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The ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE are the focus of European ethnology , the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe
Europe
. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct PEOPLES OF EUROPE, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities . The total number of national minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.

There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people (without nation state), nationality , national minority, ethnic minority, linguistic community, linguistic group, linguistic minority and genetic haplogroup are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe
Europe
. Overview map of the distribution of the major languages spoken in Europe
Europe

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Linguistic classifications

* 3 History

* 3.1 Prehistoric populations * 3.2 Historical populations * 3.3 Historical immigration * 3.4 History of European ethnography

* 4 National minorities

* 4.1 Indigenous minorities * 4.2 Non-indigenous minorities

* 5 European identity
European identity

* 5.1 Historical * 5.2 European culture * 5.3 Religion * 5.4 Pan- European identity
European identity

* 6 European ethnic groups by country * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

OVERVIEW

Further information: Demographics of Europe
Europe

There are eight peoples of Europe
Europe
(defined by their language) with more than 30 million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population:

* Russians
Russians
(c. 95 million residing in Europe), * Germans
Germans
(c. 82 million), * French (c. 67 million), * British (c. 65 million), * Italians
Italians
(60 million), * Spanish (c. 50 million), * Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(38–55 million), * Poles
Poles
(38–40 million).

About 20–25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union
European Union
, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.

Both Spain
Spain
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are special cases, in that the designation of nationality , Spanish and British , may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain
Spain
and native populations of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are not usually discussed in terms of ethnicity, and Switzerland
Switzerland
is considered a "multi-lingual state" rather than a "multi-ethnic state".

LINGUISTIC CLASSIFICATIONS

Languages of Europe. Interpretive map, date unspecified Further information: Languages of Europe
Europe

Of the total population of Europe
Europe
of some 730 million (as of 2005), over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
, viz., Slavic , Italic (Romance) and Germanic . The largest groups that do not fall within these three are the Greeks
Greeks
(about 12 million) and the Albanians
Albanians
(about 8 million), which are Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
that are not closely related to those larger language families. Beside the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
there are two other major language families on the European continent: Turkic languages and Uralic languages
Uralic languages
. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of northern Africa as well as the Near East
Near East
are preserved in Malta, a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
archipelago. Abkhaz–Adyghean , Basque , Kartvelian , and Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of Europe.

HISTORY

PREHISTORIC POPULATIONS

Further information: Genetic history of Europe
Europe
, Prehistoric Europe
Europe
, Eurasian nomads
Eurasian nomads
, and Indo-European expansion

The Basques
Basques
are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age
Atlantic Bronze Age
directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe
Europe
(the Centum
Centum
groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian ) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe
Europe
by the Bronze Age ( Corded ware , Beaker people
Beaker people
). The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated to their historical homelands by about 3,000 years ago.

Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe
Europe
include Proto-Celtic , Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic , of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot . A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.

Regarding the European Bronze Age
European Bronze Age
, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
(ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto- Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.

HISTORICAL POPULATIONS

Further information: History of Europe
Europe
Provinces of the Roman Empire in AD 117.

Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations ) populations of Europe
Europe
known from Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
historiography , notably Herodotus
Herodotus
, Pliny , Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Tacitus
Tacitus
:

* Aegean : Greek tribes , Pelasgians / Tyrrhenians , and Anatolians . * Armenian Highlands/Anatolia : Armenians
Armenians
* Balkans
Balkans
: Illyrians
Illyrians
( List of ancient tribes in Illyria ), Dacians , and Thracians
Thracians
. * Caucasus
Caucasus
: Georgians
Georgians
* Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
: Italic peoples
Italic peoples
, Etruscans
Etruscans
, Adriatic Veneti
Adriatic Veneti
, Ligurians and Greek colonies. * Western /Central Europe
Europe
: Celts
Celts
(list of peoples of Gaul
Gaul
, List of Celtic tribes
Celtic tribes
), Rhaetians and Swabians , Vistula Veneti , Lugii
Lugii
and Balts
Balts
. * Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula ( Iberians , Lusitani , Aquitani
Aquitani
, Celtiberians
Celtiberians
) Basques
Basques
and Phoenicians ( Carthaginians
Carthaginians
). * Sardinia
Sardinia
: ancient Sardinians (also known as Nuragic people ), comprising the Corsi , Balares and Ilienses tribes. * West European Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts
Picts
/ Priteni . * Northern Europe
Europe
: Finnic peoples
Finnic peoples
, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(list of Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
). * Southern Europe
Europe
: Sicani . * Eastern Europe
Europe
: Scythians
Scythians
, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
.

HISTORICAL IMMIGRATION

Further information: Scythians
Scythians
, Huns
Huns
, Turkic expansion
Turkic expansion
, and Islamic conquests The Great Migrations of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
. Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(purple), the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(orange) and the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
(light green). (Borders are approximate.)

Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe
Europe
during historical times are:

* Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean, from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic War in 146 BC. * Iranian influence: Achaemenid
Achaemenid
control of Thrace
Thrace
(512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
, Cimmerians
Cimmerians
, Scythians
Scythians
, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
, Alans
Alans
, Ossetes . * the Jewish diaspora
Jewish diaspora
reached Europe
Europe
in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period, the Jewish community in Italy
Italy
dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe
Europe
( Gaul
Gaul
) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews
Jews
in Europe
Europe
). * The Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian invasions , contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire * Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations , fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century. * the Bulgars
Bulgars
(or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia
Central Asia
, eventually absorbed by the Slavs
Slavs
. * the Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarians), a Ugric people , and the Turkic Pechenegs
Pechenegs
and Khazars
Khazars
, arrived in Europe
Europe
in about the 8th century (see Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
). * the Arabs
Arabs
conquered Cyprus
Cyprus
, Crete
Crete
, Sicily
Sicily
, some places along the coast of southern Italy
Italy
, Malta
Malta
, Greek Empire , Hispania
Hispania
and, in the early 11th century, Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
(831–1072) and Al-Andalus (711–1492) * the Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and the Almohads
Almohads
ruled much of Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
. * exodus of Maghreb
Maghreb
Christians
Christians
* the western Kipchaks
Kipchaks
known as Cumans
Cumans
entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century. * the Mongol / Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans
Balkans
(1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars
Tatars
. * the Romani people
Romani people
(Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
* the Mongol Kalmyks arrived in Kalmykia
Kalmykia
in the 17th century.

HISTORY OF EUROPEAN ETHNOGRAPHY

Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of all peoples"), from Synopsis Universae Philologiae (1741). Ethnographic
Ethnographic
map of Europe, The Times Atlas (1896).

The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical Antiquity . Herodotus
Herodotus
described the Scythians
Scythians
and Thraco- Illyrians
Illyrians
. Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
gave a description of Greece
Greece
itself besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but was received by Polybius
Polybius
and others.

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period authors include Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, Strabo
Strabo
and Tacitus
Tacitus
. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
gives an account of the Celtic tribes
Celtic tribes
of Gaul , while Tacitus
Tacitus
describes the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
of Magna Germania . A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and Sallust
Sallust
depicts the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.

The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana
records the names of numerous peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
such as Agathias of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
, Jordanes
Jordanes
or Theophylact Simocatta give early accounts of the Slavs
Slavs
, the Franks
Franks
, the Alamanni
Alamanni
and the Goths
Goths
.

Book IX of Isidore 's Etymologiae (7th century) treats de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (of languages, peoples, realms, armies and cities). Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an account of the Bolghar
Bolghar
and the Rus\' peoples. William Rubruck , while most notable for his account of the Mongols
Mongols
, in his account of his journey to Asia
Asia
also gives accounts of the Tatars
Tatars
and the Alans
Alans
. Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
give an account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes.

Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 Synopsis Universae Philologiae published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts. In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism , and the ethnic groups of Europe
Europe
were grouped into a number of "races ", Mediterranean
Mediterranean
, Alpine and Nordic , all part of a larger "Caucasian " group.

The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism , and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.

The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski
Bronisław Malinowski
who emphasized the importance of fieldwork. The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe
Europe
found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe
Europe
occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe
Europe
to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques
Basques
and Sami from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe
Europe
with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."

NATIONAL MINORITIES

Further information: Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of Europe
Europe

The total number of national minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.

The member states of the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities . The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France
France
.

INDIGENOUS MINORITIES

Further information: Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
and Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples Young Circassians A Sami family around 1900

Most of Europe's indigenous peoples , or ethnic groups known to have the earliest known historical connection to a particular region, have gone extinct or been absorbed by (or, perhaps, contributed to) the dominant cultures. Those that survive are largely confined to remote areas.

Groups that have been identified as indigenous include the Sami of northern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, the Basques
Basques
of northern Spain
Spain
and southern France
France
, the Gaels
Gaels
of Ireland
Ireland
and the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
, the Bretons of western France
France
and many of the western indigenous peoples of Russia . Groups in Russia
Russia
include Circassians of the northeastern Black Sea and the northwestern Caucasus
Caucasus
(also indigenous to parts of Ukraine ), Finno-Ugric peoples such as the Komi and Mordvins
Mordvins
of the western Ural Mountains , northeastern Caucasus
Caucasus
peoples of southwestern Russia, and Samoyedic peoples such as the Nenets people
Nenets people
of northern Russia.

In Europe, present-day indigenous populations as recognized by the UN are relatively few. Nevertheless, the ethnic groups traditionally inhabiting most, if not all, European countries are considered to be indigenous to Europe. This includes the majority populations. It can lead to some confusion, because the term "indigenous" does not imply "non-white" or "minority" in Europe
Europe
as it would in other continents where white people are non-indigenous.

NON-INDIGENOUS MINORITIES

Main article: Immigration to Europe
Europe
Further information: Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
in Europe
Europe
, Islam
Islam
in Europe
Europe
, Hinduism in Europe
Europe
, Buddhism in Europe
Europe
, and Afro-Europeans

Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to Europe
Europe
over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, French, and Spanish empires.

* Western Asians

* Jews
Jews
: approx. 2.0 million, mostly in the UK , France
France
and Germany
Germany
. They are descended from the Israelites of the Middle East
Middle East
(Southwest Asia), originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah .

* Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom , Germany
Germany
, France
France
and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived from Israel via southern Europe
Europe
in the Roman era and settled in France
France
and Germany
Germany
towards the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust
Holocaust
wiped out the vast majority during World War II
World War II
and forced many to flee. * Sephardi Jews
Jews
: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France
France
. They arrived via Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
in the pre-Roman and Roman eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries. * Mizrahi Jews
Jews
: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France
France
, via Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East. * Italqim : approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy
Italy
, since the 2nd century BCE. * Romaniotes
Romaniotes
: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece
Greece
, with communities dating at least from the 1st century CE. * Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
. They arrived in Crimea
Crimea
in the Middle Ages.

* Assyrians : mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia. * Kurds
Kurds
: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and Turkey. * Iraqi diaspora : mostly in the UK, Germany
Germany
and Sweden. * Lebanese diaspora : especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus
Cyprus
and the UK. * Syrian diaspora : Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden.

* Africans
Africans

* North Africans
Africans
( Arabs
Arabs
and Berbers
Berbers
): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden. The bulk of North African migrants are Moroccans , although France
France
also has a large number of Algerians. * Horn Africans
Africans
( Somalis , Ethiopians , and Eritreans ): approx. 500,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy. Majority arrived to Europe as refugees . Proportionally few live in Italy
Italy
despite former colonial ties, most live in the Nordic countries. * Sub-Saharan Africans
Africans
(many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million but rapidly growing, mostly in the UK and France, with smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal
Portugal
and elsewhere.

* Latin Americans
Latin Americans
: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain
Spain
and to a lesser extent Italy
Italy
and the UK. See also Latin American Britons (80,000 Latin American born in 2001).

* Brazilians
Brazilians
: around 70,000 in Portugal
Portugal
and Italy
Italy
each, and 50,000 in Germany. * Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands. * Venezuelans
Venezuelans
: around 520,000 mostly in Spain
Spain
(200,000), Portugal (100,000), France
France
(30,000), Germany
Germany
(20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000), Italy
Italy
(5,000) and the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1,000).

* South Asians : approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany
Germany
and France.

* Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely), dispersed throughout Europe
Europe
but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans
Balkans
area, they are of Indian origin. * Indians : approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Germany
Germany
and smaller numbers in Ireland. * Pakistanis : approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK, but also in Norway and Sweden. * Tamils : approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK. * Bangladeshi residing in Europe
Europe
estimated at over 500,000, the bulk live in the UK. * Afghans , about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany
Germany
and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s.

* Southeast Asians

* Filipinos : above 1 million, mostly in the UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. * Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese in France
France
and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France. See also Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
.

* East Asians

* Chinese : approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain, Italy
Italy
and the Netherlands. * Japanese : mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf, Germany
Germany
. * Koreans
Koreans
: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France
France
and Germany. See also Koryo-saram . * Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic.

* North Americans

* U.S. and Canadian expatriates: American British
American British
and Canadian British , Canadiens
Canadiens
and Acadians
Acadians
in France
France
, as well Americans/Canadians of European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe.

* African Americans
African Americans
(i.e. African American British
American British
) who are Americans of black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the 1920s, African-American entertainers established a colony in Paris (African American French ) and descendants of World War II/Cold War-era black American soldiers stationed in France
France
, Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
are well known.

* Others

* European diaspora
European diaspora
Australians
Australians
, New Zealanders
New Zealanders
and South Africans
Africans
(mostly White South Africans
Africans
of Afrikaaner
Afrikaaner
and British descent), mainly in the UK. * Pacific Islanders : A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian origin in mainland France, Fijians in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from Fiji
Fiji
and Māori in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of the Māori people
Māori people
of New Zealand
New Zealand
. * Amerindians and Inuit
Inuit
, a scant few in the European continent of American Indian ancestry (often Latin Americans
Latin Americans
in Spain, France
France
and the UK; Inuit
Inuit
in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with local European women. In Germany, the Native American Association of Germany
Germany
founded in 1994 as a socio-cultural organization estimates 50,000 North American
North American
Indians (descendants) live in the country.

EUROPEAN IDENTITY

HISTORICAL

Further information: History of Western civilization Personifications of Sclavinia
Sclavinia
, Germania
Germania
, Gallia
Gallia
, and Roma , bringing offerings to Otto III ; from a gospel book dated 990.

Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe
Europe
are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents , the descendants of Shem
Shem
peopling Asia
Asia
and those of Ham peopling Africa . Identification of Europeans as " Japhetites " is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic".

In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period
Migration period
(as it was remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows, The first man that dwelt in Europe
Europe
was Alanus , with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks
Franks
, the Latins
Latins
, the Germans
Germans
, and Britons ; from Armenon, the Gothi , Valagothi , Cibidi , Burgundi , and Longobardi ; from Neugio, the Bogari , Vandali , Saxones , and Tarincgi . The whole of Europe
Europe
was subdivided into these tribes.

The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations.

EUROPEAN CULTURE

Main articles: Culture of Europe
Europe
and Western culture
Western culture

European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage". Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:

* A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity
Christianity
, the Renaissance
Renaissance
and its Humanism
Humanism
, the political thinking of the Enlightenment , and the French Revolution
French Revolution
, and the developments of Modernity , including all types of socialism ;

* A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism during the " Great Divergence
Great Divergence
"; * A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty of the individual ; * A plurality of states with different political orders, which are condemned to live together in one way or another; * Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.

Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world
Western world
. In this definition, Western culture
Western culture
is the set of literary , scientific , political , artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon
Western canon
. The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas , and Australasia
Australasia
, and is not restricted to Europe.

RELIGION

Main articles: Religion in Europe
Europe
and Christendom
Christendom
Further information: Christianity
Christianity
in Europe
Europe
, Islam
Islam
in Europe
Europe
, Hinduism in Europe
Europe
, and Buddhism in Europe
Europe
Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results

Since the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
, most of Europe
Europe
used to be dominated by Christianity
Christianity
. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, Protestant
Protestant
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia . Also The Armenian Apostolic Church , part of the Oriental Church , is in Europe
Europe
- another branch of Christianity (world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western Europe
Europe
, also has a very significant following in Central Europe
Europe
(especially among the Germanic , Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland
Ireland
(with some in Great Britain).

Christianity
Christianity
has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years. Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture
Christian culture
, The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science . The notion of "Europe " and the " Western World
Western World
" has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity
Christianity
and Christendom
Christendom
" many even attribute Christianity
Christianity
for being the link that created a unified European identity .

Christianity
Christianity
is still the largest religion in Europe
Europe
; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians
Christians
. Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union
European Union
in 2012, by Eurobarometer , Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in the European Union
European Union
, accounting for 72% of the EU 's population.

Islam
Islam
has some tradition in the Balkans
Balkans
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
due to conquest, colonization and oppression from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 16th to 19th centuries). Muslims
Muslims
account for the majority of the populations in Albania
Albania
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Kosovo
Kosovo
, Northern Cyprus (controlled by Turks ), and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe
Europe
. Russia
Russia
also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars
Tatars
of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens
Chechens
, Avars , Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims
Muslims
in Western Europe
Europe
have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum , the total number of Muslims
Muslims
in Europe
Europe
in 2010 was about 44 million (6%). While the total number of Muslims
Muslims
in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).

Judaism
Judaism
has a long history in Europe
Europe
, but is a small minority religion, with France
France
(1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe
Europe
is composed primarily of two groups , the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi . Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
likely migrated to Central Europe
Europe
at least as early as the 8th century , while Sephardi Jews
Jews
established themselves in Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
at least one thousand years before that. Jews
Jews
originated in the Levant
Levant
where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece
Greece
as well as the Balkans
Balkans
since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust
Holocaust
and emigration (including Aliyah
Aliyah
, as well as emigration to America ) in the 20th century.

In modern times, significant secularization since 20th century, notably in laicist France
France
, Estonia
Estonia
and Czech Republic
Czech Republic
. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe
Europe
is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Estonia
Estonia
. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.

PAN-EUROPEAN IDENTITY

Main article: Pan- European identity
European identity

"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union
European Union
as a result of the gradual process of European integration
European integration
taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War
Cold War
, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s Paris
Paris
Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s.

From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union
European Union
even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.

EUROPEAN ETHNIC GROUPS BY COUNTRY

Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one sovereign state geographically situated in Europe. These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Albania
Albania
or Poland
Poland
, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium
Belgium
. Montenegro
Montenegro
is multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority.

COUNTRY MAJORITY % REGIONAL MAJORITIES MINORITIES

Albania
Albania
Albanians
Albanians
95%

Greeks
Greeks
~3%, and other 2% (Aromanian , Romani, Macedonians , Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and Serbs/Montenegrins).

Armenia Armenians
Armenians
98%

Yazidis 1.2%, Russians
Russians
0.4%, Assyrians 0.1%, Kurds
Kurds
0.1%, others: Greeks
Greeks
, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
, Georgians
Georgians
and Poles.(2011 census) Official statistics/data of RA .

Austria Austrians
Austrians
91.1%

South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats
Burgenland Croats
, Carinthian Slovenes
Carinthian Slovenes
, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs
Serbs
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
), Turks 1.6%, Germans
Germans
0.9%, and other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
91.6% Lezgin 2% Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Poles.

Belarus Belarusians
Belarusians
83.7%

Russians
Russians
8.3%, Poles
Poles
3.1%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009 census)

Belgium
Belgium
Flemings
Flemings
58% Walloons 31%, Germans
Germans
1% mixed or other (i.e. Luxembourgers , Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans
Africans
and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosniaks
Bosniaks
50.11% Serbs
Serbs
30.78%, Croats
Croats
15.43% Other 2.73% (2013)

Bulgaria Bulgarians
Bulgarians
84% Turks 8.8% Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russian , Armenian , Tatar, and Vlach ). (2001 census)

Croatia Croats
Croats
90%

Serbs
Serbs
4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs
Czechs
, Dalmatian Italians , Austrian-German , Romanian and Romani ). (2001 census)

Cyprus
Cyprus
Greek Cypriots
Greek Cypriots
99.5% Turkish Cypriots

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Czechs
Czechs
90.4% Moravians 3.7% Slovaks
Slovaks
1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)

Denmark Danes 90% Faroese other Scandinavian, Germans
Germans
, Frisians
Frisians
, other European, Greenlandic people and others.

Estonia
Estonia
Estonians
Estonians
68% Baltic Russians
Russians
25.6% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
2.1%, Belarusians
Belarusians
1.3%, Finns
Finns
0.9%, and other (Baltic Germans
Germans
, Estonian Swedes and Estonian Danes ) 2.2%. (2000 census) Included are South Estonian speakers.

Finland Finns
Finns
93.4% Swedes
Swedes
5.6%, Sami 0.1% Russians
Russians
0.5%, Estonians
Estonians
0.3%, Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)

France
France
French 68% (includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like Bretons
Bretons
, Corsicans , Occitans
Occitans
, Alsatians , Arpitans , Basques
Basques
, Catalans and Flemings
Flemings
). other European 7%, North African
North African
7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
. French with recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.

Georgia Georgians
Georgians
84% Ossetians
Ossetians
0.9%, Abkhazians 0.1% Azeris 6.5%, Armenians
Armenians
5.7%, Russian 1.5%, and other (i.e. Jews, Poles
Poles
and Kists
Kists
): 2.5% (2002 census).

Germany
Germany
Germans
Germans
81%-91% includes Bavarians , Swabians , Saxons , Frisians
Frisians
, Sorbs
Sorbs
, Silesians , Saarland
Saarland
Germans, Polish- Germans
Germans
and Schleswig-Holstein Danes ). Germans
Germans
without immigrant background 81%; Germans
Germans
with immigrant background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and non-European descent about 2 to 5%).

Greece
Greece
Greeks
Greeks
93% includes linguistic minorities 3% Albanians
Albanians
4% and other (i.e. Aromanians
Aromanians
/ Megleno-Romanians , Cretan Turks and Macedonian / Greek Slavic 3%. (2001 census)

Hungary Hungarians
Hungarians
92.3%

Romani 1.9%, Germans
Germans
1.2%, other (i.e. Croats
Croats
, Romanians
Romanians
, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)

Iceland Icelanders
Icelanders
94%

other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Russian, Greek, Portuguese and Filipino) 6%.

Ireland
Ireland
Irish 87.4%

other white (large numbers of Latvian, Polish and Ukrainian migration) 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified (i.e. Ulster Scots and Irish Travellers
Irish Travellers
) 1.6%. (2006 census)

Italy
Italy
Italians
Italians
91.7% German-speakers in South Tyrol and French-speaking minority in Val d\'Aosta . Sardinian , Friulan , Occitan , Croatian , Arbëreshë , Catalan , Greek , Ladin , Slovene and Roma minorities, other Europeans (mostly Romanians, Albanians, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Polish) 4%, North African
North African
Arabs 1% and others (i.e. Chinese , Filipino, Indian, Black African and Latin American) 2.5%.

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhs 63.1% Russians
Russians
23.7% Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles and Koreans.

Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanians
Albanians
92% Serbs
Serbs
4% other 4% ( Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, Gorani , Romani , Turk and Ashkali and Egyptians ).

Latvia
Latvia
Latvians 62.1% Baltic Russians
Russians
26.9% Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainian 2.2%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%, Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)

Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuanians
Lithuanians
83.5%

Poles
Poles
6.74%, Russians
Russians
6.31%, Belorussians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars
Tatars
) 2.27% and Jews
Jews
(Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001 census)

Macedonia Macedonians 64% Albanians
Albanians
25.2%, Turks 4% Romani 2.7%, Serbs
Serbs
1.8%, and other (i.e. Greeks
Greeks
, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Romanians
Romanians
and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)

Malta
Malta
Maltese 95.3%

Moldova
Moldova
Moldovans
Moldovans
76% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
8.4%, Gagauz 4.4% Russians
Russians
5.9%, Romanians
Romanians
2.1%, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
1.9%, and other 1.3% (2004 census).

Montenegro
Montenegro

Montenegrins 44.98%, Serbs
Serbs
28.73% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
8.65%, Albanians
Albanians
4.91%, and other ( Croats
Croats
, Greeks, Romani and Macedonians ) 12,73%. (2011 census)

Netherlands
Netherlands
Dutch 80.7% Frisians
Frisians
3% other European Union
European Union
nationals 5%, Indonesians 2.4% including South Moluccans 1.5%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Iranians 1% Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles Africans
Africans
from Portuguese-speaking Africa , Brazilians
Brazilians
, Chinese , Indians , Jews
Jews
, Portuguese Gypsies and Latin Americans .

Romania
Romania
Romanians
Romanians
83.4% Hungarians
Hungarians
6.1% Romani 3.0%, Germans
Germans
0.2%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians 0.1% (2011 census)

Russia
Russia
Russians
Russians
80% Tatars
Tatars
3.9%, Chuvashes 1%, Chechens
Chechens
1%, Ossetians
Ossetians
0.4%, Kabardin 0.4%, Ingushes 0.3%, Kalmyks 0.1% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
1.4%, Bashkir 1.2%, Armenians
Armenians
0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes unspecified people (3.94% of population)).

Serbia Serbs
Serbs
83%

Hungarians
Hungarians
3.9%, Romani 1.4%, Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
1.1%, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians , Slovaks
Slovaks
, Romanians , Croats
Croats
, Ruthenes , Bulgarians
Bulgarians
, Germans
Germans
, Albanians
Albanians
, and other (2002 census).

Slovakia Slovaks
Slovaks
86% Hungarians
Hungarians
9.7% Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

Slovenia Slovenes
Slovenes
83.1%

Serbs
Serbs
2%, Croats
Croats
1.8%, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
1.1%, other ( Dalmatian Italians , ethnic Germans
Germans
, Hungarians
Hungarians
and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12% (2002 census).

Spain
Spain
Spaniards
Spaniards
89% Various nationalities or sub-ethnicities of the Spanish people
Spanish people
, including Castilians and Leonese , Catalans / Valencians , Galicians , Asturians , Basques
Basques
Gypsies , Jews
Jews
, Latin Americans
Latin Americans
, Romanians
Romanians
, North Africans
Africans
, sub-Saharan Africans
Africans
, Chinese, Filipinos, Levant
Levant
Arabs, British expatriates, and others.

Sweden Swedes
Swedes
88% Finns
Finns
( Tornedalians ), Sami people
Sami people
foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns
Finns
(Sweden- Finns
Finns
), Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
(Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians
Russians
, Arabs
Arabs
(Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks
Greeks
, Turks , Iranians , Iraqis , Pakistanis , Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.

Switzerland
Switzerland
Germans
Germans
65% regional linguistic subgroups , including the Alamannic German-speakers, the Romand French-speakers 24,4%, the Italian -speakers 7% and Romansh people (see Romansh language
Romansh language
). Balkans
Balkans
(Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
or Albanians
Albanians
) 6%, Italians
Italians
4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans
Germans
1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
0.5% and others 1%.

Turkey
Turkey
Turks 75% Kurds
Kurds
18% Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians
Albanians
and Romanians.

Ukraine Ukrainians
Ukrainians
77.8% Russians
Russians
17.3% Belarusians
Belarusians
0.6%, Moldovans
Moldovans
0.5%, Crimean Tatars
Tatars
0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians
Hungarians
0.3%, Romanians
Romanians
0.3%, Poles
Poles
0.3%, Jews
Jews
0.2%, Armenians
Armenians
0.1%, Urums 0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
White British >85% (consisting of English : ca. 75-80% Scottish : 8.0%, Welsh : approx. 4.5%, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish ): 2.8%, also Cornish , Manx , British Romani and Channel Islanders ). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
. Black British
Black British
, Asian British
Asian British
often consists of South Asian
South Asian
and East Indian peoples, Chinese British , various other Commonwealth Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish , Poles
Poles
, French among others.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAPS OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to EUROPEANS .

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE

* European diaspora
European diaspora
* Caucasoid * Demography of Europe
Europe

* Emigration
Emigration
from Europe
Europe

* European American
European American
* White Latin American
White Latin American

* Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in the Middle East
Middle East
* Environmental racism in Europe
Europe
* Eurolinguistics * Federal Union of European Nationalities * Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

* Genetic history of Europe
Europe

* Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe
Europe

* Immigration to Europe
Europe

* Afro-Europeans * Turks in Europe
Europe

* Languages of Europe
Europe
* List of ethnic groups * Nomadic peoples of Europe
Europe
* Peoples of the Caucasus
Caucasus
* White people
White people

NOTES

* ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
taken together. * ^ Germans
Germans
in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for all German-speaking groups . * ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking groups , excluding the Occitans
Occitans
. Recensement officiel de l'Insee INSEE.fr give 65 million. * ^ Also known as Britons (Includes English , Scottish , Welsh , and Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million British people
British people
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and ca. 2 million British people
British people
resident in other countries in Europe.) * ^ Also known as Spaniards
Spaniards
(includes Catalans, Basques
Basques
and Galicians). Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding Catalans - Valencians -Balearics , Basques
Basques
and Galicians . * ^ Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
which form the majority in two states are the Romanians
Romanians
(in Romania
Romania
and Moldova
Moldova
), and the Albanians
Albanians
(in Albania
Albania
and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
). Also to note is that Luxembourg
Luxembourg
has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch . Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers ( Germans
Germans
, Austrians
Austrians
, Luxembourgers , Swiss German speakers ), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia , the Dutch /Flemish , the Russians
Russians
/ Belarusians
Belarusians
, Czechs
Czechs
/ Slovaks
Slovaks
and the Bulgarians /Macedonians . * ^ Including the European portions of Russia
Russia
, not including Turkey
Turkey
, Georgia and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra
Andorra
, Holy See , Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Monaco and San Marino
San Marino
. * ^ Percentages from the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
unless indicated otherwise. * ^ Percents represent citizenship, since Greece
Greece
does not collect data on ethnicity. * ^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one parent who is born in Norway. * ^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami. Therefore, exact numbers are not possible. * ^ Excluding Kosovo
Kosovo
* ^ In the 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could identify themselves as White Irish or White British though no separate White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White British. In the census of Northern Ireland
Ireland
, White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen, Braumüller, ISBN 3700314221 (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) ISBN 3211353070 . Archived December 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx. * ^ " Population
Population
by Country of Birth and Nationality
Nationality
2013: Table 2.1". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2015. * ^ "15° Censimento generale della popolazione e delle abitazioni" (PDF) (in Italian). ISTAT . 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. * ^ see e.g. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi :10.1073/pnas.071036898 PNAS 24 April 2001 Vol. 98 No. 9 5078–5083. * ^ Richard, Lewis (2005). Finland, Cultural Lone Wolf. Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-18-5 . Niskanen, Markku (2002). "The Origin of the Baltic-Finns" (PDF). The Mankind Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-06. Laitinen, Virpi; Päivi Lahermo (August 24, 2001). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers" (PDF). Department of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki. Retrieved 2008-10-08. * ^ "Armenian people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-03-22. * ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Almoravides". Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 717–718. * ^ The Last Christians
Christians
Of North-West Africa * ^ Synopsis universae philologiae at google books * ^ Karl Friedrich Vollgraff, Erster Versuch einer Begründung sowohl der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie, wis auch der Staats und rechts-philosophie durch die Ethnologie oder Nationalität der Völker (1851), p. 257. * ^ A. Kumar, Encyclopaedia of Teaching of Geography (2002), p. 74 ff.; the tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
groups persisted among some scientists into the 1960s, notably in Carleton Coon's book The Origin of Races (1962). * ^ Andrew Barry, Political Machines (2001), p. 56 * ^ Measuring European Population
Population
Stratification using Microarray Genotype Data, Sitesled.com * ^ "DNA heritage". Retrieved 2007-07-20. * ^ Dupanloup, Isabelle; Giorgio Bertorelle; Lounès Chikhi; Guido Barbujani. "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Retrieved 2007-07-20. * ^ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14 * ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature , 2005 * ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7 .

* ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."

* "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."

Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3 . * ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X . * ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9 . * ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim. * ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19. * ^ "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97: 6769–6774. doi :10.1073/pnas.100115997 . Retrieved 11 October 2012. * ^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012. * ^ http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1040&context=humbiol_preprints * ^ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131008/ncomms3543/full/ncomms3543.html * ^ http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1312/1312.6639.pdf * ^ Gregory Cochran, Henry Harpending, The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution, Basic Books, 2009 pp. 195–196. * ^ Moses ben Machir, in Seder Ha-Yom, p. 15a, Venice 1605 (Hebrew) * ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities, xi.v.2 * ^ "Petition for expatriate voting officially launched". The Daily Star . 14 July 2012. * ^ France\'s blacks stand up to be counted * ^ Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe * ^ Born Abroad – Countries of birth, BBC News * ^ ab Hisitione autem ortae sunt quattuor gentes Franci, Latini, Albani et Britti. ab Armenone autem quinque: Gothi, Valagothi, Gebidi, Burgundi, Longobardi. a Neguio vero quattuor Boguarii, Vandali, Saxones et Turingi. trans. J. A. Giles. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848. * ^ Cf. Berting (2006:51). * ^ Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe
Europe
is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51). * ^ Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56). * ^ K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d' Europe
Europe
jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism
Judaism
to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism." * ^ A B C D E Berting 2006 , p. 52 * ^ Berting 2006 , p. 51 * ^ Duran (1995:81) * ^ Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006 * ^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. * ^ Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity
Christianity
and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization
Western civilization
— the civilization of western Europe
Europe
and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant. * ^ Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato. * ^ Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization
Western civilization
is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization. * ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 . * ^ Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4 .

* ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 . * ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836 . * ^ Christianity
Christianity
in Europe * ^ "Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population" (PDF), Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
, 383, Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
, p. 130, 2011, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special
Special
Eurobarometer , 383, European Union
European Union
: European Commission
European Commission
, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ Pew Forum
Pew Forum
, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, , , * ^ "In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime" (in German). islam.de. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ EC.Europa.eu Archived May 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ This is particularly the case among proponents of the so-called confederalist or neo-functionalist position on European integration. Eder and Spohn (2005:3) note: "The evolutionary thesis of the making of a European identity
European identity
often goes with the assumption of a simultaneous decline of national identities. This substitution thesis reiterates the well-known confederalist/neo-functionalist position in the debate on European integration, arguing for an increasing replacement of the nation-state by European institutions, against the intergovernmentalist/realist position, insisting on the continuing primacy of the nation-state." * ^ Eastern Europe
Europe
at the end of the 20th century, Ian Jeffries, p. 69 * ^ The Greeks: the land and people since the war. James Pettifer. Penguin, 2000. ISBN 0-14-028899-6 * ^ " CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
2010". Retrieved 26 July 2010. * ^ . * ^ "Census 2001, Population
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by Districts and Ethnic Groups as of 01.03.2001". Nsi.bg. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ Persons of Danish origin: 4 985 415. Total population: 5 511 451 Statistics Denmark * ^ https://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/11234/FR * ^ "France". State.gov. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. * ^ "Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history, as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third of the population currently living in France
France
is of "foreign" descent", Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, " France
France
at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations", Summa Publications, Inc., 2000, P.160 * ^ " In present day France, one-third of the population has grandparents that were born outside France", Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow, "Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't be Wrong: What makes the French so French", Robson Books Ltd, 2004, p.8 * ^ . * ^ A B Germans
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and foreigners with an immigrant background Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Italy * ^ . * ^ Non-EU citizens legally residing Jan 2014 * ^ "Cittadini Stranieri. Popolazione residente per sesso e cittadinanza al 31 Dicembre 2012 Italia - Tutti i Paesi". * ^ "Италианските българи" (in Bulgarian). 24 Chasa. Archived from the original on 2015-06-08. * ^ "On key provisional results of Population
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and Housing Census 2011 Latvijas statistika". Csb.gov.lv. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2012-08-13. * ^ Populstat.info * ^ http://www.safecom.org.au/dutch-moluccans.htm * ^ https://www.internations.org/netherlands-expats/iranians * ^ Personer med innvandringsbakgrunn, etter innvandringskategori, landbakgrunn og kjønn. 1. januar 2012 ( Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
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. SSB (Statistics Norway), Retrieved November 6, 2012 * ^ Официальный сайт Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ Всероссийская перепись населения 2010. Национальный состав населения РФ 2010 * ^ SCB.se * ^ SCB.se

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EXTERNAL LINKS

* Ron Balsdon, The Cultural Mosaic of the European Union: Why National Boundaries and the Cultures Inside Still Matter * Migration Policy Institute - Country and Comparative Data * Mason, Otis Tufton (1905). "Europe, Peoples of". New International Encyclopedia .

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