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The Eurosphere
Eurosphere
or the European Empire[1] is a concept associated with the public intellectual Mark Leonard,[citation needed][2] Oxford University academic Jan Zielonka,[1] the European Union Director-General for Politico-Military Affairs Robert Cooper;[3] and the European Commission
European Commission
President José Manuel Barroso.[4] Over the past 50 years, the European Union
European Union
has expanded from the 6 founding members to 28; additionally there are 8 candidate and potential candidate countries waiting to join. A number of western European countries are integrated economically, as part of the Union's single market or using its single currency. Through its High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy it has the capability to speak with one voice in the world and has association and free trade agreements with a large number of states; through the European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
and Union for the Mediterranean (developed from the Barcelona process) it is creating closer ties with those countries on its borders, while developing ties with former colonies, now the ACP countries. Membership in particular has seen a great deal of reform in countries seeking to join, for example the huge reforms seen in Turkey such as the abolition of capital punishment.[5] The development of the Union's influence, and the draw of membership, has been the subject of a number of academic writings. For example, Mark Leonard describes the area of EU influence as the Eurosphere.

Contents

1 Countries within the Eurosphere 2 Quotes 3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 Further reading 6 External links

Countries within the Eurosphere[edit]

EU regional initiatives; current enlargement agenda (SAP and candidate countries), ENP; Eastern Partnership, Euromediterranean Partnership and EU-Russia Common Spaces

According to Mark Leonard, the Eurosphere
Eurosphere
includes (what were in 2004) 109 countries. In Europe, these were the then-25 members, applicant countries, Western Balkans
Western Balkans
countries and European CIS countries (including transcontinental countries such as Kazakhstan). Curiously he does not mention western European countries such as Norway who are integrated into the EU's single market. Outside Europe, he gives a blanket list of every African country and every Middle Eastern country, that is so the countries forming the eastern border of the Eurosphere
Eurosphere
are Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia and Kazakhstan.[6] Other countries that could be said to be within the Eurosphere
Eurosphere
might include western European countries, such as those in the European Economic Area or using the euro, or the Union's overseas territories. Both these groups have strong economic links, through the afore mentioned relationships. Quotes[edit]

“ The postmodern, European answer to threats is to extend the system of co-operative empire ever wider. "I have no way to defend my borders but to extend them", said Catherine the Great—and the European Union sometimes seems to be saying the same. ”

— Robert Cooper, 2003

“ But the next wave of European transformation is only just beginning. The European Union
European Union
is starting to develop an enormous sphere of influence, extending way beyond its borders, that could be called the "Eurosphere". This belt of eighty countries covering the former Soviet Union, the Western Balkans, the Middle East, North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 20 per cent of the world's population. ”

— Mark Leonard, 2005

“ What we have is the first non-imperial empire...We have twenty-seven countries that fully decided to work together and to pool their sovereignty. I believe it is a great construction and we should be proud of it. ”

— José Manuel Barroso, 2007

See also[edit]

ECHO (European Commission)

ACP-EU Development Cooperation

ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements

Enlargement of the European Union

European Union
European Union
Association Agreement European Economic Area

European integration European Neighbourhood Policy

Barcelona Process

Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly Mediterranean Union

European Union
European Union
as a potential superpower Foreign relations of the European Union

EU economic relationships

Multi-speed Europe United States of Europe

Notes and references[edit]

^ a b Zielonka, J. (2006), Europe
Europe
as Empire, Oxford University Press: Oxford. ^ Leonard, M. (2005), Why Europe
Europe
will run the 21st century, Fourth Estate: London. ^ Cooper, R. (2003), The Breaking of Nations, Atlantic Books: London. ^ http://www.globalpowereurope.eu/2007/07/birth-of-new-rome.html ^ EU-Turkey relations Archived July 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. euractiv.com ^ Leonard, M. Why Europe
Europe
will run the 21st century (2004, Fourth Estate). Appendix: p.145-146.

Further reading[edit]

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 

External links[edit]

"The EU as a Regional Normative Hegemon: The Case of European Neighbourhood Policy" Mahony, Honor (2007-07-11) Barroso says EU is an 'empire' EU Observer.

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Foreign relations of the European Union

Bilateral relations

See also: Economic relationships with third countries

Africa & the Middle East

Bahrain Cape Verde Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Lebanon Libya Morocco Palestine† South Africa Syria Yemen

Americas

Argentina Brazil Canada Cuba Greenland Mexico United States

Asia-Pacific

Australia Bangladesh China (People's Republic of) India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Malaysia Nepal New Zealand North Korea Pakistan Philippines South Korea

Europe

Albania Andorra Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Faroe Islands Georgia Iceland Kosovo† Liechtenstein Macedonia Moldova Monaco Montenegro Northern Cyprus (Turkish Republic of)† Norway Russia San Marino Serbia Switzerland Turkey Ukraine Vatican City

General

Members’ overseas territories Largest trading partners Association Agreements Free trade agreements

†= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union
European Union
members.

Multilateral relations and initiatives

Organisations

Arab League ASEAN Commonwealth of Nations Council of Europe ECHR G8 ICC United Nations

Initiatives

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Asia– Europe
Europe
Meeting CARIFORUM Customs Union Eastern Partnership Energy Community Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly European Common Aviation Area European Economic Area Euro-Mediterranean free trade area Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Euronest Economic Partnership Agreements EU CBRN Risk Mitigation CoE Initiative Neighbourhood Policy Northern Dimension Mediterranean Union Stabilisation and Association Process

Administration and policies

Foreign and Security Policy

Security Strategy Everything but Arms Security and Defence Policy Enlargement

Administration

Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development External Action Service Foreign Affairs Council High Representative (Federica Mogherini) Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee Foreign Policy Instruments Service Diplomatic missions of the EU (ambassadors) / to the EU Special
Special
Representatives

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Common Security and Defence Policy
Common Security and Defence Policy
of the European Union

Leadership

High Representative/Commission Vice President Director General of the Military Staff Chairman of the Military Committee European Council Foreign Affairs Council

Organisation

External Action Service

Military Staff (Military Planning and Conduct Capability) Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability Intelligence and Situation Centre (Club de Berne) Crisis Management and Planning Directorate Security & Defence College

Agencies

Defence Agency Border and Coast Guard Agency Institute for Security Studies Satellite Centre

Council preparatory bodies

Committee of Permanent Representatives Political and Security Committee Politico-Military Group Military Committee Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management

Policies

Global Strategy Defence Fund Annual Review

Other arrangements

Permanent Structured Cooperation
Permanent Structured Cooperation
(PESCO; TEU, Article 42.6) Headline Goal 2010 Berlin Plus agreement Military Erasmus Military Mobility (PESCO)

Forces

Multinational

Union level

Battlegroups (rotation) Medical Command (PESCO) EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core
EUFOR Crisis Response Operation Core
(PESCO)

Made available ad-hoc through TEU, Article 42.3

Corps Maritime Force Gendarmerie Force See also: Air Transport Command Movement Coordination Centre Air Group Finabel Organisation of Military Associations Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation Amphibious Initiative

National

PESCO participants

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden

Other

Denmark Malta United Kingdom

Equipment

Galileo navigation system Secure Software-defined Radio (PESCO) Procurement National equipment

Decorations

Service medal Medal for Extraordinary Meritorious Service Monitor mission medal

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Missions

Terrestrial force (EUFOR)

Althea Concordia RCA RD Congo Tchad/RCA Artemis

Naval force (EUNAVFOR)

Atalanta

Police (EUPOL)

Palestinian Territories Bosnia and Herzegovina

Training (EUTM)

Somalia Mali

Capacity Building (EUCAP)

Sahel Mali Sahel Niger

Border Assistance (EUBAM)

Rafah

Rule of law (EULEX)

Kosovo

Monitoring (EUMM)

Aceh

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History

See also: Treaties of the European Union

Treaty of Dunkirk (1947) Treaty of Brussels
Treaty of Brussels
(1948) Western Union Defence Organization
Western Union Defence Organization
(1948 – 1951) Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
(signed 1952, unratified) London and Paris Conferences (1954) Western European Union
European Union
(1954–2011) Petersberg Declaration (1992) European Security and Defence Identity
European Security and Defence Identity
(1996-1999) Saint-Malo declaration
Saint-Malo declaration
(1998) Helsinki Headline Goal
Helsinki Headline Goal
(1999) European Security Strategy
European Security Strategy
(2003) CAPECON project (2002-2005) "Synchronised Armed Forces" (2009) European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(1999-2009) Rapid Operational Force (1995–2012) Operations Centre (2012-2016)

European Union
European Union
portal · Military history portal

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International reach and expansion of the European Union

Theory

Integration Eurosphere Pax Europaea Superpower status Federalisation

Reach

ACP (Economic Partnership Agreements) Association Agreement Free trade agreements Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(ESDP) (missions) European Economic Area Stabilisation and Association Process Europeanisation High Representative (Bosnia) International Civilian Representative (Kosovo)

Partnerships

European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
(statistics) Eastern Partnership Northern Dimension Union for the Mediterranean

Representation

High Representative President of the European Council President of the European Commission Delegations of the European Parliament

Assets

Economy Euro
Euro
(International status and usage) ECHO Galileo Military

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Europe articles

History

Chronology

Prehistory Classical antiquity Late antiquity Middle Ages Early modernity World War I
World War I
& II Pax Europaea Crisis situations and unrest since 2000

By topic

Military Sovereignty

predecessor states

Geography

Areas and populations Countries by area

European microstates

Largest metropolitan areas Cities Extreme points Geology Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers Sovereign states and dependent territories

by population

Villages

Politics

Eurosphere International organisations Integration Law Politics Post-Soviet Europe Transatlantic relations

Intergovernmental

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Council of Europe
Europe
(CoE) Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) GUAM Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE)

statistics

European Union

Economy

relations free trade agreements

Education European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA) European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
(ENP) European Union
European Union
Customs Union (EUCU) Eurozone Foreign relations Members

enlargement

Politics Schengen Area Statistics Visa policy

Economy

History Financial (and social) rankings Free trade areas Energy Telecommunications Transport

Intergovernmental

Central European Free Trade Agreement
Central European Free Trade Agreement
(CEFTA) Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
(CUBKR) Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EAEC) European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
(EFTA)

Sovereign states by

Average wage Budget revenues

per capita

Corruption index GDP (nominal)

per capita

GDP (PPP)

per capita

GNI (nominal) per capita GNI (PPP) per capita HDI Internet users (%) Minimum wage Press Freedom Index Unemployment rate (%) Health expense per capita Military spending (%) Childhood population (%) Urban population (%) Life expectancy Electricity use per capita

Society

Etiquette Social (and financial) rankings Languages

endangered

Universities

Bologna Process Erasmus

Culture

Art

painting sculpture

Architecture Capital of Culture Cinema

film festivals

Classical music Cuisine Dance Literature Philosophy Religion

Christianity Islam Judaism

Sport Symbols

Demographics

Ageing Ethnic groups

genetic history

Immigration Life expectancy Retirement

Outline Index

Category Portal Maps

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European Union articles

History

Timeline

Pre-1945 1945–57 1958–72 1973–93 1993–2004 Since 2004

Predecessors

Timeline Founders European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
(1951–2002) European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(1958–1993/2009) Euratom (1958–present) European Communities
European Communities
(1967–1993/2009) Justice and Home Affairs (1993–2009)

Geography

Extreme points Geographic centre Largest municipalities Urban areas Larger urban zones Member states Regions (first-level NUTS) Special
Special
territories

Politics

Institutions

European Council European Commission European Parliament Council of the European Union Court of Justice of the European Union European Central Bank European Court of Auditors

Agencies

Banking Border and coast security (Frontex) Disease prevention and control Environment Foreign affairs (External Action Service) Judicial cooperation (Eurojust) Law enforcement cooperation (Europol) Maritime safety Reconstruction

Law

Acquis Charter of Fundamental Rights Competition law Copyright law Directive

Citizens’ Rights Directive

Enhanced cooperation Environmental policy Four freedoms

labour mobility

Government procurement Journal Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification Legislative procedure Citizens' Initiative Regulation Rural Development Policy Schengen Area Treaties

opt-outs

LGBT rights

Politics

Elections

parliamentary constituencies

Enlargement

1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Future

Euromyths Political parties (National parties by affiliation) Euroscepticism Foreign relations Integration Parliamentary groups Pro-Europeanism Withdrawal (Brexit) 2012 Nobel Peace Prize

Economy

Budget Central bank Agricultural policy Fisheries policy Currencies Energy policy Euro Eurozone Free trade agreements Investment bank Investment fund Regional development Single market Societas Europaea Solidarity Fund Transport

Galileo navigation system

minimum wage average wage unemployment rate health expense per person Healthcare Health Insurance Card Driving licence European Common Aviation Area

Culture

Citizenship

passports identity cards

Cultural policies Demographics Douzelage Driving licence Education House of European History Institute of Innovation and Technology Laissez-passer Languages Media freedom Public holidays Religion Sport Telephone numbers Statistics Symbols

Lists

Concepts, acronyms, & jargon Agencies Books Companies Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants Largest cities by population within city limits Directives Tallest buildings Terrorist incidents Vehicle registration plates

Theory

Eurosphere Intergovernmentalism Multi-speed Neofunctionalism Optimum currency area Supranational union

Outline

Bo

.