However, opposition from the nation's military and
bourgeoisie, coupled with her declining health, ultimately forced her
to withdraw her candidacy. In 1952, shortly before her death from
cancer at 33,
Eva Perón was given the title of "Spiritual Leader of
the Nation" by the Argentine Congress. She was given a state
funeral upon her death, a prerogative generally reserved for heads of
Eva Perón has become a part of international popular
culture,[page needed] most famously as the subject of the
musical Evita (1976). Even today, Evita has never left the
collective consciousness of Argentines. Cristina Fernández de
Kirchner, the first elected female President of Argentina, and many
other leaders attest that women of her generation owe a debt to Eva
for "her example of passion and combativeness".
1 Early life
1.1 Early childhood
1.3 Move to Buenos Aires
2 Early relationship with Juan Perón
3 Rise to power
3.1 Juan Perón's arrest
3.2 1946 Presidential election victory
4 European tour
5 Charitable and feminist activities
5.1 Eva Foundation
Female Peronist Party
Female Peronist Party and women's suffrage
6 1952 Presidential election
6.1 Vice Presidential nomination
6.2 Declining health
6.3 Re-election and Spiritual Leader of the Nation
7 Death and aftermath
7.4 Disappearance and return of body
7.5 Final resting place
8 Legacy and criticism
Argentina and Latin America
8.2 Allegations of fascism
8.3 International popular culture
9 Titles and honours
9.1 Titles and styles
9.2.1 National honours
9.2.2 Foreign honours
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Eva Duarte at her First Holy Communion, 1926
Eva's autobiography, La Razón de mi Vida, contains no dates or
references to childhood occurrences, and does not list the location of
her birth or her name at birth.[page needed] According to
Junín's civil registry, a birth certificate shows that one María Eva
Duarte was born on 7 May 1922. Her baptismal certificate, however,
lists the date of birth as 7 May 1919 under the name Eva María
Ibarguren. It is thought[by whom?] that in 1945 the adult Eva
Perón created a forgery of her birth certificate for her
Eva Perón spent her childhood in Junín,
Buenos Aires province. Her
father, Juan Duarte, was descended from French Basque immigrants. Her
mother Juana Ibarguren, was descended from Spanish Basque
immigrants. Juan Duarte, a wealthy rancher from nearby Chivilcoy,
already had a wife and family there. At that time in rural Argentina,
it was not uncommon for a wealthy man to have multiple families.
When Eva was a year old, Duarte returned permanently to his legal
family, leaving Juana Ibarguren and her children in penury. Ibarguren
and her children were forced to move to the poorest area of Junín.
Los Toldos was a village in the dusty region of Las Pampas, with a
reputation as a desolate place of abject poverty. To support herself
and her children, Ibarguren sewed clothes for neighbors. The family
was stigmatized by the abandonment of the father and by the
illegitimate status of the children under Argentine law, and was
consequently somewhat isolated. A desire to expunge this part of her
life might have been a motivation for Eva to arrange the destruction
of her original birth certificate in 1945.[page needed]
When Duarte suddenly died and his mistress and their children sought
to attend his funeral, there was an unpleasant scene at the church
gates. Although Juana and the children were permitted to enter and pay
their respects to Duarte, they were promptly directed out of the
church. Mrs. Juan Duarte did not want her husband's mistress and
children at the funeral and, as those of the legitimate wife, her
orders were respected.
Prior to abandoning Juana Ibarguren, Juan Duarte had been her sole
means of support. Biographer John Barnes writes that after this
abandonment, all Duarte left to the family was a document declaring
that the children were his, thus enabling them to use the Duarte
surname.[page needed] Soon after, Juana moved her children to
a one-room apartment in Junín. To pay the rent on their single-roomed
home, mother and daughters took up jobs as cooks in the houses of the
Eventually, owing to Eva's older brother's financial help, the family
moved into a bigger house, which they later transformed into a
boarding house.[page needed] During this time, young Eva
often participated in school plays and concerts. One of her favorite
pastimes was the cinema. Though Eva's mother apparently had a few
plans for Eva, wanting to marry her off to one of the local bachelors,
Eva herself dreamed of becoming a famous
actress.[page needed] Eva's love of acting was reinforced
when, in October 1933, she played a small role in a school play called
Arriba estudiantes (Students Arise), which Barnes describes as "an
emotional, patriotic, flag-waving melodrama."[page needed]
After the play, Eva was determined to become an
Move to Buenos Aires
Eva Duarte in 1939 at age 20, photographed by Annemarie Heinrich
In her autobiography, she explained that all the people from her own
town who had been to the big cities described them as "marvelous
places, where nothing was given but wealth". In 1934, at the age of
15, Eva escaped her poverty-stricken village when, according to
popular myth, she ran off with a young musician to the nation's
capital of Buenos Aires. The young couple's relationship would end
almost as quickly as it began, but Eva remained in Buenos Aires. She
began to pursue jobs on the stage and the radio, and eventually became
a film actress. Eva had a series of relationships, and via some of
these men she did acquire a number of her modeling appointments. She
bleached her natural black hair to blond, a look she would maintain
for the duration of her life.[page needed]
It is often reported that Eva traveled to
Buenos Aires by train with
tango singer Agustín
Magaldi.[page needed][page needed] However,
biographers Marysa Navarro and Nicholas Fraser maintain that this is
unlikely, as there is no record of the married Magaldi performing in
Junín in 1934 (and, even if he had, he usually traveled with his
wife). Eva's sisters maintain that Eva traveled to
Buenos Aires with
their mother. The sisters also claim that Doña Juana accompanied her
daughter to an audition at a radio station and arranged for Eva to
live with the Bustamante family, who were friends of the Duarte
family. While the method of Eva's escape from her bleak provincial
surroundings is debated, she did begin a new life in Buenos Aires.
Buenos Aires in the 1930s was known as the "Paris of South America".
The center of the city had many cafés, restaurants, theaters, movie
houses, shops and bustling crowds. In direct contrast, the 1930s were
also years of great unemployment, poverty and hunger in the capital,
and many new arrivals from the interior were forced to live in
tenements, boardinghouses and in outlying shanties that became known
as villas miserias.
Eva Duarte and
Libertad Lamarque in La Cabalgata del Circo, 1945
Upon arrival in Buenos Aires, Eva Duarte was faced with the
difficulties of surviving without formal education or connections. The
city was especially overcrowded during this period because of the
migrations caused by the Great Depression. On 28 March 1935, she had
her professional debut in the play Mrs. Perez (la Señora de Pérez),
at the Comedias Theater.
In 1936, Eva toured nationally with a theater company, worked as a
model, and was cast in a few B-grade movie melodramas. In 1942, Eva
experienced some economic stability when a company called Candilejas
(sponsored by a soap manufacturer) hired her for a daily role in one
of their radio dramas called Muy bien, which aired on Radio El Mundo
(World Radio), the most important radio station in the country at that
time.[page needed] Later that year, she signed a five-year
contract with Radio Belgrano, which assured her a role in a popular
historical-drama program called Great Women of History, in which she
played Elizabeth I of England, Sarah Bernhardt, and the last Tsarina
of Russia. Eventually, Eva Duarte came to co-own the radio company. By
1943, Eva Duarte was earning five or six thousand pesos a month,
making her one of the highest-paid radio actresses in the nation.
Pablo Raccioppi, who jointly ran Radio El Mundo with Eva Duarte, is
said to have not liked her, but to have noted that she was "thoroughly
dependable". Eva also had a short-lived film career, but none of
the films in which she appeared were hugely successful. In one of her
La cabalgata del circo
La cabalgata del circo (The Circus Cavalcade), Eva played
a young country girl who rivaled an older woman, the movie's star,
As a result of her success with radio dramas and the films, Eva
achieved some financial stability. In 1942, she was able to move into
her own apartment in the exclusive neighborhood of Recoleta, on 1567
Calle Posadas. The next year Eva began her career in politics, as one
of the founders of the Argentine Radio Syndicate
Early relationship with Juan Perón
Juan Perón in 1947.
Official portrait of
Juan Domingo Perón
Juan Domingo Perón and Evita, by Numa Ayrinhac
in 1948. He is the only Argentine President accompanied by the First
Lady in an official portrait.
On 15 January 1944 an earthquake occurred in the town of San Juan,
Argentina, killing some 10,000 people. In response, Perón, who was
then the Secretary of Labour, established a fund to raise money to aid
the victims. He devised a plan to have an "artistic festival" as a
fundraiser, and invited radio and film actors to participate. After a
week of fundraising, all participants met at a gala held at Luna Park
Buenos Aires to benefit earthquake victims. It was at this
gala, on 22 January 1944, that Eva Duarte first met Colonel Juan
Perón. Eva promptly became the colonel's mistress. Eva referred
to the day she met her future husband as her "marvelous day".
Fraser and Navarro write that
Juan Perón and Eva left the gala
together at around two in the morning.
Fraser and Navarro claim that Eva Duarte had no knowledge of or
interest in politics prior to meeting Perón. Therefore, she never
Perón or any of his inner circle, but merely absorbed
what she heard.
Juan Perón later claimed in his memoir that he
purposefully selected Eva as his pupil, and set out to create in her a
"second I." Fraser and Navarro, however, suggest that Juan Perón
allowed Eva Duarte such intimate exposure and knowledge of his inner
circle because of his age: he was 48 and she was 24 when they met. He
had come to politics late in life, and was therefore free of
preconceived ideas of how his political career should be conducted,
and he was willing to accept whatever aid she offered him.
In May 1944, it was announced that broadcast performers must organize
themselves into a union, and that this union would be the only one
permitted to operate in Argentina. Shortly after the union formed, Eva
Duarte was elected its president. Fraser and Navarro speculate that
Juan Perón made the suggestion that performers create a union, and
the other performers likely felt it was good politics to elect his
mistress. Shortly after her election as president of the union, Eva
Duarte began a daily program called Toward a Better Future, which
dramatized in soap opera form the accomplishments of Juan Perón.
Often, Perón's own speeches were played during the program. When she
spoke, Eva Duarte spoke in ordinary language as a regular woman who
wanted listeners to believe what she herself believed about Juan
Rise to power
Juan Perón's arrest
Part of a series on the
History of Argentina
Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Governorate of New Andalusia
Governorate of the Río de la Plata
Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
War of Independence
Congress of Tucumán
Juan Manuel de Rosas
French blockade of the Río de la Plata
Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata
Rise of Argentine Republic
Conquest of the Desert
Generation of '80
Radical Phase (1916–30)
The Infamous Decade
Juan Perón and Eva Perón
General Confederation of Labour
Post-WW II (1955 to 1976)
1963 Argentine Navy revolt
Arturo Umberto Illia
Montoneros and ERP
National Reorganization Process
(Guerra de las Malvinas)
Return to democracy
Trial of the Juntas
December 2001 riots
Demonstration for Perón's release, on 17 October 1945. The Casa
Rosada is seen in the background.
By early 1945, a group of Army officers called the GOU for "Grupo de
Oficiales Unidos" (United Officers Group), nicknamed "The Colonels",
had gained considerable influence within the Argentine government.
Pedro Pablo Ramírez
Pedro Pablo Ramírez became wary of Juan Perón's growing
power within the government and was unable to curb that power. On 24
February 1944, Ramírez signed his own resignation paper, which Fraser
and Navarro claim was drafted by
Juan Perón himself. Edelmiro Julián
Farrell, a friend of Juan Perón, became President. Juan Perón
returned to his job as Labor Minister. Fraser and Navarro claim that,
by this point,
Perón was the most powerful man in the Argentine
government. On 9 October 1945
Juan Perón was arrested by his
opponents within the government who feared that due to the strong
support of the descamisados, the workers and the poor of the nation,
Perón's popularity might eclipse that of the sitting president.
Six days later, between 250,000 and 350,000 people gathered in front
of the Casa Rosada, Argentina's government house, to demand Juan
Perón's release, and their wish was granted. At 11 pm, Juan Perón
stepped onto the balcony of the
Casa Rosada and addressed the crowd.
Biographer Robert D. Crassweller claims that this moment was very
powerful because it was very dramatic and recalled many important
aspects of Argentine history. Crassweller writes that Juan Perón
enacted the role of a caudillo addressing his people in the tradition
of Argentine leaders Rosas and Yrigoyen. Crassweller also claims that
the evening contained "mystic overtones" of a "quasi-religious"
Eva Perón has often been credited with organizing the
rally of thousands that freed
Juan Perón from prison on 17 October
1945. This version of events was popularized in the movie version of
the Lloyd Webber musical. Most historians, however, agree that this
version of events is unlikely. At the time of Perón's
imprisonment, Eva was still merely an actress. She had no political
clout with the various labor unions, and it is claimed that she was
not well-liked within Perón's inner circle, nor was she liked by many
within the film and radio business at this point. When
Juan Perón was
imprisoned, Eva Duarte was suddenly disenfranchised. In reality, the
massive rally that freed
Perón from prison was organized by the
various unions, such as General Labor Confederation, or CGT as they
came to be known. To this day, the date of 17 October is something of
a holiday for the
Justicialist Party in
Argentina (celebrated as Día
de la Lealtad, or "Loyalty Day"). What would follow was shocking and
nearly unheard of. The well connected and politically rising star,
Juan Peron, married Eva. Despite Eva's childhood illegitimacy, and
having an uncertain reputation, Peron was in love with Eva, and her
loyal devotion to him even while he had been under arrest touched him
deeply, and so he married her, providing a respectability she had
never known. Eva and Juan were married discreetly in a civil ceremony
in Junín on 18 October 1945 and in a church wedding on 9 December
1946 Presidential election victory
After his release from prison,
Juan Perón decided to campaign for the
presidency of the nation, which he won in a landslide. Eva campaigned
heavily for her husband during his 1946 presidential bid. Using her
weekly radio show, she delivered powerful speeches with heavy populist
rhetoric urging the poor to align themselves with Perón's movement.
Though she had become wealthy from her radio and modeling success, she
highlighted her own humble upbringing as a way of showing solidarity
with the impoverished classes.
Along with her husband, Eva visited every corner of the country,
becoming the first woman in Argentina's history to appear in public on
the campaign trail with her husband. Eva's appearance alongside her
husband often offended the establishment of the wealthy, the military,
and those in political life. However, she was very popular with the
general public who knew her from her radio and motion picture
appearances. It was during this phase of her life that she first
encouraged the Argentine population to refer to her not as "Eva
Perón" but simply as "Evita", which is a Spanish diminutive or
affectionate nickname roughly equivalent to "Little Eva" or
Perón arrives in Madrid
In 1947, Eva embarked on a much-publicized "Rainbow Tour" of Europe,
meeting with numerous dignitaries and heads of state, such as
Francisco Franco and Pope Pius XII. Biographers Fraser and Navarro
write that the tour had its genesis in an invitation the Spanish
leader had extended to Juan Perón. For political reasons it was
decided that Eva, rather than Juan Perón, should make the visit.
Fraser and Navarro write that
Argentina had only recently emerged from
its "wartime quarantine", thus taking its place in the United Nations
and improving relations with the United States. Therefore, a visit to
Franco, with António Salazar of Portugal, the last remaining west
European authoritarian leaders in power, would be diplomatically
frowned upon internationally. Fraser and Navarro write that Eva
decided that, if
Juan Perón would not accept Franco's invitation for
a state visit to Spain, then she would. Advisors then decided that Eva
should visit many European countries in addition to Spain. This would
make it seem that Eva's sympathies were not specifically with Franco's
Spain but with all of Europe. The tour was billed not as a
political tour but as a non-political "goodwill" tour.
Eva was well received in Spain, where she visited the tombs of Spanish
monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella in the Capilla Real de Granada.
Francoist Spain had not recovered from the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War (the
autarkic economy and the UN embargo meant that the country could not
feed its people). During her visit to Spain, Eva handed out 100-peseta
notes to many poor children she met on her journey. She also received
from Franco the highest award given by the Spanish government, the
Order of Isabella the Catholic.
Eva then visited Rome, where the reception was not as warm as it had
been in Spain. Though
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII did not give her a Papal
decoration, she was allowed the time usually allotted queens and was
given a rosary. 
Her next stop was France, where she was generally well received. She
visited the Palace of Versailles, among other sites. She also met with
Charles de Gaulle. She promised France two shipments of wheat.
While in France, Eva received word that George VI would not receive
her when she planned to visit Britain, regardless of what his Foreign
Office might advise, and that her visit would not be viewed as a
state visit. Fraser and Navarro wrote that Eva regarded the royal
family's refusal to meet her as a snub, and canceled the trip to the
United Kingdom. Eva, however, gave "exhaustion" as the official reason
for not going on to Britain.
Eva also visited Switzerland during her European tour, a visit that
has been viewed as the worst part of the trip. According to the book
Evita: A Biography by John Barnes, while she traveled down a street
with many people crowding her car, someone threw two stones and
smashed the windshield. She threw her hands up in shock, but was not
injured. Later, while sitting with the Foreign Minister, protesters
threw tomatoes at her. The tomatoes hit the Foreign Minister and
splattered on Eva's dress. After these two events, Eva had had enough,
and after two months returned to Argentina.
Members of the Peronist opposition speculated that the true purpose of
the European tour was to deposit funds in a Swiss bank account. "The
opposition in Buenos Aires", write Fraser and Navarro, "assumed that
the genuine purpose of the whole European visit was for Eva and her
husband to deposit money in Swiss bank accounts, and that the rest had
been devised to conceal this. Many wealthy Argentines did this, but
there are many more convenient and less conspicuous ways of depositing
money in Swiss accounts than meeting the Swiss Foreign Minister and
being shown around a watch factory." Fraser and Navarro conclude,
"Was there a Swiss bank account? It seems unlikely."
During her tour to Europe,
Eva Perón was featured in a cover story
for Time magazine. The cover's caption–"Eva Perón: Between two
worlds, an Argentine rainbow"–was a reference to the name given to
Eva's European tour, The Rainbow Tour. This was the only time in the
periodical's history that a South American first lady appeared alone
on its cover. (In 1951, Eva appeared again with Juan Perón.) However,
the 1947 cover story was also the first publication to mention that
Eva had been born out of wedlock. In retaliation, the periodical was
Argentina for several months.
After returning to
Argentina from Europe, Evita never again appeared
in public with the complicated hairdos of her movie star days. The
brilliant gold color became more subdued in tone, and even the style
changed, her hair being pulled back severely into a heavy braided
chignon. Additionally, her extravagant clothing became more refined
after the tour. No longer did she wear the elaborate hats and
form-fitting dresses of Argentine designers. Soon she adopted simpler
and more fashionable Paris couture and became particularly attached to
the fashions of Christian Dior and the jewels of Cartier. In an
attempt to cultivate a more serious political persona, Eva began to
appear in public wearing conservative though stylish tailleurs (a
business-like combination of skirts and jackets), which also were made
by Dior and other Paris couture houses.
Charitable and feminist activities
See also: Feminism in Argentina
Perón meets with the public in her foundation's office
Sociedad de Beneficencia (Society of Beneficence), a charity group
made up of 87 society ladies, was responsible for most charity works
Buenos Aires prior to the election of Juan Perón. Fraser and
Navarro write that at one point the Sociedad had been an enlightened
institution, caring for orphans and homeless women, but that those
days had long since passed by the time of the first term of Juan
Perón. In the 1800s, the Sociedad had been supported by private
contributions, largely those of the husbands of the society ladies.
But by the 1940s, the Sociedad was supported by the
It had been the tradition of the Sociedad to elect the First Lady of
Argentina as president of the charity. But the ladies of the Sociedad
did not approve of Eva Perón's impoverished background, lack of
formal education, and former career as an actress. Fraser and Navarro
write that the ladies of the Sociedad were afraid that Evita would set
a bad example for the orphans, therefore the society ladies did not
extend to Evita the position of president of their organization. It
has often been said that Evita had the government funding for the
Sociedad cut off in retaliation. Fraser and Navarro suggest that this
version of events is in dispute, but that the government funding that
had previously supported the Sociedad now went to support Evita's own
foundation. The Fundación María Eva Duarte de
Perón was created on
8 July 1948. It was later renamed to, simply, the Eva Perón
Foundation. Its funding began with 10,000 pesos provided by Evita
In The Woman with the Whip, the first English language biography of
Eva Perón, author Mary Main writes that no account records were kept
for the foundation because it was merely a means of funneling
government money into private
Swiss bank accounts
Swiss bank accounts controlled by the
Peróns.[page needed] Fraser and Navarro, however, counter
these claims, writing that Ramón Cereijo, Minister of Finance, kept
records, and that the foundation "began as the simplest response to
the poverty (Evita) encountered each day in her office" and "the
appalling backwardness of social services—or charity, as it was
still called—in Argentina." Crassweller writes that the
foundation was supported by donations of cash and goods from the
Peronist unions and private businesses, and that the Confederación
General del Trabajo donated three man-days (later reduced to two) of
salary for every worker per year. Tax on lottery and movie tickets
also helped to support the foundation, as did a levy on casino and
revenue from horse races. Crassweller also notes that there were some
cases of businesses being pressured to donate to the foundation, with
negative repercussions resulting if requests for donations were not
Within a few years, the foundation had assets in cash and goods in
excess of three billion pesos, or over $200 million at the exchange
rate of the late 1940s. It employed 14,000 workers, of whom 6,000 were
construction workers, and 26 priests. It purchased and distributed
annually 400,000 pairs of shoes, 500,000 sewing machines, and 200,000
cooking pots. The foundation also gave scholarships, built homes,
hospitals, and other charitable institutions. Every aspect of the
foundation was under Evita's supervision. The foundation also built
entire communities, such as Evita City, which still exists today.
Fraser and Navarro claim that due to the works and health services of
the foundation, for the first time in history there was no inequality
in Argentine health care.
Eva kicks off the Youth Football Championship, 1948.
Fraser and Navarro write that it was Evita's work with the foundation
that played a large role in her idealization, even leading some to
consider her a saint. Though it was unnecessary from a practical
standpoint, Evita set aside many hours per day to meet with the poor
who requested help from her foundation. During these meetings with the
poor, Evita often kissed the poor and allowed them to kiss her. Evita
was even witnessed placing her hands in the suppurated wounds of the
sick and poor, touching the leprous, and kissing the syphilitic.
Fraser and Navarro write that though
Argentina is secular in many
respects, it is essentially a Catholic country. Therefore, when Evita
kissed the syphilitic and touched the leprous she "...ceased to be the
President's wife and acquired some of the characteristics of saints
depicted in Catholicism." Poet José María Castiñeira de Dios, a man
from a wealthy background, reflected on the times he witnessed Evita
meeting with the poor: "I had had a sort of literary perception of the
people and the poor and she had given me a Christian one, thus
allowing me to become a Christian in the profoundest sense...."
Fraser and Navarro write that toward the end of her life, Evita was
working as many as 20 to 22 hours per day in her foundation, often
ignoring her husband's request that she cut back on her workload and
take the weekends off. The more she worked with the poor in her
foundation, the more she adopted an outraged attitude toward the
existence of poverty, saying, "Sometimes I have wished my insults were
slaps or lashes. I've wanted to hit people in the face to make them
see, if only for a day, what I see each day I help the people."
Crassweller writes that Evita became fanatical about her work in the
foundation and felt on a crusade against the very concept and
existence of poverty and social ills. "It is not surprising", writes
Crassweller, "that as her public crusades and her private adorations
took on a narrowing intensity after 1946, they simultaneously veered
toward the transcendental." Crassweller compares Evita to Ignatius
Loyola, saying she came to be akin to a one-woman Jesuit Order.
Female Peronist Party
Female Peronist Party and women's suffrage
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Perón supported the female vote
Biographers Fraser and Navarro wrote that
Eva Perón has often been
credited with gaining the right to vote for Argentine women. While Eva
did make radio addresses in support of women's suffrage and also
published articles in her Democracia newspaper asking male Peronists
to support women's right to vote, ultimately the ability to grant to
women the right to vote was beyond Eva's powers. Fraser and Navarro
claim that Eva's actions were limited to supporting a bill introduced
by one of her supporters, Eduardo Colom, a bill that was eventually
A new women's suffrage bill was introduced, which the Senate of
Argentina sanctioned on 21 August 1946. It was necessary to wait more
than a year before the House of Representatives sanctioned it on 9
September 1947. Law 13,010 established the equality of political
rights between men and women and universal suffrage in Argentina.
Finally, Law 13,010 was approved unanimously. In a public celebration
and ceremony, however,
Juan Perón signed the law granting women the
right to vote, and then he handed the bill to Eva, symbolically making
Eva Perón then created the Female Peronist Party, the first large
female political party in the nation. Navarro and Fraser write that by
1951, the party had 500,000 members and 3,600 headquarters across the
country. Navarro and Fraser write that while
Eva Perón did not
consider herself a feminist, her impact on the political life of women
was decisive. Thousands of previously apolitical women entered
politics because of Eva Perón. They were the first women active in
Argentine politics. The combination of female suffrage and the
organization of the
Female Peronist Party
Female Peronist Party granted
Juan Perón a large
majority (sixty-three percent) of the vote in the 1951 presidential
1952 Presidential election
Vice Presidential nomination
A crowd of an estimated two million gathers in 1951 to show support
for the Perón-
Eva Perón ticket
In 1951, Evita set her sights on earning a place on the ballot as
candidate for vice-president. This move angered many military leaders
who despised Evita and her increasing powers within the government.
According to the Argentine Constitution, the Vice President
automatically succeeds the President in the event of the President's
death. The possibility of Evita becoming president in the event of
Juan Perón's death was not something the military could
She did, however, receive great support from the working class, the
unions, and the Peronist Women's Party. The intensity of the support
she drew from these groups is said to have surprised even Juan Perón
himself. Fraser and Navarro write that the wide support Evita's
proposed candidacy generated indicated to him that Evita had become as
important to members of the Peronist party as
Juan Perón himself
Perón embraces her husband during the 1951 joint ticket rally, unable
to accept popular calls that she run for Vice-President
On 22 August 1951, the unions held a mass rally of two million people
called "Cabildo Abierto." (The name "Cabildo Abierto" was a reference
and tribute to the first local Argentine government of the May
Revolution, in 1810.) The Peróns addressed the crowd from the balcony
of a huge scaffolding set up on the Avenida 9 de Julio, several blocks
away from the Casa Rosada, the official government house of Argentina.
Overhead were two large portraits of Eva and Juan Perón. It has been
claimed that "Cabildo Abierto" was the largest public display of
support in history for a female political figure.
At the mass rally, the crowd demanded that Evita publicly announce her
candidacy as vice president. She pleaded for more time to make her
decision. The exchange between Evita and the crowd of two million
became, for a time, a genuine and spontaneous dialogue,[citation
needed] with the crowd chanting, "¡Evita, Vice-Presidente!" When
Evita asked for more time so she could make up her mind, the crowd
demanded, "¡Ahora, Evita, ahora!" ("Now, Evita, now!"). Eventually,
they came to a compromise. Evita told the audience that she would
announce her decision over the radio a few days later.
Eva Perón addresses the Peronists on 17 October 1951. By this point
she was too weak to stand without Juan Perón's aid.
Eventually, she declined the invitation to run for vice-president. She
said her only ambition was that in the large chapter of history to be
written about her husband, the footnotes would mention a woman who
brought the "...hopes and dreams of the people to the president", a
woman who eventually turned those hopes and dreams into "glorious
reality". In Peronist rhetoric, this event has come to be referred to
as "The Renunciation", portraying Evita as having been a selfless
woman in line with the Hispanic myth of marianismo. Most biographers,
however, postulate that Evita did not so much renounce her ambition as
bow to pressure from her husband, the military, and the Argentine
upper class, who preferred that she not enter the race.
Perón's renunciation speech (in Spanish). Source: Radio Nacional.
On 9 January 1950, Evita fainted in public and underwent surgery three
days later. Although it was reported that she had undergone an
appendectomy, she was diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer.
Fainting continued through 1951 (including the evening after "Cabildo
abierto"), with extreme weakness and severe vaginal bleeding. By 1951,
it had become evident that her health was rapidly deteriorating.
Although her diagnosis was withheld from her by Juan, she knew she
was not well, and a bid for the vice-presidency was not practical.
Only a few months after "the Renunciation", Evita underwent a secret
radical hysterectomy in an attempt to eradicate her advanced cervical
cancer.[page needed] In 2011, a Yale neurosurgeon, Dr. Daniel
E. Nijensohn studied Evita's skull x-rays and photographic evidence
and said that
Perón may have been given a prefrontal lobotomy in the
last months of her life, "...to relieve the pain, agitation and
anxiety she suffered in the final months of her
Re-election and Spiritual Leader of the Nation
On 4 June 1952, Evita rode with
Juan Perón in a parade through Buenos
Aires in celebration of his re-election as President of Argentina.
Evita was by this point so ill that she was unable to stand without
support. Underneath her oversized fur coat was a frame made of plaster
and wire that allowed her to stand. She took a triple dose of pain
medication before the parade, and took another two doses when she
In a ceremony a few days after Juan Perón's second inauguration,
Evita was given the official title of "Spiritual Leader of the
Death and aftermath
Evita's elaborately adorned funeral
Perón had undergone a hysterectomy performed by the American
surgeon George T. Pack, the cervical cancer had metastasized and
returned rapidly.[page needed] She was the first Argentine to
undergo chemotherapy (a novel treatment at that time). Despite all
available treatment, she became emaciated, weighing only 36 kg
(79 lb) by June 1952. Eva died at the age of 33,
at 8:25 p.m. on Saturday, 26 July 1952. Radio broadcasts
throughout the country were interrupted with the announcement that
"The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills
its very sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25
hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation,
died."[page needed] Ordinary activities ceased; movies
stopped playing; restaurants were closed and patrons were shown to the
Immediately after Perón's death, the government suspended all
official activities for two days and ordered all flags flown at
half-staff for ten days. It soon became apparent, however, that these
measures fell short of reflecting popular grief. The crowd outside of
the presidential residence, where Evita died, grew dense, congesting
the streets for ten blocks in each direction.
Nearly three million people attended Evita's funeral in the streets of
The morning after her death, while Evita's body was being moved to the
Ministry of Labour Building, eight people were crushed to death in the
throngs. In the following 24 hours, over 2000 people were treated in
city hospitals for injuries sustained in the rush to be near Evita as
her body was being transported, and thousands more would be treated on
the spot.[page needed] For the following two weeks, lines
would stretch for many city blocks with mourners waiting hours to see
Evita's body lie at the Ministry of Labour.
The streets of
Buenos Aires overflowed with huge piles of flowers.
Within a day of Perón's death, all flower shops in
Buenos Aires had
run out of stock. Flowers would be flown in from all over the country,
and as far away as Chile.[page needed] Despite the fact that
Eva Perón never held a political office, she was eventually given a
state funeral usually reserved for a head of state, along with a
full Roman Catholic requiem mass. A memorial was held for the
Argentine team during the
1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki due to Eva
Perón's death during those games.
On 9 August, Saturday, the body was transferred to the Congress
Building for an additional day of public viewing, and a memorial
service attended by the entire Argentine legislative body. The next
day, after a final Mass, the coffin was laid on a gun carriage pulled
by CGT officials. It was followed by Peron, his cabinet, Eva's family
and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido
Peronista Femenino—then workers, nurses and students of the Eva
Peron Foundation. Flowers were thrown from balconies and windows.
There were different interpretations of the popular mourning of Eva
Perón's death. Some reporters viewed the mourning as authentic,
others saw a public succumbing to another of the "passion plays" of
the Peronist regime. Time magazine reported that the Peronist
government enforced the observance of a daily period of five minutes
of mourning following a daily radio announcement.
During Perón's time, children born to unmarried parents did not have
the same legal rights as those born to married parents. Biographer
Julie M. Taylor, professor of anthropology at Rice University, has
said that Evita was well aware of the pain of being born
"illegitimate." Taylor speculates that Evita's awareness of this may
have influenced her decision to have the law changed so that
"illegitimate" children would henceforth be referred to as "natural"
children. Upon her death, the Argentine public was told that Evita
was only 30. The discrepancy was meant to dovetail with Evita's
earlier tampering with her birth certificate. After becoming the first
lady in 1946, Evita had her birth records altered to read that she had
been born to married parents, and placed her birth date three years
later, making herself younger.[page needed]
Dr. Ara inspects Eva Perón's embalmed corpse
Shortly after Evita's death, Dr. Pedro Ara was approached to embalm
the body. Fraser and Navarro write that it is doubtful that Evita ever
expressed a wish to be embalmed, and suggest that it was most likely
Juan Perón's decision. Ara was a professor of anatomy who had studied
in Vienna and maintained an academic career in Madrid. His work was
occasionally referred to as "the art of death." His highly advanced
embalming technique consisted of replacing the corpse's blood with
glycerine, which preserved all organs including the brain and created
a lifelike appearance, giving the body the appearance of "artistically
rendered sleep." Ara was known in
Buenos Aires society for his work.
Among the people he had embalmed was Spanish composer Manuel de
Falla. Ara claims that his embalming of Evita's corpse began on
the night of her death and that by the next morning, "the body of Eva
Perón was completely and infinitely incorruptible" and suitable for
display to the public.
In the book Peron and the Enigmas of Argentina, biographer Robert D.
Crassweller claims that the English-speaking nations of North America
and Europe largely misunderstood Argentina's response to the death of
Perón as well as the ornate funeral she was granted. Crassweller
attributes this misunderstanding to the unique cultural makeup of the
Peróns and Argentina, saying that the Peróns were of the Hispanic
tradition and that their opposition was largely of British
Disappearance and return of body
Perón rests in the Recoleta Cemetery
Shortly after Evita's death, plans were made to construct a memorial
in her honour. The monument, which was to be a statue of a man
representing the descamisados, was projected to be larger than the
Statue of Liberty. Evita's body was to be stored in the base of the
monument and, in the tradition of Lenin's corpse, to be displayed for
the public. While the monument was being constructed, Evita's embalmed
body was displayed in her former office at the CGT building for almost
two years. Before the monument to Evita was completed,
Juan Perón was
overthrown in a military coup, the Revolución Libertadora, in 1955.
Perón hastily fled the country and was unable to make arrangements to
secure Evita's body.
Following his flight, a military dictatorship took power. The new
authorities removed Evita's body from display, and its whereabouts
were a mystery for 16 years. From 1955 until 1971, the military
Argentina issued a ban on Peronism. It became illegal
not only to possess pictures of Juan and
Eva Perón in one's home, but
to speak their names. In 1971, the military revealed that Evita's body
was buried in a crypt in Milan, Italy, under the name "María Maggi."
It appeared that her body had been damaged during its transport and
storage, such as compressions to her face and disfigurement of one of
her feet due to the body having been left in an upright position.
Tomás Eloy Martínez
Tomás Eloy Martínez published Santa Evita, a fictionalized
work propounding many new stories about the escapades of the corpse.
Allegations that her body was the object of inappropriate attentions
are derived from his description of an 'emotional necrophilia' by
embalmers, Colonel Koenig and his assistant Arancibia. Many primary
and secondary references to his novel have inaccurately stated that
her body had been defiled in some way resulting in the widespread
belief in this myth. Also included are allegations that many wax
copies had been made, that the corpse had been damaged with a hammer,
and that one of the wax copies was the object of an officer's sexual
Final resting place
In 1971, Evita's body was exhumed and flown to Spain, where Juan
Perón maintained the corpse in his home. Juan and his third wife,
Isabel, decided to keep the corpse in their dining room on a platform
near the table. In 1973,
Juan Perón came out of exile and returned to
Argentina, where he became president for the third time.
in office in 1974. His third wife, Isabel Perón, whom he had married
on 15 November 1961, and who had been elected vice-president,
succeeded him. She became the first female president in the Western
Hemisphere. Isabel had Eva Perón's body returned to
(briefly) displayed beside her husband's. Perón's body was later
buried in the Duarte family tomb in La Recoleta Cemetery, Buenos
Aires. The previous removal of Evita's body was avenged by the
Montoneros when they in 1970 stole the corpse of Pedro Eugenio
Aramburu, whom they had previously killed.
Montoneros then used the
captive body of Aramburu to pressure for the repatriation of Evita's
body. Once Evita's body arrived in Argentina, the
Montoneros gave up
Aramburu's corpse and abandoned it in a street in Buenos Aires.
The Argentine government took elaborate measures to make Perón's tomb
secure. The tomb's marble floor has a trapdoor that leads to a
compartment containing two coffins. Under that compartment is a second
trapdoor and a second compartment. That is where Perón's coffin
rests. Biographers Marysa Navarro and Nicholas Fraser write that the
claim is often made that her tomb is so secure that it could withstand
a nuclear attack. "It reflects a fear", they write, "a fear that the
body will disappear from the tomb and that the woman, or rather the
myth of the woman, will reappear."
Legacy and criticism
Argentina and Latin America
Refuge of the humble poster with the portrait of
Eva Perón in 1948.
In all of Latin America, only one other woman has aroused an emotion,
devotion and faith comparable to those awakened by the Virgin of
Guadalupe. In many homes, the image of Evita is on the wall next to
— Fabienne Rousso-Lenoir[page needed]
In his essay titled "Latin America" published in The Oxford
Illustrated History of Christianity,
John McManners claims that the
appeal and success of
Eva Perón are related to Latin American
mythology and concepts of divinity. McManners claims that Eva Perón
consciously incorporated aspects of the theology of the Virgin and of
Mary Magdalene into her public persona. Historian Hubert Herring
Eva Perón as "Perhaps the shrewdest woman yet to appear
in public life in Latin America."
In a 1996 interview,
Tomás Eloy Martínez
Tomás Eloy Martínez referred to
Eva Perón as
Cinderella of the tango and the
Sleeping Beauty of Latin
America." Martínez suggested she has remained an important cultural
icon for the same reasons as fellow Argentine Che Guevara:
Latin American myths are more resistant than they seem to be. Not even
the mass exodus of the Cuban raft people or the rapid decomposition
and isolation of Fidel Castro's regime have eroded the triumphal myth
of Che Guevara, which remains alive in the dreams of thousands of
young people in Latin America, Africa and Europe. Che as well as Evita
symbolize certain naive, but effective, beliefs: the hope for a better
world; a life sacrificed on the altar of the disinherited, the
humiliated, the poor of the earth. They are myths which somehow
reproduce the image of Christ.
Although not a government holiday, the anniversary of Eva Perón's
death is marked by many Argentines each year. Additionally, Eva Perón
has been featured on Argentine coins, and a form of Argentine currency
called "Evitas" was named in her honor.
Ciudad Evita (Evita City),
which was established by the
Eva Perón Foundation
Eva Perón Foundation in 1947, is located
just outside Buenos Aires.
Eva Perón in the Museo del Bicentenario, Buenos Aires.
Cristina Kirchner, the first elected female president in Argentine
history, is a Peronist who has occasionally been referred to as "The
New Evita." Kirchner says she does not want to compare herself to
Evita, claiming she was a unique phenomenon in Argentine history.
Kirchner also says that women of her generation, who came of age in
the 1970s during the military dictatorships in Argentina, owe a debt
to Evita for offering an example of passion and combativeness. On
26 July 2002, the 50th anniversary of Eva Perón's death, a museum
opened in her honor called Museo Evita. The museum, created by her
great-niece Cristina Alvarez Rodriguez, houses many of Eva Perón's
clothes, portraits, and artistic renderings of her life, and has
become a popular tourist attraction. The museum was opened in a
building that was once used by the
Eva Perón Foundation.
In the book Eva Perón: The Myths of a Woman, cultural anthropologist
Julie M. Taylor claims that Evita has remained important in Argentina
due to the combination of three unique factors:
In the images examined, the three elements consistently
linked—femininity, mystical or spirituality power, and revolutionary
leadership—display an underlying common theme. Identification with
any one of these elements puts a person or a group at the margins of
established society and at the limits of institutional authority.
Anyone who can identify with all three images lays an overwhelming and
echoing claim to dominance through forces that recognize no control in
society or its rules. Only a woman can embody all three elements of
Cristina Kirchner in the exhibition of "Evita: Ambassador of
Peace", in the
State Historical Museum
State Historical Museum of Moscow.
Taylor argues that the fourth factor in Evita's continued importance
Argentina relates to her status as a dead woman and the power that
death holds over the public imagination. Taylor suggests that Evita's
embalmed corpse is analogous to the incorruptibility of various
Catholic saints, such as Bernadette Soubirous, and has powerful
symbolism within the largely Catholic cultures of Latin America:
To some extent her continuing importance and popularity may be
attributed not only to her power as a woman but also to the power of
the dead. However, a society's vision of the afterlife may be
structured, death by its nature remains a mystery, and, until society
formally allays the commotion it causes, a source of disturbance and
disorder. Women and the dead— death and womanhood —stand in
similar relation to structured social forms: outside public
institutions, unlimited by official rules, and beyond formal
categories. As a female corpse reiterating the symbolic themes of both
woman and martyr,
Eva Perón perhaps lays double claim to spiritual
John Balfour was the British ambassador in
Argentina during the Perón
regime, and describes Evita's popularity:
She was by any standard a very extraordinary woman; when you think of
Argentina and indeed Latin America as a men dominated part of the
world, there was this woman who was playing a very great role. And of
course she aroused very different feelings in the people with whom she
lived. The oligarchs, as she called the well-to-do and privileged
people, hated her. They looked upon her as a ruthless woman. The
masses of the people on the other hand worshipped her. They looked
upon her as a lady bountiful who was dispensing
Manna from heaven.
In 2011, two giant murals of Evita were unveiled on the building
facades of the current Ministry of Social Development, located on 9 de
Julio Avenue. The works were painted by Argentine artist Alejandro
Marmo. On 26 July 2012, to commemorate the sixtieth anniversary of
Evita's death, notes were issued in a value of 100 pesos. The
controversial effigy of
Julio Argentino Roca was replaced by that of
Eva Duarte, making her the first actual woman to be featured on the
currency of Argentina. The image in the notes is based on a 1952
design, whose sketch was found in the Mint, made by the engraver
Sergio Pilosio with artist Roger Pfund. The printing totals 20 million
notes; it is not clear whether the government will replace the notes
that feature Roca and the Desert Campaign.
Allegations of fascism
On 9 April 1951, Golda Meir, then Labor Minister of Israel, met with
Eva Perón to thank her for the aid the
Eva Perón Foundation
Eva Perón Foundation had
given to Israel.
Biographers Nicholas Fraser and Marysa Navarro write that Juan
Perón's opponents had from the start accused
Perón of being a
fascist. Spruille Braden, a diplomat from the United States who was
greatly supported by Juan Perón's opponents, campaigned against Juan
Perón's first candidacy on the platform that
Juan Perón was a
fascist and a Nazi. Fraser and Navarro also theorize that the
perception of the Peróns as fascists was enhanced during Evita's 1947
European tour during which she was a guest of honor of Francisco
Franco. By 1947, Franco had become politically isolated as one of the
few remaining fascists to retain power. Franco, therefore, was in
desperate need of a political ally. With nearly a third of Argentina's
population of Spanish descent, it seemed natural for
Argentina to have
diplomatic relations with Spain. Commenting on the international
perception of Evita during her 1947 European tour, Fraser and Navarro
write, "It was inevitable that Evita be viewed in a fascist context.
Therefore, both Evita and
Perón were seen to represent an ideology
which had run its course in Europe, only to re-emerge in an exotic,
theatrical, even farcical form in a faraway country."
Laurence Levine, the former president of the U.S.-Argentine Chamber of
Commerce, writes that in contrast to
Nazi ideology, the Peróns were
not anti-Semitic. In the book Inside
Perón to Menem:
1950–2000 from an American Point of View, Levine writes:
The American government demonstrated no knowledge of Perón's deep
admiration for Italy (and his distaste for Germany, whose culture he
found too rigid). Nor did they appreciate that although anti-Semitism
existed in Argentina, Perón's own views and his political
associations were not anti-Semitic. They paid no attention to the fact
Perón sought out the Jewish community in
Argentina to assist in
developing his policies and that one of his most important allies in
organizing the industrial sector was José Ber Gelbard, a Jewish
immigrant from Poland.
Juan Perón and future Economy Minister José Ber Gelbard
Biographer Robert D. Crassweller writes, "
Peronism was not fascism",
Peronism was not Nazism." Crassweller also refers to the comments
of U.S. Ambassador George S. Messersmith. While visiting
1947, Messersmith made the following statement: "There is not as much
social discrimination against Jews here as there is right in New York
or in most places at home."
Time Magazine published an article by Tomás Eloy
Martínez—Argentine writer, journalist, and former director of the
Latin American program at Rutgers University—titled "The Woman
Behind the Fantasy: Prostitute, Fascist, Profligate—Eva Peron Was
Much Maligned, Mostly Unfairly". In this article, Martínez writes
that the accusations that
Eva Perón was a fascist, a Nazi, and a
thief had been made against her for decades. He wrote that the
allegations were untrue:
She was not a fascist—ignorant, perhaps, of what that ideology
meant. And she was not greedy. Though she liked jewelry, furs and Dior
dresses, she could own as many as she desired without the need to rob
others.... In 1964
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges stated that 'the mother of that
woman [Evita]' was 'the madam of a whorehouse in Junín.' He repeated
the calumny so often that some still believe it or, more commonly,
think Evita herself, whose lack of sex appeal is mentioned by all who
knew her, apprenticed in that imaginary brothel. Around 1955 the
pamphleteer Silvano Santander employed the same strategy to concoct
letters in which Evita figures as an accomplice of the Nazis. It is
true that (Juan)
Perón facilitated the entrance of
Nazi criminals to
Argentina in 1947 and 1948, thereby hoping to acquire advanced
technology developed by the Germans during the war. But Evita played
In his 2002 doctoral dissertation at Ohio State University, Lawrence
D. Bell writes that the governments that preceded
Juan Perón had been
anti-Semitic but that his government was not.
Juan Perón "eagerly and
enthusiastically" attempted to recruit the Jewish community into his
government and set up a branch of the Peronist party for Jewish
members, known as the Organización Israelita
Perón's government was the first to court the Argentine Jewish
community and the first to appoint Jewish citizens to public
office. Kevin Passmore writes that the Peronist regime, more than
any other in Latin America, has been accused of being fascist. But he
says that the Peronist regime was not fascist, and what passed for
Perón never took hold in Latin America. Additionally,
because the Peronist regime allowed rival political parties to exist,
it cannot be described as totalitarian.
International popular culture
See also: Cultural depictions of Eva Perón
Liza Minnelli reading the plaque on Eva Perón's tomb, 1993. In the
early 1980s, Minnelli was considered for the lead role in the movie
version of the musical Evita.
By the late 20th century,
Eva Perón had become the subject of
numerous articles, books, stage plays, and musicals, ranging from the
The Woman with the Whip
The Woman with the Whip to a 1981 TV movie called Evita
Faye Dunaway in the title role. The most successful
rendering of Eva Perón's life has been the musical production Evita.
The musical began as a concept album co-produced by
Tim Rice and
Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber in 1976, with
Julie Covington in the title role.
Elaine Paige was later cast in the title role when the concept album
was adapted into a musical stage production in
London's West End
London's West End and
won the 1978
Olivier Award for Best Performance in a Musical. In 1980,
Patti LuPone won the
Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical
for her performance as the title character in the Broadway production.
Nicholas Fraser claims that to date "the musical stage production has
been performed on every continent except Antarctica and has generated
over $2 billion in revenue."
As early as 1978, the musical was considered as the basis for a movie.
After a nearly 20-year production delay, Madonna was cast in the title
role for the 1996 film version and won the
Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award for
"Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy." In response to the American
film, and in an alleged attempt to offer a more politically accurate
depiction of Evita's life, an Argentine film company released Eva
Perón: The True Story. The Argentine production starred actress
Esther Goris in the title role. This movie was the 1996 Argentine
submission for the Oscar in the category of "Best Foreign Language
Nicholas Fraser writes that Evita is the perfect popular culture icon
for our times because her career foreshadowed what, by the late 20th
century, had become common. During Evita's time it was considered
scandalous for a former entertainer to take part in public political
life. Her detractors in
Argentina had often accused Evita of turning
public political life into show business. But by the late 20th
century, Fraser claims, the public had become engrossed in the cult of
celebrity and public political life had become insignificant. In this
regard, Evita was perhaps ahead of her time. Fraser also writes that
Evita's story is appealing to our celebrity-obsessed age because her
story confirms one of Hollywood's oldest clichés, the rags to riches
story. Reflecting on Eva Perón's popularity more than half a
century after her death,
Alma Guillermoprieto writes that, "Evita's
life has evidently just begun."
Titles and honours
Eva Peron appears on the 100 peso note first issued in 2012 and
scheduled for replacement sometime in 2018.
The titles given to Eva Peron are the following:
Titles and styles
7 May 1919 – 21 October 1945: Miss María Eva Duarte
22 October 1945 – 3 June 1946: Mrs Eva Duarte de Perón
4 June 1946 – 26 July 1952: Her Excellency Eva Perón, First Lady of
7 May 1952 – Present: Spiritual Leader of the Nation
Argentina: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of the Liberator
General San Martín
Argentina: Grand Cross of Honor of the Argentine Red Cross
Argentina: Great Peronist Medal in Extraordinary Degree
Bolivia: Grand Cross of the Order of the Condor of the Andes
Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
Colombia: Grand Cross of the Order of Boyaca,
Netherlands: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau
Spain: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Dame Grand Cross of Sovereign
Military Order of Malta
Mexico: Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
Syria: Grand Cross of the Order of Omeyades
Ecuador: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit and the Ecuadorian
Haiti: Grand Cross of the Order of Honour and Merit
Perú: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
Paraguay:Grand Cross of the Merit of Paraguay
List of suffragists and suffragettes
Timeline of women's suffrage
Copa Eva Duarte
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:150).
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:158). "As Evita's health continued to
deteriorate that month, the city of Quilmes resolved to change its
name to 'Eva Perón,' and Congress, after a special legislative
session, devoted to eulogies of 'the most remarkable woman of any
historical epoch', gave her the title Jefe Espiritual de la Nacion
(Spiritual Leader of the Nation)."
^ a b Bolocco, Cecilia (18 November 2002). "A nation seeks salvation
in Evita". The Scotsman. Retrieved 7 March 2017. On 26 July 1952, a
Argentina heard Eva Perón, the 'spiritual leader of the
nation', had died, aged 33.
^ Crassweller (1987:245). "A week later, on her thirty-third birthday,
she received from Congress the title of Spiritual Leader of the
^ a b c d e f Fraser & Navarro (1996).
^ Brantley, Ben. In London, a Pious 'Evita' for a Star-Struck Age. New
York Times: 3 July 2006.
^ a b "Time Magazine. Interview: Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner of
Argentina". Time.com. 29 September 2007. Retrieved 27 January
^ Published in
Argentina in 1952; subsequently published in
English-speaking countries under the titles My Mission in Life and
Evita by Evita
^ a b
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:2–3).
^ Act 495, from the Church "Capellanía Vicaria de Nuestra Señora del
Pilar" registry of Baptisms for the year 1919, baptism took place on
21 November 1919
^ a b c d Borroni & Vacca (1970).
^ Astorga, Antonio (28 April 2011). ""Evita convenció a Franco para
conmutar una pena de muerte"". ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 May
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:3).
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:4).
^ a b c d e f g Barnes (1978).
^ a b c Quieroz (p. 14).
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:27).
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:32–33).
^ Fraser & Navarro (1996:33).
^ a b Fraser & Navarro (1996:44).
Perón (ISBN 84-320-6602-8) (1976).
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eva Perón.
Eva Perón Historical Foundation
casahistoria pages on
Perón Les Fearns site, also links to Eva Perón
BBC Radio 4 programme about Perón's embalmed body
The Evita Project - a social media page dedicated to Evita and the
preservation of her legacy
Conrada Victoria Torni
First Lady of Argentina
Title next held by
Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina
Party political offices
President of the Peronist Feminist Party
Peronist nominee for Vice President of Argentina
Non-profit organization positions
President of the
Eva Perón Foundation
Juan Domingo Perón
Eva Perón Foundation
Ciudad Evita (Evita City)
Peronista Feminist Party
General Confederation of Labour
European Rainbow Tour
Spiritual Leader of the Nation
First presidential term
Second presidential term
La Razón de mi Vida
La Razón de mi Vida (1951)
Mi Mensaje (1952)
The Woman with the Whip
The Woman with the Whip (1952 biography)
Evita (1978 musical)
Evita (1996 film)
Eva Perón: The True Story (1996 film)
Evita (2008 documentary)
Eva Doesn't Sleep (2015 film)
Copa Eva Duarte
Juan Domingo Perón
Five-Year Plans of Argentina
Railway nationalization in Argentina
Argentine Constitution of 1949
Grupo Cine Liberación
Montoneros from Plaza de Mayo
Juan Manuel Abal Medina
Juan Atilio Bramuglia
José López Rega
José Ignacio Rucci
Bombing of Plaza de Mayo
Isabel Martínez de Perón
Hands of Perón
La vida por Perón
Perón: Apuntes para una biografía
Puerta de Hierro, el exilio de Perón
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