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European exploration and settlement of Oceania
Oceania
began in the 16th century, starting with Portuguese settling the Moluccas
Moluccas
and Spanish (Castilian) landings and shipwrecks in the Marianas Islands, east of the Philippines, followed by the Portuguese landing and settling temporarily (due to the monsoons) in the Tanimbar or the Aru Islands and in some of the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and Papua New Guinea, and several Spanish landings in the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
and New Guinea.[citation needed] Subsequent rivalry between European colonial powers, trade opportunities and Christian missions drove further European exploration and eventual settlement. After the 17th century Dutch landings in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia, but not settling these lands, the British became the dominant colonial power in the region, establishing settler colonies in what would become Australia
Australia
and New Zealand, both of which now have majority European-descended populations. New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(Caldoches),[1] Hawaii,[2] French Polynesia (Zoreilles),[3] Norfolk Island, Easter Island
Easter Island
and Guam[4] also have significant European populations. Europeans remain a primary ethnic group in much of Oceania, both numerically and economically.[5]

Contents

1 European settlement of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand 2 Current European population in Oceania 3 See also 4 References

European settlement of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand[edit]

Historical map of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
1788-1911

Main articles: European settlement of Australia
Australia
and Immigration to New Zealand See also: European exploration of Australia European settlement in Australia
Australia
began in 1788 when the British established the Crown Colony of New South Wales
New South Wales
with the first settlement at Port Jackson. New Zealand
New Zealand
was part of New South Wales until 1840 when it became a separate colony and experienced a marked increase in European settlement.[citation needed] While the largest European ethnic group to originally settle in both Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
were the English, the settler population in Australia
Australia
from early times contained a large Irish Catholic
Catholic
component, in contrast to New Zealand
New Zealand
which was more Scottish in composition. For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-independence immigrants to Australia
Australia
and New Zealand
New Zealand
came almost exclusively from the British Isles. However, waves of European immigrants were later drawn from a broader range of countries. Australia, in particular, received large numbers of European immigrants from countries such as Italy, Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
following the Second World War. Current European population in Oceania[edit] The total population of people that have European ancestry in Oceania is over 23,600,000, with the inclusion of the population of Hawaii.

  Australia
Australia
(European Australians) – 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people based on 2011 census report.   New Zealand
New Zealand
(European New Zealanders; Pakeha) – 74.0% of the population or 2,969,400 people.[6]   New Caledonia
New Caledonia
(Caldoches) – 29.2% of the population or about 71,700; the territory is part of France.[7]   French Polynesia
French Polynesia
(Zoreilles) – 10% of the population (mostly French) or 26,700, and 6-8% are Euronesian (Polynesian and European ancestry).[3]   Hawaii
Hawaii
– 24.1% of the population or 294,102 people (2010 U.S. Census)[8]   Guam
Guam
– 10% of the population have Spanish and European American ancestry (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam
Guam
has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900 and is now under US rule.[9]   Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
– about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% British ancestry mainly via Australia (1,070 people).   Easter Island
Easter Island
– about 39% have European ancestry (mostly Spanish). The island is part of Chile.

The dominant European group of Australia
Australia
are referred to as Anglo-Celtic Australians
Anglo-Celtic Australians
(although this does not include non-British Europeans); the proper term for Australians of European ancestry is European Australians. In New Zealand, the census gathers information on ethnicity, not ancestry. It shows the majority of the New Zealand population identify as European New Zealanders. The term Pākehā used in some previous Censuses has a similar meaning. See also[edit]

Greater Europe History of Oceania History of Australia History of New Zealand History of the Pacific Islands Settler colonialism

References[edit]

^ New Caledonia: People: Ethnic Groups., World Factbook of CIA ^ Census shows Hawaii
Hawaii
is becoming whiter, starbulletin.com ^ a b French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA ^ Guam: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA ^ https://books.google.ae/books?id=Ovm_HRqOJH0C&pg=PA66&dq=europeans+in+oceania&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5_4vD6u7ZAhWGbrwKHaWGC6oQ6AEIJjAB#v=onepage&q=europeans%20in%20oceania&f=false ^ "2013 Census QuickStats about national highlights". Stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ "ISEE - Salaires" (PDF). Isee.nc. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2012.  ^ Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA

v t e

Colonization
Colonization
and decolonization

Earth

Exploration

Europe Americas Africa Asia Oceania Antarctica — World oceans

Colonization

Americas Africa Asia

Southeast Asia

Oceania Antarctica

World oceans Subterranea

Decolonization

Americas Africa Asia Oceania

General topics

Exploration

Maritime history
Maritime history
(European) Age of Discovery Solar System discovery

Colonization

Antiquity — Imperialism Chartered companies Interventionism Colonialism

chronology history empires settler colonialism wars

Current: Non-Self-Governing Dependent Space Station — Space Militarization Commercial use of space

Empires in Modernity

Overseas, major: British Dutch French German Italian Portuguese Spanish

Overseas, minor: American Australian Austro-Hungarian Belgian Danish New Zealand Norwegian Polish-Lithuanian Swedish

Mostly contiguous: American Chinese Japanese Ottoman Russian South African

Decolonization

Wars of national liberation
Wars of national liberation
— Predecessors of sovereign states

in Europe in South America

Independence
Independence
referendum Sovereign states formation dates

Postcolonialism

Independence Internal colonialism Nation-building Neo-colonialism Postcolonialism
Postcolonialism
(international relations)

Terra nullius Indigenous peoples Uncontacted peoples

Outer space

Exploration

Mercury Venus Moon Lagrangian points Mars Phobos Ceres Asteroids Outer Solar System: Jupiter Europa Callisto Saturn Titan Uranus Neptune trans-Neptunian objects Pluto

Colonization

Mercury Venus Moon Lagrangian points Mars Phobos Asteroids Outer Solar System: Jupiter Europa Callisto Saturn Titan Uranus Neptune trans-Neptunian objects Pluto

v t e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

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Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist mo

.