The ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE are the focus of European ethnology , the
field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside
in the nations of
Europe . According to German monograph
Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there
are 87 distinct PEOPLES OF EUROPE, of which 33 form the majority
population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54
constitute ethnic minorities . The total number of national minority
Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of
770 million Europeans.
There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms
"ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European
ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people (without
nation state), nationality , national minority, ethnic minority,
linguistic community, linguistic group, linguistic minority and
genetic haplogroup are used as mostly synonymous, although preference
may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the
individual countries of
Europe . Overview map of the
distribution of the major languages spoken in
* 1 Overview
* 2 Linguistic classifications
* 3 History
* 3.1 Prehistoric populations
* 3.2 Historical populations
* 3.3 Historical immigration
* 3.4 History of European ethnography
* 4 National minorities
* 4.1 Indigenous minorities
* 4.2 Non-indigenous minorities
* 5.1 Historical
* 5.2 European culture
* 5.3 Religion
* 5.4 Pan-
* 6 European ethnic groups by country
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 External links
Further information: Demographics of
There are eight peoples of
Europe (defined by their language) with
more than 30 million members residing in Europe. These eight groups
between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of
Russians (c. 95 million residing in Europe),
Germans (c. 82 million),
* French (c. 67 million),
* British (c. 65 million),
Italians (60 million),
* Spanish (c. 50 million),
Ukrainians (38–55 million),
Poles (38–40 million).
About 20–25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of
non-European origin. The population of the
European Union , with some
five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the
Spain and the
United Kingdom are special cases, in that the
designation of nationality , Spanish and British , may controversially
take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see
nationalisms and regionalisms of
Spain and native populations of the
United Kingdom .
Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic
subgroups of the Swiss are not usually discussed in terms of
Switzerland is considered a "multi-lingual state"
rather than a "multi-ethnic state".
Languages of Europe. Interpretive map, date unspecified
Further information: Languages of
Of the total population of
Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005),
over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of
Indo-European languages , viz., Slavic , Italic (Romance) and Germanic
. The largest groups that do not fall within these three are the
Greeks (about 12 million) and the
Albanians (about 8 million), which
Indo-European languages that are not closely related to those
larger language families. Beside the
Indo-European languages there are
two other major language families on the European continent: Turkic
Uralic languages . The Semitic languages that dominate
the coast of northern Africa as well as the
Near East are preserved in
Mediterranean archipelago. Abkhaz–Adyghean , Basque ,
Kartvelian , and Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known
relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of
Further information: Genetic history of
Europe , Prehistoric
Eurasian nomads , and
Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the
Atlantic Bronze Age
Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of
Centum groups plus
Balto-Slavic and Albanian ) are assumed to have
developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving
Europe by the Bronze Age (
Corded ware ,
Beaker people ). The Finnic
peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had
migrated to their historical homelands by about 3,000 years ago.
Reconstructed languages of Iron Age
Proto-Germanic , all of these Indo-European languages
of the centum group, and
Proto-Baltic , of the satem
group. A group of
Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included
Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also
Eteocypriot . A
pre-Roman stage of
Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great
European Bronze Age
European Bronze Age , the only secure reconstruction is
Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A
Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of
both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the
Bell beaker period), and a
Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware
horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European
hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age)
Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.
Further information: History of
Europe Provinces of the Roman
Empire in AD 117.
Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations ) populations of
Europe known from
Greco-Roman historiography , notably
Herodotus , Pliny ,
* Aegean :
Greek tribes ,
Tyrrhenians , and
* Armenian Highlands/Anatolia :
List of ancient tribes in Illyria ), Dacians
Italian peninsula :
Italic peoples ,
Adriatic Veneti ,
Ligurians and Greek colonies.
* Western /Central
Celts (list of peoples of
Gaul , List of
Celtic tribes ), Rhaetians and
Vistula Veneti ,
Iberian peninsula : Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
Sardinia : ancient
Sardinians (also known as Nuragic people ),
comprising the Corsi ,
* West European Isles:
Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and
Finnic peoples ,
Germanic peoples (list of
Germanic peoples ).
Turkic expansion , and
Islamic conquests The Great Migrations of
Late Antiquity .
Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The
Carolingian Empire (purple), the
Byzantine Empire (orange) and the
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba (light green). (Borders are approximate.)
Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside
historical times are:
* Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean, from about 1200 BC to
the fall of Carthage after the
Third Punic War in 146 BC.
* Iranian influence:
Achaemenid control of
Thrace (512–343 BC) and
Bosporan Kingdom ,
Jewish diaspora reached
Europe in the
Roman Empire period, the
Jewish community in
Italy dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews
Gaul ) from the 5th century (see History of
Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian
invasions , contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian
* Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations
, fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century.
Bulgars (or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people,
Central Asia , eventually absorbed by the
Magyars (Hungarians), a
Ugric people , and the Turkic
Khazars , arrived in
Europe in about the 8th century
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin ).
Sicily , some places along
the coast of southern
Greek Empire ,
Hispania and, in
the early 11th century, Emirate of
Sicily (831–1072) and Al-Andalus
* the Berber dynasties of the
Almoravides and the
* exodus of
* the western
Kipchaks known as
Cumans entered the lands of
present-day Ukraine in the 11th century.
Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of
Balkans (1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the
presence of European Turks and
Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during the
Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
Kalmyks arrived in
Kalmykia in the 17th century.
HISTORY OF EUROPEAN ETHNOGRAPHY
Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum
Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe,
exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes
of writing of all peoples"), from Synopsis Universae Philologiae
Ethnographic map of Europe, The
Times Atlas (1896).
The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical
Herodotus described the
Scythians and Thraco-
Dicaearchus gave a description of
Greece itself besides accounts of
western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but
was received by
Polybius and others.
Roman Empire period authors include
Diodorus Siculus ,
Julius Caesar gives an account of the
Celtic tribes of Gaul
Tacitus describes the
Germanic tribes of
Magna Germania . A
number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and
the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.
The 4th century
Tabula Peutingeriana records the names of numerous
peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of
Late Antiquity such as Agathias
Ammianus Marcellinus ,
Jordanes or Theophylact Simocatta
give early accounts of the
Slavs , the
Franks , the
Alamanni and the
Book IX of Isidore 's
Etymologiae (7th century) treats de linguis,
gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (of languages, peoples, realms,
armies and cities).
Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an
account of the
Bolghar and the Rus\' peoples.
William Rubruck , while
most notable for his account of the
Mongols , in his account of his
Asia also gives accounts of the
Tatars and the
Alans . Saxo
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen give an account of pre-Christian
Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives an account of
the northwestern Slavic tribes.
Gottfried Hensel in his 1741
Synopsis Universae Philologiae published
what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing
the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages
and scripts. In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms
of scientific racism , and the ethnic groups of
Europe were grouped
into a number of "races ",
Mediterranean , Alpine and Nordic , all
part of a larger "Caucasian " group.
The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie
in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism ,
and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi
propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography
began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.
The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of
Bronisław Malinowski who emphasized the importance of fieldwork. The
emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation
of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the
genetic history of
Europe found that the most important genetic
Europe occurs on a line from the north to the
Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west
axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous"
Basques and Sami from other European populations. Despite these
stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European
homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in
Europe with the
entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than
single population samples elsewhere in the world."
Further information: Framework Convention for the Protection of
National Minorities and European Charter for Regional or Minority
Languages Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of
The total number of national minority populations in
estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.
The member states of the Council of
Europe in 1995 signed the
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities . The
broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states
respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat
discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and
identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in
relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and
encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines
a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a
territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39
member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the
notable exception of
Indigenous peoples and Definitions and identity
of indigenous peoples Young
Circassians A Sami family
Most of Europe's indigenous peoples , or ethnic groups known to have
the earliest known historical connection to a particular region, have
gone extinct or been absorbed by (or, perhaps, contributed to) the
dominant cultures. Those that survive are largely confined to remote
Groups that have been identified as indigenous include the Sami of
Scandinavia , the
Basques of northern
Spain and southern
France , the
Ireland and the
Scottish Highlands , the Bretons
France and many of the western indigenous peoples of Russia
. Groups in
Circassians of the northeastern Black Sea
and the northwestern
Caucasus (also indigenous to parts of Ukraine ),
Finno-Ugric peoples such as the Komi and
Mordvins of the western Ural
Mountains , northeastern
Caucasus peoples of southwestern Russia, and
Samoyedic peoples such as the
Nenets people of northern Russia.
In Europe, present-day indigenous populations as recognized by the UN
are relatively few. Nevertheless, the ethnic groups traditionally
inhabiting most, if not all, European countries are considered to be
indigenous to Europe. This includes the majority populations. It can
lead to some confusion, because the term "indigenous" does not imply
"non-white" or "minority" in
Europe as it would in other continents
where white people are non-indigenous.
Main article: Immigration to
Europe Further information:
Europe , Hinduism in
Europe , Buddhism in
Europe , and
Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to
Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others
immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former
colonies of the British, French, and Spanish empires.
* Western Asians
Jews : approx. 2.0 million, mostly in the UK ,
They are descended from the Israelites of the
Middle East (Southwest
Asia), originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and
Jews : approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom
France and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have
arrived from Israel via southern
Europe in the Roman era and
Germany towards the end of the first millennium.
Holocaust wiped out the vast majority during
World War II
World War II and
forced many to flee.
Jews : approx. 0.3 million, mostly in
France . They
Portugal in the pre-Roman and Roman eras, and
were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Jews : approx. 0.3 million, mostly in
France , via
Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East.
Italqim : approx. 50,000, mostly in
Italy , since the 2nd century
Romaniotes : approx. 6,000, mostly in
Greece , with communities
dating at least from the 1st century CE.
Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in
Lithuania . They arrived in
Crimea in the Middle Ages.
* Assyrians : mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia.
Kurds : approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and
Iraqi diaspora : mostly in the UK,
Germany and Sweden.
Lebanese diaspora : especially in France, Netherlands, Germany,
Cyprus and the UK.
Syrian diaspora : Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the
Netherlands and Sweden.
Berbers ): approx. 5 million, mostly in
France, Spain, Italy, the
Netherlands and Sweden. The bulk of North
African migrants are Moroccans , although
France also has a large
number of Algerians.
Somalis , Ethiopians , and Eritreans ): approx.
500,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany,
Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy. Majority arrived to Europe
as refugees . Proportionally few live in
Italy despite former colonial
ties, most live in the Nordic countries.
Africans (many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans
and others by descent): approx. 5 million but rapidly growing, mostly
in the UK and France, with smaller numbers in the Netherlands,
Germany, Italy, Spain,
Portugal and elsewhere.
Latin Americans : approx. 2.2 million, mainly in
Spain and to a
Italy and the UK. See also Latin American Britons
(80,000 Latin American born in 2001).
Brazilians : around 70,000 in
Italy each, and 50,000
* Chilean refugees escaping the
Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s
formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East
Venezuelans : around 520,000 mostly in
Spain (200,000), Portugal
Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland
Italy (5,000) and the
South Asians : approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside
in smaller numbers in
Germany and France.
* Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary
widely), dispersed throughout
Europe but with large numbers
concentrated in the
Balkans area, they are of Indian origin.
* Indians : approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in
smaller numbers in Ireland.
Pakistanis : approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK, but also in
Norway and Sweden.
* Tamils : approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK.
* Bangladeshi residing in
Europe estimated at over 500,000, the bulk
live in the UK.
* Afghans , about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK,
Germany and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since
* Filipinos : above 1 million, mostly in the UK, France, Germany,
Spain, and Italy.
* Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as
Indonesians in the
Netherlands , Thais in the UK and Sweden,
France and former East Germany, and Cambodians in
France. See also
Vietnamese people in the
Czech Republic .
* Chinese : approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK,
Italy and the Netherlands.
* Japanese : mostly in the UK and a sizable community in
Koreans : 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in
Russia), mainly in the UK,
France and Germany. See also
* Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany,
Poland and the
* North Americans
* U.S. and Canadian expatriates:
American British and Canadian
France , as well
Americans/Canadians of European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe.
African Americans (i.e. African
American British ) who are
Americans of black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the
1920s, African-American entertainers established a colony in Paris
(African American French ) and descendants of World War II/Cold
War-era black American soldiers stationed in
Italy are well known.
European diaspora –
New Zealanders and South
Africans (mostly White South
Afrikaaner and British
descent), mainly in the UK.
* Pacific Islanders : A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian
origin in mainland France, Fijians in the
United Kingdom from
Māori in the
United Kingdom of the
Māori people of
New Zealand .
* Amerindians and
Inuit , a scant few in the European continent of
American Indian ancestry (often
Latin Americans in Spain,
Inuit in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren
of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with
local European women. In Germany, the Native American Association of
Germany founded in 1994 as a socio-cultural organization estimates
North American Indians (descendants) live in the country.
History of Western civilization
Gallia , and Roma ,
bringing offerings to Otto III ; from a gospel book dated 990.
Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of
Europe are expressed
in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups.
The Europeans were considered the descendants of
Japheth from early
times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three
continents , the descendants of
Asia and those of Ham
peopling Africa . Identification of Europeans as "
Japhetites " is also
reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages
In this tradition, the
Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a
genealogy of the peoples of the
Migration period (as it was remembered
in early medieval historiography) as follows, The first man that
Alanus , with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon,
and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and
Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus,
Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and
Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the
Franks , the
Germans , and Britons ; from Armenon, the Gothi , Valagothi ,
Burgundi , and Longobardi ; from Neugio, the
Bogari , Vandali
Saxones , and Tarincgi . The whole of
Europe was subdivided into
The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him
Japheth via eighteen generations.
Main articles: Culture of
European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as
its "common cultural heritage". Due to the great number of
perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to
form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.
Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon
as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of
these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:
* A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman
Christianity , the
Renaissance and its
Humanism , the
political thinking of the Enlightenment , and the
French Revolution ,
and the developments of
Modernity , including all types of socialism ;
* A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the
other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism
during the "
Great Divergence ";
* A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence
of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the
liberty of the individual ;
* A plurality of states with different political orders, which are
condemned to live together in one way or another;
* Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.
Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive
realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked to
the classical definition of the
Western world . In this definition,
Western culture is the set of literary , scientific , political ,
artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other
civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is
collected in the
Western canon . The term has come to apply to
countries whose history has been strongly marked by European
immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as
the Americas , and
Australasia , and is not restricted to Europe.
Main articles: Religion in
Europe , Hinduism in
Europe , and Buddhism in
Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart
High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages , most of
Europe used to be dominated by
Christianity . There are three major denominations,
Roman Catholic ,
Eastern Orthodox , with Protestantism restricted mostly
to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece
and Georgia . Also The
Armenian Apostolic Church , part of the
Oriental Church , is in
Europe - another branch of Christianity
(world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically
centered in Western
Europe , also has a very significant following in
Europe (especially among the Germanic , Western Slavic and
Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in
Ireland (with some in Great
Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture
for at least the last 1700 years. Modern philosophical thought
has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St
Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe
has been nearly equivalent to
Christian culture , The Christian
culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding
the course of philosophy , art , and science . The notion of "Europe
" and the "
Western World " has been intimately connected with the
concept of "
Christendom " many even attribute
Christianity for being the link that created a unified European
Christianity is still the largest religion in
Europe ; according to a
2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves
Also according to a study on Religiosity in the
European Union in
Christianity is the largest religion in the
European Union , accounting for 72% of the EU 's population.
Islam has some tradition in the
Balkans and the
Caucasus due to
conquest, colonization and oppression from the
Ottoman Empire in the
16th to 19th centuries).
Muslims account for the majority of the
Kosovo , Northern Cyprus
(controlled by Turks ), and
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina . Significant
minorities are present in the rest of
Russia also has one of
the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the
Tatars of the
Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including
Avars , Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations,
Europe have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew
Forum , the total number of
Europe in 2010 was about 44
million (6%). While the total number of
Muslims in the European Union
in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).
Judaism has a long history in
Europe , but is a small minority
France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish
population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of
composed primarily of two groups , the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi .
Ancestors of Ashkenazi
Jews likely migrated to Central
Europe at least
as early as the 8th century , while Sephardi
Portugal at least one thousand years before
Jews originated in the
Levant where they resided for thousands
of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the
Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known
to exist in
Greece as well as the
Balkans since at least the 1st
century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the
Aliyah , as well as emigration to America ) in
the 20th century.
In modern times, significant secularization since 20th century,
notably in laicist
Czech Republic . Currently,
distribution of theism in
Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than
95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the
Czech Republic and
Eurobarometer poll found that 52% of EU citizens believe in
Main article: Pan-
"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of
personal identification with Europe, or the
European Union as a result
of the gradual process of
European integration taking place over the
last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after
the end of the
Cold War , since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE
following the 1990s
Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a
political level during the 1990s and 2000s.
From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a
synonym for the
European Union even though there are millions of
people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix
pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and
especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted
with national identity.
EUROPEAN ETHNIC GROUPS BY COUNTRY
Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority
population in at least one sovereign state geographically situated in
Europe. These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as
Poland , to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia
Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no group forms a
Greeks ~3%, and other 2% (Aromanian , Romani, Macedonians ,
Bulgarians and Serbs/Montenegrins).
Russians 0.4%, Assyrians 0.1%,
Kurds 0.1%, others:
Georgians and Poles.(2011 census) Official
statistics/data of RA .
South Slavs 4% (includes
Burgenland Croats ,
Carinthian Slovenes ,
Bosniaks ), Turks 1.6%,
Germans 0.9%, and
other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)
Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars,
Ukrainians 1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009
mixed or other (i.e.
Luxembourgers , Eastern or Southern Europeans,
Africans and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Other 2.73% (2013)
Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russian , Armenian , Tatar, and Vlach
). (2001 census)
Serbs 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes,
Dalmatian Italians , Austrian-German , Romanian and Romani ).
Slovaks 1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)
Frisians , other European,
Greenlandic people and others.
Finns 0.9%, and other (Baltic
Estonian Swedes and Estonian
Danes ) 2.2%. (2000 census)
South Estonian speakers.
Swedes 5.6%, Sami 0.1%
Estonians 0.3%, Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)
(includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like
Occitans , Alsatians ,
Basques , Catalans and
other European 7%,
North African 7%, Sub-Saharan African,
Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and
Pacific Islander . French with
recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.
Ossetians 0.9%, Abkhazians 0.1%
Armenians 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, and other (i.e. Jews,
Kists ): 2.5% (2002 census).
Swabians , Saxons ,
Saarland Germans, Polish-
Germans and Schleswig-Holstein
Germans without immigrant background 81%;
Germans with immigrant
background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial
immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and
non-European descent about 2 to 5%).
includes linguistic minorities 3%
Albanians 4% and other (i.e.
Megleno-Romanians , Cretan
Turks and Macedonian /
Greek Slavic 3%. (2001 census)
Germans 1.2%, other (i.e.
Bulgarians , Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)
other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Russian, Greek,
Portuguese and Filipino) 6%.
other white (large numbers of Latvian, Polish and Ukrainian
migration) 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified
(i.e. Ulster Scots and
Irish Travellers ) 1.6%. (2006 census)
South Tyrol and French-speaking minority in Val
Sardinian , Friulan , Occitan , Croatian , Arbëreshë , Catalan ,
Greek , Ladin , Slovene and Roma minorities, other Europeans (mostly
Ukrainians and Polish) 4%,
North African Arabs
1% and others (i.e. Chinese , Filipino, Indian, Black African and
Latin American) 2.5%.
Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles
other 4% (
Bosniaks , Gorani , Romani , Turk and Ashkali and
Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainian 2.2%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%,
Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)
Russians 6.31%, Belorussians 1.23%, other (Lipka
Tatars ) 2.27% and
Jews (Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001
Albanians 25.2%, Turks 4%
Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e.
Romanians and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)
Ukrainians 8.4%, Gagauz 4.4%
Bulgarians 1.9%, and other 1.3%
Albanians 4.91%, and other (
Croats , Greeks, Romani
and Macedonians ) 12,73%. (2011 census)
European Union nationals 5%, Indonesians 2.4% including South
Moluccans 1.5%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Iranians 1%
Africans from Portuguese-speaking Africa ,
Brazilians , Chinese , Indians ,
Jews , Portuguese Gypsies and Latin
Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians
0.1% (2011 census)
Ossetians 0.4%, Kabardin
Ukrainians 1.4%, Bashkir 1.2%,
Armenians 0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins
0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes
unspecified people (3.94% of population)).
Hungarians 3.9%, Romani 1.4%,
Montenegrin 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians ,
Slovaks , Romanians
Albanians , and other
Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8%
Bosniaks 1.1%, other (
Dalmatian Italians ,
Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12%
Various nationalities or sub-ethnicities of the
Spanish people ,
Castilians and Leonese , Catalans /
Latin Americans ,
Romanians , North
Africans , Chinese, Filipinos,
Levant Arabs, British
expatriates, and others.
foreign-born or first-generation immigrants:
Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians,
Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs,
Greeks , Turks , Iranians ,
Pakistanis , Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.
regional linguistic subgroups , including the Alamannic
Romand French-speakers 24,4%, the Italian
-speakers 7% and
Romansh people (see
Romansh language ).
Balkans (Serbs, Croats,
Albanians ) 6%,
Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%,
Ukrainians 0.5% and
Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians,
Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs,
Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean
Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians
Urums 0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).
(consisting of English : ca. 75-80% Scottish : 8.0%, Welsh :
approx. 4.5%, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish ): 2.8%,
also Cornish , Manx , British Romani and
Channel Islanders ). Included
are the inhabitants of
Black British ,
Asian British often consists of
South Asian and
East Indian peoples,
Chinese British , various other Commonwealth
Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish ,
Poles , French
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* Demography of
White Latin American
White Latin American
Ethnic groups in the
* Environmental racism in
Federal Union of European Nationalities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
* Genetic history of
* Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of
* Immigration to
* Turks in
* Languages of
List of ethnic groups
* Nomadic peoples of
* Peoples of the
* ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for
Germans in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for
all German-speaking groups .
* ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking
groups , excluding the
Occitans . Recensement officiel de l'Insee
INSEE.fr give 65 million.
* ^ Also known as Britons (Includes English , Scottish , Welsh ,
and Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million
British people in
United Kingdom and ca. 2 million
British people resident in other
countries in Europe.)
* ^ Also known as
Spaniards (includes Catalans,
Galicians). Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding Catalans
Valencians -Balearics ,
Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the
Moldova ), and the
the partly recognized Republic of
Kosovo ). Also to note is that
Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the
partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic
origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the
relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its
people is Letzeburgesch . Closely related groups holding majorities in
separate states are German speakers (
Swiss German speakers ), the various South Slavic
ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia , the Dutch /Flemish
Slovaks and the Bulgarians
* ^ Including the European portions of
Russia , not including
Turkey , Georgia and
Kazakhstan , excluding microstates with fewer
than 100,000 inhabitants:
Andorra , Holy See ,
Liechtenstein , Monaco
San Marino .
* ^ Percentages from the
CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
* ^ Percents represent citizenship, since
Greece does not collect
data on ethnicity.
* ^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is
of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one
parent who is born in Norway.
* ^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami.
Therefore, exact numbers are not possible.
* ^ Excluding
* ^ In the 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could
identify themselves as White Irish or
White British though no separate
White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white
residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White
British. In the census of Northern
Ireland , White Irish and White
British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census
* ^ A B Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002),
Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen,
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December 5, 2015, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx.
* ^ "
Population by Country of Birth and
Nationality 2013: Table
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during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi
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Christians Of North-West Africa
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sowohl der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie, wis auch
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Nationalität der Völker (1851), p. 257.
* ^ A. Kumar, Encyclopaedia of Teaching of Geography (2002), p. 74
ff.; the tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine
Mediterranean groups persisted among some scientists into the
1960s, notably in Carleton Coon's book
The Origin of Races (1962).
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* ^ Measuring European
Population Stratification using Microarray
Genotype Data, Sitesled.com
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Barbujani. "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the
Genome of Europeans". Retrieved 2007-07-20.
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belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were
themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
* "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim),
were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest
sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite
at Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that
were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
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* ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish
People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University
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Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim.
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November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
* ^ "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a
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* ^ France\'s blacks stand up to be counted
* ^ Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe
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* ^ ab Hisitione autem ortae sunt quattuor gentes Franci, Latini,
Albani et Britti. ab Armenone autem quinque: Gothi, Valagothi, Gebidi,
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* ^ Cf. Berting (2006:51).
* ^ Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit
legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is
indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that
Europe is an essentially
contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51).
* ^ Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting
* ^ K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d'
Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle,
quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of
the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide.
But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the
Christian world in Greece, Rome and
Judaism to modern phenomena such
as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism,
liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism."
* ^ A B C D E Berting 2006 , p. 52
* ^ Berting 2006 , p. 51
* ^ Duran (1995:81)
* ^ Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006
* ^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western
Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism,
has been an all-important factor in the development of Western
Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has
indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of
western nations since the christian era.
* ^ Caltron J.H Hayas,
Christianity and Western Civilization
(1953), Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive
features of our
Western civilization — the civilization of western
Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco -
Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.
* ^ Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future:
Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004),
p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates,
Jesus, and Plato.
* ^ Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some
Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22:
Western civilization is also sometimes
described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization.
* ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western
Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 .
* ^ Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and
Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4 .
* ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western
Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 .
* ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western
Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836 .
Christianity in Europe
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the World’s Christian Population" (PDF),
Pew Research Center
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European Commission , p. 233, 2012, archived
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* ^ This is particularly the case among proponents of the so-called
confederalist or neo-functionalist position on European integration.
Eder and Spohn (2005:3) note: "The evolutionary thesis of the making
European identity often goes with the assumption of a
simultaneous decline of national identities. This substitution thesis
reiterates the well-known confederalist/neo-functionalist position in
the debate on European integration, arguing for an increasing
replacement of the nation-state by European institutions, against the
intergovernmentalist/realist position, insisting on the continuing
primacy of the nation-state."
* ^ Eastern
Europe at the end of the 20th century, Ian Jeffries, p.
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451 Statistics Denmark
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* ^ "Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history,
as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French
immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third
of the population currently living in
France is of "foreign" descent",
Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, "
France at the dawn of the twenty-first
century, trends and transformations", Summa Publications, Inc., 2000,
* ^ " In present day France, one-third of the population has
grandparents that were born outside France", Jean-Benoît Nadeau and
Julie Barlow, "Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't be Wrong: What makes the
French so French", Robson Books Ltd, 2004, p.8
* ^ .
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landbakgrunn og kjønn. 1. januar 2012 ( Archived September 18, 2012,
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переписи населения 2010 года.
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окончательных итогах Всероссийской
переписи населения 2010 года Archived October 6,
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