The Info List - Europeans

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The ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE are the focus of European ethnology , the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe . According to German monograph _Minderheitenrechte in Europa_ co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct PEOPLES OF EUROPE, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities . The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.

There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms _ethnic group_, _people_ (without nation state), _nationality _, _national minority_, _ethnic minority_, _linguistic community_, _linguistic group_, _linguistic minority _ and genetic _haplogroup _ are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe . _ Overview map of the distribution of the major languages spoken in Europe


* 1 Overview * 2 Linguistic classifications

* 3 History

* 3.1 Prehistoric populations * 3.2 Historical populations * 3.3 Historical immigration * 3.4 History of European ethnography

* 4 National minorities

* 4.1 Indigenous minorities * 4.2 Non-indigenous minorities

* 5 European identity

* 5.1 Historical * 5.2 European culture * 5.3 Religion * 5.4 Pan- European identity

* 6 European ethnic groups by country * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links


Further information: Demographics of Europe

There are eight peoples of Europe (defined by their language) with more than 30 million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population:

* Russians (c. 95 million residing in Europe), * Germans (c. 82 million), * French (c. 67 million), * British (c. 65 million), * Italians (60 million), * Spanish (c. 50 million), * Ukrainians (38–55 million), * Poles (38–40 million).

About 20–25 million residents (3%) are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union , with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.

Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality , Spanish and British , may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom . Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are not usually discussed in terms of ethnicity, and Switzerland is considered a "multi-lingual state" rather than a "multi-ethnic state".


_ Languages of Europe. Interpretive map, date unspecified Further information: Languages of Europe

Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages , viz., Slavic , Italic (Romance) and Germanic . The largest groups that do not fall within these three are the Greeks (about 12 million) and the Albanians (about 8 million), which are Indo-European languages that are not closely related to those larger language families. Beside the Indo-European languages there are two other major language families on the European continent: Turkic languages and Uralic languages . The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of northern Africa as well as the Near East are preserved in Malta, a Mediterranean archipelago. Abkhaz–Adyghean , Basque , Kartvelian , and Nakho-Dagestani are linguistic isolates with no known relation to each other or to any other languages inside or outside of Europe.



Further information: Genetic history of Europe , Prehistoric Europe , Eurasian nomads , and Indo-European expansion

The Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian ) are assumed to have developed _in situ_ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe by the Bronze Age ( Corded ware , Beaker people ). The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated to their historical homelands by about 3,000 years ago.

Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic , Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic , all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic , of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan and Eteocypriot . A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.

Regarding the European Bronze Age , the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto- Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.


Further information: History of Europe Provinces of the Roman Empire in AD 117.

Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations ) populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography , notably Herodotus , Pliny , Ptolemy and Tacitus :

* Aegean : Greek tribes , Pelasgians / Tyrrhenians , and Anatolians . * Armenian Highlands/Anatolia : Armenians * Balkans : Illyrians ( List of ancient tribes in Illyria ), Dacians , and Thracians . * Caucasus : Georgians * Italian peninsula : Italic peoples , Etruscans , Adriatic Veneti , Ligurians and Greek colonies. * Western /Central Europe : Celts (list of peoples of Gaul , List of Celtic tribes ), Rhaetians and Swabians , Vistula Veneti , Lugii and Balts . * Iberian peninsula : Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula ( Iberians , Lusitani , Aquitani , Celtiberians ) Basques and Phoenicians ( Carthaginians ). * Sardinia : ancient Sardinians (also known as Nuragic people ), comprising the _Corsi _, _ Balares _ and _ Ilienses _ tribes. * West European Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and Picts / Priteni . * Northern Europe : Finnic peoples , Germanic peoples (list of Germanic peoples ). * Southern Europe : Sicani . * Eastern Europe : Scythians , Sarmatians .


Further information: Scythians , Huns , Turkic expansion , and Islamic conquests The Great Migrations of Late Antiquity . Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The Carolingian Empire (purple), the Byzantine Empire (orange) and the Caliphate of Córdoba (light green). (Borders are approximate.)

Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:

* Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean, from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic War in 146 BC. * Iranian influence: Achaemenid control of Thrace (512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom , Cimmerians , Scythians , Sarmatians , Alans , Ossetes . * the Jewish diaspora reached Europe in the Roman Empire period, the Jewish community in Italy dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe ( Gaul ) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews in Europe ). * The Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian invasions , contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire * Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations , fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century. * the Bulgars (or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia , eventually absorbed by the Slavs . * the Magyars (Hungarians), a Ugric people , and the Turkic Pechenegs and Khazars , arrived in Europe in about the 8th century (see Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin ). * the Arabs conquered Cyprus , Crete , Sicily , some places along the coast of southern Italy , Malta , Greek Empire , Hispania and, in the early 11th century, Emirate of Sicily (831–1072) and Al-Andalus (711–1492) * the Berber dynasties of the Almoravides and the Almohads ruled much of Spain and Portugal . * exodus of Maghreb Christians * the western Kipchaks known as Cumans entered the lands of present-day Ukraine in the 11th century. * the Mongol / Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans (1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars . * the Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages * the Mongol Kalmyks arrived in Kalmykia in the 17th century.


_ Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium_ ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of all peoples"), from _ Synopsis Universae Philologiae _ (1741). _ Ethnographic map of Europe, The Times Atlas _ (1896).

The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical Antiquity . Herodotus described the Scythians and Thraco- Illyrians . Dicaearchus gave a description of Greece itself besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but was received by Polybius and others.

Roman Empire period authors include Diodorus Siculus , Strabo and Tacitus . Julius Caesar gives an account of the Celtic tribes of Gaul , while Tacitus describes the Germanic tribes of Magna Germania . A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and Sallust depicts the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.

The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana records the names of numerous peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of Late Antiquity such as Agathias of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus , Jordanes or Theophylact Simocatta give early accounts of the Slavs , the Franks , the Alamanni and the Goths .

Book IX of Isidore 's _ Etymologiae _ (7th century) treats _de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus_ (of languages, peoples, realms, armies and cities). Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an account of the Bolghar and the Rus\' peoples. William Rubruck , while most notable for his account of the Mongols , in his account of his journey to Asia also gives accounts of the Tatars and the Alans . Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen give an account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The _ Chronicon Slavorum _ (12th century) gives an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes.

Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 _ Synopsis Universae Philologiae _ published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the _pater noster _ in the various European languages and scripts. In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism , and the ethnic groups of Europe were grouped into a number of "races ", Mediterranean , Alpine and Nordic , all part of a larger "Caucasian " group.

The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism , and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.

The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski who emphasized the importance of fieldwork. The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques and Sami from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."


Further information: Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of Europe

The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.

The member states of the Council of Europe in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities . The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France .


Further information: Indigenous peoples and Definitions and identity of indigenous peoples Young Circassians A Sami family around 1900

Most of Europe's indigenous peoples , or ethnic groups known to have the earliest known historical connection to a particular region, have gone extinct or been absorbed by (or, perhaps, contributed to) the dominant cultures. Those that survive are largely confined to remote areas.

Groups that have been identified as indigenous include the Sami of northern Scandinavia , the Basques of northern Spain and southern France , the Gaels of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands , the Bretons of western France and many of the western indigenous peoples of Russia . Groups in Russia include Circassians of the northeastern Black Sea and the northwestern Caucasus (also indigenous to parts of Ukraine ), Finno-Ugric peoples such as the Komi and Mordvins of the western Ural Mountains , northeastern Caucasus peoples of southwestern Russia, and Samoyedic peoples such as the Nenets people of northern Russia.

In Europe, present-day indigenous populations as recognized by the UN are relatively few. Nevertheless, the ethnic groups traditionally inhabiting most, if not all, European countries are considered to be indigenous to Europe. This includes the majority populations. It can lead to some confusion, because the term "indigenous" does not imply "non-white" or "minority" in Europe as it would in other continents where white people are non-indigenous.


Main article: Immigration to Europe Further information: Jews and Judaism in Europe , Islam in Europe , Hinduism in Europe , Buddhism in Europe , and Afro-Europeans

Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, French, and Spanish empires.

* Western Asians

* Jews : approx. 2.0 million, mostly in the UK , France and Germany . They are descended from the Israelites of the Middle East (Southwest Asia), originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah .

* Ashkenazi Jews : approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom , Germany , France and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived from Israel via southern Europe in the Roman era and settled in France and Germany towards the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust wiped out the vast majority during World War II and forced many to flee. * Sephardi Jews : approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France . They arrived via Spain and Portugal in the pre-Roman and Roman eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries. * Mizrahi Jews : approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France , via Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East. * Italqim : approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy , since the 2nd century BCE. * Romaniotes : approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece , with communities dating at least from the 1st century CE. * Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Poland and Lithuania . They arrived in Crimea in the Middle Ages.

* Assyrians : mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia. * Kurds : approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and Turkey. * Iraqi diaspora : mostly in the UK, Germany and Sweden. * Lebanese diaspora : especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK. * Syrian diaspora : Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden.

* Africans

* North Africans ( Arabs and Berbers ): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden. The bulk of North African migrants are Moroccans , although France also has a large number of Algerians. * Horn Africans : approx. 350,000 Somalis , mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Finland, and Italy. * Sub-Saharan Africans (many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million but rapidly growing, mostly in the UK and France, with smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and elsewhere.

* Latin Americans : approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain and to a lesser extent Italy and the UK. See also Latin American Britons (80,000 Latin American born in 2001).

* Brazilians : around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each, and 50,000 in Germany. * Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany and the Netherlands. * Venezuelans : around 520,000 mostly in Spain (200,000), Portugal (100,000), France (30,000), Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000), Italy (5,000) and the Netherlands (1,000).

* South Asians : approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany and France.

* Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely), dispersed throughout Europe but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans area, they are of Indian origin. * Indians : approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Germany and smaller numbers in Ireland. * Pakistanis : approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK, but also in Norway and Sweden. * Tamils : approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK. * Bangladeshi residing in Europe estimated at over 500,000, the bulk live in the UK. * Afghans , about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s.

* East Asians

* Chinese : approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. * Filipinos : above 1 million, mostly in the UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. * Japanese : mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf, Germany . * Koreans : 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France and Germany. See also Koryo-saram . * Southeast Asians of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands , Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese in France and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France. See also Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic . * Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic.

* North Americans

* U.S. and Canadian expatriates: American British and Canadian British , Canadiens and Acadians in France , as well Americans/Canadians of European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe.

* African Americans (i.e. African American British ) who are Americans of black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the 1920s, African-American entertainers established a colony in Paris (African American French ) and descendants of World War II/Cold War-era black American soldiers stationed in France , Germany and Italy are well known.

* Others

* European diaspora Australians , New Zealanders and South Africans (mostly White South Africans of Afrikaaner and British descent), mainly in the UK. * Pacific Islanders : A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian origin in mainland France, Fijians in the United Kingdom from Fiji and Māori in the United Kingdom of the Māori people of New Zealand . * Amerindians and Inuit , a scant few in the European continent of American Indian ancestry (often Latin Americans in Spain, France and the UK; Inuit in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with local European women. In Germany, the Native American Association of Germany founded in 1994 as a socio-cultural organization estimates 50,000 North American Indians (descendants) live in the country.



Further information: History of Western civilization Personifications of Sclavinia , Germania , Gallia , and Roma , bringing offerings to Otto III ; from a gospel book dated 990.

Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents , the descendants of Shem peopling Asia and those of Ham peopling Africa . Identification of Europeans as " Japhetites " is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic".

In this tradition, the _ Historia Brittonum _ (9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period (as it was remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows, _The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus , with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus._ _From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks , the Latins , the Germans , and Britons ; from Armenon, the Gothi , Valagothi , Cibidi , Burgundi , and Longobardi ; from Neugio, the Bogari , Vandali , Saxones , and Tarincgi . The whole of Europe was subdivided into these tribes._

The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations.


Main articles: Culture of Europe and Western culture

European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage". Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture. Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:

* A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity , the Renaissance and its Humanism , the political thinking of the Enlightenment , and the French Revolution , and the developments of Modernity , including all types of socialism ;

* A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism during the " Great Divergence "; * A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty of the individual ; * A plurality of states with different political orders, which are condemned to live together in one way or another; * Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.

Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world . In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary , scientific , political , artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon . The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas , and Australasia , and is not restricted to Europe.


Main articles: Religion in Europe and Christendom Further information: Christianity in Europe , Islam in Europe , Hinduism in Europe , and Buddhism in Europe Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results

Dominant religions in Europe;


Since the High Middle Ages , most of Europe used to be dominated by Christianity . There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic , Protestant and Eastern Orthodox , with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia . Also The Armenian Apostolic Church , part of the Oriental Church , is in Europe - another branch of Christianity (world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western Europe , also has a very significant following in Central Europe (especially among the Germanic , Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland (with some in Great Britain).

Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years. Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture , The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization , guiding the course of philosophy , art , and science . The notion of "Europe " and the " Western World " has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity and Christendom " many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity .

Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe ; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians . Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer , Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union , accounting for 72% of the EU 's population.

Islam has some tradition in the Balkans and the Caucasus due to conquest, colonization and oppression from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries). Muslims account for the majority of the populations in Albania , Azerbaijan , Kosovo , Northern Cyprus (controlled by Turks ), and Bosnia and Herzegovina . Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe . Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens , Avars , Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum , the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%). While the total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).

Judaism has a long history in Europe , but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is composed primarily of two groups , the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi . Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century , while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the Balkans since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust and emigration (including Aliyah , as well as emigration to America ) in the 20th century.

In modern times, significant secularization since 20th century, notably in laicist France , Estonia and Czech Republic . Currently, distribution of theism in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic and Estonia . The 2005 Eurobarometer poll found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.


Main article: Pan- European identity

"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union as a result of the gradual process of European integration taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War , since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s.

From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU states. The prefix _pan_ implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.


Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one sovereign state geographically situated in Europe. These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Albania or Poland , to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium . Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority.


Albania Albanians 95%

Greeks ~3%, and other 2% (Aromanian , Romani, Macedonians , Bulgarians and Serbs/Montenegrins).

Armenia Armenians 98%

Yazidis 1.2%, Russians 0.4%, Assyrians 0.1%, Kurds 0.1%, others: Greeks , Ukrainians , Georgians and Poles.(2011 census) Official statistics/data of RA .

Austria Austrians 91.1%

South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats , Carinthian Slovenes , Croats, Slovenes, Serbs and Bosniaks ), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, and other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)

Azerbaijan Azerbaijanis 91.6% Lezgin 2% Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars, Ukrainians and Poles.

Belarus Belarusians 83.7%

Russians 8.3%, Poles 3.1%, Ukrainians 1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009 census)

Belgium Flemings 58% Walloons 31%, Germans 1% mixed or other (i.e. Luxembourgers , Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniaks 50.11% Serbs 30.78%, Croats 15.43% Other 2.73% (2013)

Bulgaria Bulgarians 84% Turks 8.8% Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russian , Armenian , Tatar, and Vlach ). (2001 census)

Croatia Croats 90%

Serbs 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs , Dalmatian Italians , Austrian-German , Romanian and Romani ). (2001 census)

Cyprus Greek Cypriots 99.5% Turkish Cypriots

Czech Republic Czechs 90.4% Moravians 3.7% Slovaks 1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)

Denmark Danes 90% Faroese other Scandinavian, Germans , Frisians , other European, Greenlandic people and others.

Estonia Estonians 68% Baltic Russians 25.6% Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.3%, Finns 0.9%, and other (Baltic Germans , Estonian Swedes and Estonian Danes ) 2.2%. (2000 census) Included are South Estonian speakers.

Finland Finns 93.4% Swedes 5.6%, Sami 0.1% Russians 0.5%, Estonians 0.3%, Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)

France French 68% (includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like Bretons , Corsicans , Occitans , Alsatians , Arpitans , Basques , Catalans and Flemings ). other European 7%, North African 7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander . French with recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.

Georgia Georgians 84% Ossetians 0.9%, Abkhazians 0.1% Azeris 6.5%, Armenians 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, and other (i.e. Jews, Poles and Kists ): 2.5% (2002 census).

Germany Germans 81%-91% includes Bavarians , Swabians , Saxons , Frisians , Sorbs , Silesians , Saarland Germans, Polish- Germans and Schleswig-Holstein Danes ). Germans without immigrant background 81%; Germans with immigrant background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and non-European descent about 2 to 5%).

Greece Greeks 93% includes linguistic minorities 3% Albanians 4% and other (i.e. Aromanians / Megleno-Romanians , Cretan Turks and Macedonian / Greek Slavic 3%. (2001 census)

Hungary Hungarians 92.3%

Romani 1.9%, Germans 1.2%, other (i.e. Croats , Romanians , Bulgarians , Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)

Iceland Icelanders 94%

other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Russian, Greek, Portuguese and Filipino) 6%.

Ireland Irish 87.4%

other white (large numbers of Latvian, Polish and Ukrainian migration) 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified (i.e. Ulster Scots and Irish Travellers ) 1.6%. (2006 census)

Italy Italians 91.7% German-speakers in South Tyrol and French-speaking minority in Val d\'Aosta . Sardinian , Friulan , Occitan , Croatian , Arbëreshë , Catalan , Greek , Ladin , Slovene and Roma minorities, other Europeans (mostly Romanians, Albanians, Ukrainians and Polish) 4%, North African Arabs 1% and others (i.e. Chinese , Filipino, Indian, Black African and Latin American) 2.5%.

Kazakhstan Kazakhs 63.1% Russians 23.7% Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles and Koreans.

_ Kosovo _ Albanians 92% Serbs 4% other 4% ( Bosniaks , Gorani , Romani , Turk and Ashkali and Egyptians ).

Latvia Latvians 62.1% Baltic Russians 26.9% Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainian 2.2%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%, Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)

Lithuania Lithuanians 83.5%

Poles 6.74%, Russians 6.31%, Belorussians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars ) 2.27% and Jews (Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001 census)

Macedonia Macedonians 64% Albanians 25.2%, Turks 4% Romani 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e. Greeks , Bulgarians , Romanians and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)

Malta Maltese 95.3%

Moldova Moldovans 76% Ukrainians 8.4%, Gagauz 4.4% Russians 5.9%, Romanians 2.1%, Bulgarians 1.9%, and other 1.3% (2004 census).


Montenegrins 44.98%, Serbs 28.73% Bosniaks 8.65%, Albanians 4.91%, and other ( Croats , Greeks, Romani and Macedonians ) 12,73%. (2011 census)

Netherlands Dutch 80.7% Frisians 3% other European Union nationals 5%, Indonesians 2.4% including South Moluccans 1.5%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Iranians 1% Netherlands Antilles Africans from Portuguese-speaking Africa , Brazilians , Chinese , Indians , Jews , Portuguese Gypsies and Latin Americans .

Romania Romanians 83.4% Hungarians 6.1% Romani 3.0%, Germans 0.2%, Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians 0.1% (2011 census)

Russia Russians 80% Tatars 3.9%, Chuvashes 1%, Chechens 1%, Ossetians 0.4%, Kabardin 0.4%, Ingushes 0.3%, Kalmyks 0.1% Ukrainians 1.4%, Bashkir 1.2%, Armenians 0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes unspecified people (3.94% of population)).

Serbia Serbs 83%

Hungarians 3.9%, Romani 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians , Slovaks , Romanians , Croats , Ruthenes , Bulgarians , Germans , Albanians , and other (2002 census).

Slovakia Slovaks 86% Hungarians 9.7% Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

Slovenia Slovenes 83.1%

Serbs 2%, Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, other ( Dalmatian Italians , ethnic Germans , Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12% (2002 census).

Spain Spaniards 89% Various nationalities or sub-ethnicities of the Spanish people , including Castilians and Leonese , Catalans / Valencians , Galicians , Asturians , Basques Gypsies , Jews , Latin Americans , Romanians , North Africans , sub-Saharan Africans , Chinese, Filipinos, Levant Arabs, British expatriates, and others.

Sweden Swedes 88% Finns ( Tornedalians ), Sami people foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns (Sweden- Finns ), Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians , Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks , Turks , Iranians , Iraqis , Pakistanis , Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.

Switzerland Germans 65% regional linguistic subgroups , including the Alamannic German-speakers, the Romand French-speakers 24,4%, the Italian -speakers 7% and Romansh people (see Romansh language ). Balkans (Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks or Albanians ) 6%, Italians 4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%, Ukrainians 0.5% and others 1%.

Turkey Turks 75% Kurds 18% Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians and Romanians.

Ukraine Ukrainians 77.8% Russians 17.3% Belarusians 0.6%, Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians 0.3%, Poles 0.3%, Jews 0.2%, Armenians 0.1%, Urums 0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).

United Kingdom White British >85% (consisting of English : ca. 75-80% Scottish : 8.0%, Welsh : approx. 4.5%, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish ): 2.8%, also Cornish , Manx , British Romani and Channel Islanders ). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar . Black British , Asian British often consists of South Asian and East Indian peoples, Chinese British , various other Commonwealth Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish , Poles , French among others.


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* European diaspora * Caucasoid * Demography of Europe

* Emigration from Europe

* European American * White Latin American

* Ethnic groups in the Middle East * Environmental racism in Europe * Eurolinguistics * Federal Union of European Nationalities * Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

* Genetic history of Europe

* Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe

* Immigration to Europe

* Afro-Europeans * Turks in Europe

* Languages of Europe * List of ethnic groups * Nomadic peoples of Europe * Peoples of the Caucasus * White people


* ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for Europe and Asia taken together. * ^ Germans in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for all German-speaking groups . * ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking groups , excluding the Occitans . Recensement officiel de l'Insee INSEE.fr give 65 million. * ^ Also known as Britons (Includes English , Scottish , Welsh , and Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million British people in the United Kingdom and ca. 2 million British people resident in other countries in Europe.) * ^ Also known as Spaniards (includes Catalans, Basques and Galicians). Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding Catalans - Valencians -Balearics , Basques and Galicians . * ^ Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the Romanians (in Romania and Moldova ), and the Albanians (in Albania and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo ). Also to note is that Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch . Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers ( Germans , Austrians , Luxembourgers , Swiss German speakers ), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia , the Dutch /Flemish , the Russians / Belarusians , Czechs / Slovaks and the Bulgarians /Macedonians . * ^ Including the European portions of Russia , not including Turkey , Georgia and Kazakhstan , excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra , Holy See , Liechtenstein , Monaco and San Marino . * ^ Percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise. * ^ Percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity. * ^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one parent who is born in Norway. * ^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami. Therefore, exact numbers are not possible. * ^ Excluding Kosovo * ^ In the 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could identify themselves as _White Irish_ or _White British_ though no separate _White English_ or _White Welsh_ options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as _White Scottish_ or _Other White British_. In the census of Northern Ireland , _White Irish_ and _White British_ were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.


* ^ _A_ _B_ Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), _Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen_, Braumüller, ISBN 3700314221 (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) ISBN 3211353070 . Archived December 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx. * ^ " Population by Country of Birth and Nationality 2013: Table 2.1". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2015. * ^ "15° Censimento generale della popolazione e delle abitazioni" (PDF) (in Italian). ISTAT . 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. * ^ see e.g. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi :10.1073/pnas.071036898 PNAS 24 April 2001 Vol. 98 No. 9 5078–5083. * ^ Richard, Lewis (2005). _Finland, Cultural Lone Wolf_. Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-18-5 . Niskanen, Markku (2002). "The Origin of the Baltic-Finns" (PDF). The Mankind Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-06. Laitinen, Virpi; Päivi Lahermo (August 24, 2001). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers" (PDF). Department of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki. Retrieved 2008-10-08. * ^ "Armenian people". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-03-22. * ^ _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Almoravides". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 717–718.

* ^ The Last Christians Of North-West Africa * ^ Synopsis universae philologiae at google books * ^ Karl Friedrich Vollgraff, _Erster Versuch einer Begründung sowohl der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie, wis auch der Staats und rechts-philosophie durch die Ethnologie oder Nationalität der Völker_ (1851), p. 257. * ^ A. Kumar, _Encyclopaedia of Teaching of Geography_ (2002), p. 74 ff.; the tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean groups persisted among some scientists into the 1960s, notably in Carleton Coon's book _ The Origin of Races _ (1962). * ^ Andrew Barry, _Political Machines_ (2001), p. 56 * ^ Measuring European Population Stratification using Microarray Genotype Data, Sitesled.com * ^ "DNA heritage". Retrieved 2007-07-20. * ^ Dupanloup, Isabelle; Giorgio Bertorelle; Lounès Chikhi; Guido Barbujani. "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Retrieved 2007-07-20. * ^ Tubb 1998 , pp. 13–14 * ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature , 2005 * ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). _The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD_. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7 .

* ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."

* "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."

Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). _Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People_. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3 . * ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). _A Short History of the Jews_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X . * ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). _A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9 . * ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). _The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time_. Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim. * ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2010. Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19. * ^ "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_. 97: 6769–6774. doi :10.1073/pnas.100115997 . Retrieved 11 October 2012. * ^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 10 October 2012. * ^ http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1040&context=humbiol_preprints * ^ http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131008/ncomms3543/full/ncomms3543.html * ^ http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1312/1312.6639.pdf * ^ Gregory Cochran, Henry Harpending, _The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution_, Basic Books, 2009 pp. 195–196. * ^ Moses ben Machir, in _Seder Ha-Yom_, p. 15a, Venice 1605 (Hebrew) * ^ Josephus Flavius, _Antiquities_, xi.v.2 * ^ "Petition for expatriate voting officially launched". _The Daily Star _. 14 July 2012. * ^ France\'s blacks stand up to be counted * ^ Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe * ^ Born Abroad – Countries of birth, BBC News * ^ _ab Hisitione autem ortae sunt quattuor gentes Franci, Latini, Albani et Britti. ab Armenone autem quinque: Gothi, Valagothi, Gebidi, Burgundi, Longobardi. a Neguio vero quattuor Boguarii, Vandali, Saxones et Turingi._ trans. J. A. Giles. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848. * ^ Cf. Berting (2006:51). * ^ Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51). * ^ Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56). * ^ K. Bochmann (1990) _L'idée d' Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle_, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Berting 2006 , p. 52 * ^ Berting 2006 , p. 51 * ^ Duran (1995:81) * ^ Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006 * ^ Cambridge University Historical Series, _An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects_, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. * ^ Caltron J.H Hayas, _ Christianity and Western Civilization_ (1953),Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant. * ^ Horst Hutter, University of New York, _Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices_ (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato. * ^ Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, _Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices_ (2004), p.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization. * ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). _Crisis in Western Education_ (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 . * ^ Koch, Carl (1994). _The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission_. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4 . * ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). _Crisis in Western Education_ (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6 . * ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). _Crisis in Western Education_ (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836 . * ^ Christianity in Europe * ^ "Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population" (PDF), _ Pew Research Center _, 383, Pew Research Center , p. 130, 2011, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), _Special Eurobarometer _, 383, European Union : European Commission , p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013 * ^ Pew Forum , The Future of the Global Muslim Population, January 2011, , , * ^ "In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime" (in German). islam.de. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ EC.Europa.eu Archived May 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ This is particularly the case among proponents of the so-called confederalist or neo-functionalist position on European integration. 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State.gov. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. * ^ "Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history, as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third of the population currently living in France is of "foreign" descent", Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, " France at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations", Summa Publications, Inc., 2000, P.160 * ^ " In present day France, one-third of the population has grandparents that were born outside France", Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow, "Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't be Wrong: What makes the French so French", Robson Books Ltd, 2004, p.8 * ^ . * ^ _A_ _B_ Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Italy * ^ . * ^ Non-EU citizens legally residing Jan 2014 * ^ "Cittadini Stranieri. 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* Andrews, Peter A.; Benninghaus, Rüdiger (2002), _Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey_, Reichert, ISBN 3-89500-325-5 * Banks, Marcus (1996), _Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions_, Routledge * Berting, J. (2006), _Europe: A Heritage, a Challenge, a Promise_, Eburon Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-5972-120-9 * Cederman, Lars-Erik (2001), "Political Boundaries and Identity Trade-Offs", in Cederman, Lars-Erik, _Constructing Europe's Identity: The External Dimension_, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, pp. 1–34 * Cole, J. W.; Wolf, E. R. (1999), _The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley _, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-21681-5 * Davies, N. (1996), _Europe: A History_, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820171-0 * Dow, R. R.; Bockhorn, O. (2004), _The Study of European Ethnology in Austria_, Progress in European Ethnology, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-1747-1 * Eberhardt, Piotr; Owsinski, Jan (2003), _Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central Eastern Europe_, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0-7656-0665-8 * Eder, Klaus; Spohn, Willfried (2005). _Collective Memory and European Identity: The Effects of Integration and Enlargement_. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7546-4401-4 . * Gresham, D.; et al. (2001), "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)", _American Journal of Human Genetics_, 69 (6): 1314–1331, PMC 1235543  _, PMID 11704928 , doi :10.1086/324681 Online article * Karolew