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European exploration and settlement of Oceania
Oceania
began in the 16th century, starting with Portuguese settling the Moluccas
Moluccas
and Spanish (Castilian ) landings and shipwrecks in the Marianas Islands
Marianas Islands
, east of the Philippines
Philippines
, followed by the Portuguese landing and settling temporarily (due to the monsoons) in the Tanimbar or the Aru Islands and in some of the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, and several Spanish landings in the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and New Guinea. Subsequent rivalry between European colonial powers, trade opportunities and Christian missions drove further European exploration and eventual settlement. After the 17th century Dutch landings in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia
Australia
, but not settling these lands, the British became the dominant colonial power in the region, establishing settler colonies in what would become Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, both of which now have majority European-descended populations. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
( Caldoche ), Hawaii
Hawaii
, French Polynesia , Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
, Easter Island
Easter Island
and Guam
Guam
also have significant European populations. Europeans remain a primary ethnic group in much of Oceania, both numerically and economically.

CONTENTS

* 1 European settlement of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
* 2 Current European population in Oceania
Oceania
* 3 See also * 4 References

EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND

Historical map of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
1788-1911 Main articles: European settlement of Australia
Australia
and Immigration to New Zealand See also: European exploration of Australia
Australia

European settlement in Australia
Australia
began in 1788 when the British established the Crown Colony of New South Wales
New South Wales
with the first settlement at Port Jackson
Port Jackson
. New Zealand
New Zealand
was part of New South Wales until 1840 when it became a separate colony and experienced a marked increase in European settlement.

While the largest European ethnic group to originally settle in both Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were the English , the settler population in Australia
Australia
from early times contained a large Irish Catholic
Catholic
component, in contrast to New Zealand
New Zealand
which was more Scottish in composition.

For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-independence immigrants to Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
came almost exclusively from the British Isles
British Isles
. However, waves of European immigrants were later drawn from a broader range of countries. Australia, in particular, received large numbers of European immigrants from countries such as Italy
Italy
, Greece
Greece
, Germany
Germany
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
following the Second World War
Second World War
.

CURRENT EUROPEAN POPULATION IN OCEANIA

The total population of people that have European ancestry in Oceania is over 23,600,000, with the inclusion of the population of Hawaii.

* Australia
Australia
( European Australian
European Australian
) - 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people based on 2011 census report. * New Zealand
New Zealand
( New Zealand
New Zealand
European ) - 74.0% of the population or 2,969,400 people. * New Caledonia
New Caledonia
( Caldoche ) - 29.2% of the population or about 71,700; the territory is part of France
France
. * French Polynesia - 10% of the population (mostly French ) or 26,700, and 6-8% are Euronesian (Polynesian and European ancestry). * Hawaii
Hawaii
- 24.1% of the population ( 2010 U.S. Census
2010 U.S. Census
) * Guam
Guam
- 10% of the population have Spanish and European American ancestry (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam
Guam
has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900 and is now under US rule. * Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
, about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% British ancestry mainly via Australia (1,070 people). * Easter Island
Easter Island
, about 39% have European ancestry (mostly Spanish ). The island is part of Chile
Chile
.

The dominant European group of Australia
Australia
are referred to as Anglo-Celtic Australians (although this does not include non-British Europeans); the proper term for Australians of European ancestry is European Australian
European Australian
. In New Zealand, the census gathers information on ethnicity, not ancestry. It shows the majority of the New Zealand population identify as New Zealand
New Zealand
European . The term Pākehā used in some previous Censuses has a similar meaning.

SEE ALSO

* Greater Europe
Europe
* History of Australia
Australia
* History of New Zealand
New Zealand
* History of the Pacific Islands
History of the Pacific Islands
* Settler colonialism
Settler colonialism
* European Australian
European Australian
* History of Oceania
Oceania

REFERENCES

* ^ New Caledonia: People: Ethnic Groups., World Factbook of CIA * ^ Census shows Hawaii
Hawaii
is becoming whiter, starbulletin.com * ^ French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA * ^ Guam: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA * ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/quickstats-about-national-highlights/cultural-diversity.aspx * ^ * ^ French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2012. * ^ Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA

* v * t * e

Colonization
Colonization
and decolonization

EARTH

EXPLORATION

* Europe
Europe
* Americas * Africa * Asia * Oceania * Antarctica — World oceans

COLONIZATION

* Americas * Africa

* Asia

* Southeast Asia

* Oceania
Oceania
* Antarctica

* World oceans * Subterranea

DECOLONIZATION

* Americas * Africa * Asia * Oceania
Oceania

General topics

EXPLORATION

* Maritime history
Maritime history
(European ) * Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
* Solar System discovery

COLONIZATION

* Antiquity — Imperialism
Imperialism
* Chartered companies * Interventionism

* Colonialism
Colonialism

* chronology * history * empires * wars

* Current: Non-Self-Governing * Dependent * Space Station — Space Militarization * Commercial use of space

EMPIRES IN MODERNITY

* Overseas, major: British * Dutch * French * German * Italian * Portuguese * Spanish

* Overseas, minor: American * Australian * Austro-Hungarian * Belgian * Danish * New Zealand
New Zealand
* Norwegian * Polish-Lithuanian * Swedish

* Mostly contiguous: American * Chinese * Japanese * Ottoman * Russian * South African

DECOLONIZATION

* Wars of national liberation — Predecessors of sovereign states

* in Europe
Europe
* in South America

* Sovereign states formation dates

POSTCOLONIALISM

* Independence
Independence
* Internal colonialism * Nation-building * Postcolonialism
Postcolonialism
(international relations)

* Terra nullius * Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
* Uncontacted peoples
Uncontacted peoples

OUTER SPACE

EXPLORATION

* Mercury * Venus * Moon * Lagrangian points * Mars * Phobos * Ceres * Asteroids * Outer Solar System : Jupiter * Europa * Callisto * Saturn * Titan * Uranus * Neptune * trans-Neptunian objects * Pluto

COLONIZATION

* Mercury * Venus * Moon * Lagrangian points * Mars * Phobos * Asteroids * Outer Solar System : Jupiter * Europa * Callisto * Saturn * Titan * Uranus * Neptune * trans-Neptunian objects * Pluto

* v * t * e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

* Clan

* Ethnic group
Ethnic group

* Ethnolinguistic group * Ethnoreligious group
Ethnoreligious group

* Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
* Ingroups and outgroups * Meta-ethnicity * Metroethnicity * Minority group * Monoethnicity * Nation * Nationality
Nationality
* Panethnicity * Polyethnicity * Population
Population
* Race * Symbolic ethnicity * Tribe
Tribe

ETHNOLOGY

* Anthropology
Anthropology
* Ethnic studies * Ethnoarchaeology

* Ethnobiology
Ethnobiology

* Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
* Ethnozoology * Ethnoecology

* Ethnocinema * Ethnogeology

* Ethnography
Ethnography

* Autoethnography * Clinical * Critical * Cyber- * Netnography * Online * Person-centered * Salvage * Transidioethnography * Video

* Ethnohistory * Ethnolinguistics * Ethnology
Ethnology
* Ethnomathematics * Ethnomethodology * Ethnomuseology * Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
* Ethnophilosophy * Ethnopoetics * Ethnoscience * Ethnosemiotics * Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

* Africa * Europe
Europe
* Oceania

* Arab League * Europe
Europe

* Australian

* indigenous

* Indigenous Oceanian * Europeans in Oceania

AMERICAS

* Indigenous * Canada * Mexico * United States * Central America * South America

ASIA

* Central * East * Northern * South * Southeast * West

Identity and ethnogenesis

* Cross-race effect * Cultural assimilation * Cultural identity
Cultural identity
* Demonym * Development * Endonym * Ethnic flag * Ethnic option * Ethnic origin * Ethnic religion
Ethnic religion
* Ethnicity in census * Ethnofiction * Ethnonym * Folk religion
Folk religion
* Historical * Imagined community * Kinship
Kinship
* Legendary progenitor * Lineage-bonded society * Mores
Mores
* Nation-building * Nation state * National language
National language
* National myth * Origin myth * Pantribal sodality * Tribal name * Tribalism * Urheimat
Urheimat

Multiethnic society

* Consociationalism * Diaspora politics * Dominant minority * Ethnic democracy * Ethnic enclave
Ethnic enclave
* Ethnic interest group * Ethnic majority * Ethnic media * Ethnic pornography
Ethnic pornography
* Ethnic theme park * Ethnoburb
Ethnoburb
* Ethnocracy * Ethnopluralism * Indigenous rights
Indigenous rights
* Middleman minority * Minority rights * Model minority * Multinational state
Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

* Ethnic bioweapon * Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
* Ethnic hatred * Ethnic joke * Ethnic nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
* Ethnic nepotism * Ethnic penalty * Ethnic slur * Ethnic stereotype
Ethnic stereotype
* Ethnic violence * Ethnocentrism * Ethnocide * Ethnosymbolism * Indigenism * Separatist movements * X

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