Indigenous peoples of
Europe are the focus of European ethnology,
the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups
that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph
Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there
are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority
population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54
constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or
linguistic minority populations in
Europe is estimated at 105 million
people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.
There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms
"ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European
ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality
or ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although
preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to
the individual countries of Europe.
2 Linguistic classifications
3.1 Prehistoric populations
3.2 Historical populations
3.3 Historical immigration
3.4 History of European ethnography
4.1 Non-indigenous minorities
5 European identity
5.2 European culture
5.4 Pan-European identity
6 European ethnic groups by sovereign state
7 See also
11 External links
Further information: Demographics of Europe
There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30
million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between
themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European
Russians (c. 95 million residing in Europe),[a]
Germans (c. 82 million),[b]
French (c. 67 million),[c]
British (c. 65 million),[d]
Italians (60 million),
Ukrainians (38–55 million),
Spanish (31-50 million),[e]
Polish (38–40 million).
About 20–25 million residents (3%)[year needed] are members of
diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European
Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two
thirds of the European population.
Spain and the
United Kingdom are special cases, in that the
designation of nationality, Spanish and British, may controversially
take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see
nationalisms and regionalisms of
Spain and native populations of the
Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic
subgroups of the Swiss are not usually discussed in terms of
Switzerland is considered[by whom?] a "multi-lingual
state" rather than a "multi-ethnic state".
Further information: Languages of Europe
Of the total population of
Europe of some 740 million (as of 2010),
close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large branches of
Indo-European languages, these being;
Balto-Slavic, including Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Serbo-Croat,
Macedonian, Czech, Bulgarian, Slovenian, Slovakian, Belarusian,
Ruthenian, and Latvian, Lithuanian.
Romance, including; Italian, French, Spanish, Romanian, Portuguese,
Catalan, Corsican, Aromanian, Walloon, Romansh, Latin, and Sardinian.
Germanic, including; English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish,
Norwegian, Flemish, Luxembourgish, Icelandic, Frisian, Limburgish and
Faeroese. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some
South African and Namibian migrant populations.
Three stand alone
Indo-European languages do not fall within larger
sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language
Greek (about 12 million)
Albanian (about 8 million)
Armenian (about 3.5 million)
In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the
Indo-European languages of Europe, including;
Celtic (including Welsh, Breton, Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, Cornish
Iranic, mainly Ossetian in Europe, as well as Kurdish (spoken mainly
Indo-Aryan is represented by the
Romani language spoken by Roma people
of eastern Europe, and is at root related to the Indo-Aryan languages
of the Indian sub-Continent.
Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families
on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:
Turkic languages including, Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Bashkir and
Uralic languages, including; Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Mordvin,
Samoyedic, Sami, Komi, Udmurt and Mari).
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic spoken in parts of
Turkey and the
Caucasus by Assyrian Christians, Yiddish and
Hebrew, the latter spoken by some
Kartvelian languages (also known as South Caucasian languages,
including Georgian, Mingrelian, Zan, Svan and Laz.
Northwest Caucasian languages, including; Circassian, Kabardian,
Ubykh, Adyghe, Abkhaz and Abaza.
Northeast Caucasian languages, including; Chechen, Avar, Lak, Lezgian,
Ingush and Nakho-Dagestanian.
Language Isolates; Basque, spoken in the Basque regions of
France is an isolate language, the only one in Europe, and is
unrelated to any other language, living or extinct.
Further information: Genetic history of Europe, Prehistoric Europe,
Eurasian nomads, and Indo-European expansion
Basques are assumed to descend from the populations of the
Atlantic Bronze Age
Atlantic Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe
Centum groups plus
Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have
developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving
Europe by the
Bronze Age (Corded ware, Beaker people). The Finnic
peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had
migrated to their historical homelands by about 3,000 years ago.
Reconstructed languages of Iron Age
Europe include Proto-Celtic,
Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages
of the centum group, and
Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem
group. A group of
Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included
Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also
Eteocretan and Eteocypriot. A
pre-Roman stage of
Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great
Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is
Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A
Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of
both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the
Bell beaker period), and a
Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware
horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European
hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age)
Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.
Further information: History of Europe
Provinces of the
Roman Empire in AD 117.
Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations of
Europe known from
Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny,
Aegean: Greek tribes, Pelasgians/Tyrrhenians, and Anatolians.
Illyrians (List of ancient tribes in Illyria), Dacians, and
Italian peninsula: Italic peoples, Etruscans, Adriatic Veneti,
Ligurians and Greek colonies.
Celts (list of peoples of Gaul, List of Celtic
tribes), Rhaetians and Swabians, Vistula Veneti,
Lugii and Balts.
Iberian peninsula: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
(Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians)
Sardinians (also known as Nuragic people),
comprising the Corsi,
West European Isles:
Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland
Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland and
Northern Europe: Finnic peoples,
Germanic peoples (list of Germanic
Southern Europe: Sicani.
Eastern Europe: Scythians, Sarmatians.
Further information: Scythians, Huns, Turkic expansion, and Islamic
The Great Migrations of Late Antiquity.
Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The
Carolingian Empire (purple), the
Byzantine Empire (orange) and the
Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba (light green). (Borders are approximate.)
Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside
historical times are:
Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean (including regions in Spain,
Italy and the Aegean), from about 1200 BC to the fall
of Carthage after the
Third Punic War
Third Punic War in 146 BC.
Assyrian conquest of Cyprus,
Southern Caucasus (including parts of
modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) and
Cilicia during the
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC)
Achaemenid control of
Thrace (512–343 BC) and the
Cimmerians (possible Iranians), Scythians,
Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes.
Jewish diaspora reached
Europe in the
Roman Empire period, the
Jewish community in
Italy dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews
Europe (Gaul) from the 5th century (see History of
Jews in Europe).
Hunnic Empire (5th century), converged with the Barbarian
invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire
Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations,
fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century.
Bulgars (or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally
from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs.
Magyars (Hungarians), a Ugric people, and the Turkic
Khazars, arrived in
Europe in about the 8th century (see Hungarian
conquest of the Carpathian Basin).
Arabs conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, some places along the coast
of southern Italy, Malta, Greek Empire,
Hispania and, in the early
11th century, Emirate of
Sicily (831–1072) and Al-Andalus
the Berber dynasties of the
Almoravides and the
Almohads ruled much of
Spain and Portugal.
Kipchaks known as
Cumans entered the lands of present-day
Ukraine in the 11th century.
Tatar invasions (1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the
Balkans (1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the
presence of European Turks and Tatars.
Romani people (Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages
Kalmyks arrived in
Kalmykia in the 17th century.
History of European ethnography
Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis,
Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a
genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of
all peoples"), from
Synopsis Universae Philologiae
Synopsis Universae Philologiae (1741).
Ethnographic map of Europe, The
Times Atlas (1896).
The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical
Herodotus described the
Scythians and Thraco-Illyrians.
Dicaearchus gave a description of
Greece itself besides accounts of
western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but
was received by
Polybius and others.
Roman Empire period authors include Diodorus Siculus,
Julius Caesar gives an account of the
Celtic tribes of Gaul,
Tacitus describes the
Germanic tribes of Magna Germania. A
number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and
the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.
The 4th century
Tabula Peutingeriana records the names of numerous
peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of
Late Antiquity such as Agathias
of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus,
Theophylact Simocatta give
early accounts of the Slavs, the Franks, the
Alamanni and the Goths.
Book IX of Isidore's
Etymologiae (7th century) treats de linguis,
gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (of languages, peoples, realms,
armies and cities).
Ahmad ibn Fadlan
Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an
account of the
Bolghar and the Rus' peoples. William Rubruck, while
most notable for his account of the Mongols, in his account of his
Asia also gives accounts of the
Tatars and the Alans. Saxo
Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen give an account of pre-Christian
Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives an account of
the northwestern Slavic tribes.
Gottfried Hensel in his 1741
Synopsis Universae Philologiae
Synopsis Universae Philologiae published
what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing
the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages
and scripts. In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in
terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of
grouped into a number of "races", Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic,
all part of a larger "Caucasian" group.
The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in
the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism, and
in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi
propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography
began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.
The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of
Bronisław Malinowski who emphasized the importance of fieldwork.
The emergence of population genetics further undermined the
categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007
study on the genetic history of
Europe found that the most important
genetic differentiation in
Europe occurs on a line from the north to
the south-east (northern
Europe to the Balkans), with another
east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the
Basques and Sami from other European populations. Despite
these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European
homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in
Europe with the
entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than
single population samples elsewhere in the world."
Further information: Framework Convention for the Protection of
National Minorities and European Charter for Regional or Minority
Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of Europe
The total number of national minority populations in
estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.
The member states of the Council of
Europe in 1995 signed the
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The
broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states
respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat
discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and
identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in
relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and
encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines
a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a
territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39
member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the
notable exception of France.
Main article: Immigration to Europe
Judaism in Europe,
Islam in Europe,
Hinduism in Europe, Buddhism in Europe, and Afro-Europeans
Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to
Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others
immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former
colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish
Jews: approx. 2.0 million, mostly in France, the UK and Germany. They
are descended from the Israelites of the
Middle East (Southwest
Asia), originating from the historical
kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
Ashkenazi Jews: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom,
France and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have
arrived from Israel via southern Europe in the
Roman era and settled in
Germany towards the end of the
first millennium. The Nazi
Holocaust wiped out the vast majority
World War II
World War II and forced many to flee.
Sephardi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France. They arrived via
Portugal in the pre-Roman and Roman eras, and were
forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mizrahi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France, via
Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East.
Italqim: approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy, since the 2nd century BC.
Romaniotes: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece, with communities dating
at least from the 1st century AD.
Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Ukraine, Poland
and Lithuania. They arrived in
Crimea in the Middle Ages.
Assyrians: mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia, Armenia,
Denmark and Great Britain (see Assyrian diaspora). Assyrians have been
present in Eastern
Turkey since the
Bronze Age (circa 2000 BCE).
Kurds: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and
Iraqi diaspora: mostly in the UK,
Germany and Sweden, and can be of
varying ethnic origin, including Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians,
Shabaks, Mandeans, Turcoman,
Kawliya and Yezidis.
Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus
and the UK.
Syrian diaspora: Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the
Netherlands and Sweden and can be of varying ethnic origin, including;
Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Arameans, Turcoman,
Arabs and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in
France, Spain, Italy, the
Netherlands and Sweden. The bulk of North
African migrants are Moroccans, although
France also has a large
number of Algerians, and others may be from
Egypt (including Copts),
Libya and Tunisia.
Africans (Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans and people from
Djibouti): approx. 500,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the
Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy.
Majority arrived to
Europe as refugees. Proportionally few live in
Italy despite former colonial ties, most live in the Nordic countries.
Africans (many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans and
others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK and France,
with smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain,
Portugal and elsewhere.
Latin Americans: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in
Spain and to a lesser
Italy and the UK. See also
Latin American Britons
Latin American Britons (80,000
Latin American born in 2001).
Brazilians: around 70,000 in
Italy each, and 50,000 in
Chilean refugees escaping the
Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s
formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East
Venezuelans: around 520,000 mostly in
Spain (200,000), Portugal
Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland
Italy (5,000) and the
Netherlands (1,000).
South Asians: approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in
smaller numbers in
Germany and France.
Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary
widely), dispersed throughout
Europe but with large numbers
concentrated in the
Balkans area, they are of ancestral South Asian
and European descent,  originating from the northern regions of
the Indian subcontinent.
Indians: approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Italy, in
Germany and smaller numbers in Ireland.
Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy, but also
in Norway and Sweden.
Tamils: approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK.
Bangladeshi residing in
Europe estimated at over 500,000, mostly in
the UK and in Italy.
Sri Lankans: approx. 200,000, mainly in the UK and in Italy
Nepalese: approx. 50,000 in the UK
Afghans, about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but
Germany and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the
Filipinos: above 1 million, mostly in Italy, the UK, France, Germany,
Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as
Indonesians in the Netherlands, Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese
France and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France, together
with Burmese, Malaysian, Singaporean,
Timorese and Laotian migrants.
Vietnamese people in the Czech Republic.
Chinese: approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain,
Italy and the Netherlands.
Japanese: mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf,
Koreans: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in
Russia), mainly in the UK,
France and Germany. See also Koryo-saram.
Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany,
Poland and the Czech
U.S. and Canadian expatriates:
American British and Canadian British,
Acadians in France, as well Americans/Canadians of
European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe.
African Americans (i.e. African American British) who are Americans of
black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the 1920s,
African-American entertainers established a colony in
American French) and descendants of World War II/Cold War-era black
American soldiers stationed in France,
Italy are well
European diaspora – Australians, New Zealanders, South Africans
(mostly White South
Afrikaaner and British descent), and
white Namibians, Zimbabweans, Kenyans,
in the UK, together with white Angolans and Mozambicans, mainly of
Pacific Islanders: A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian
origin in mainland France, Fijians in the
United Kingdom from
Māori in the
United Kingdom of the
Māori people of New Zealand, a
small number of
Tongans and Samoans, also in the United Kingdom.
Amerindians and Inuit, a scant few in the European continent of
American Indian ancestry (often
Latin Americans in Spain,
Inuit in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren
of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with
local European women.
Further information: History of Western civilization
Personifications of Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing
offerings to Otto III; from a gospel book dated 990.
Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of
Europe are expressed
in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups.
The Europeans were considered the descendants of
Japheth from early
times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three
continents, the descendants of
Asia and those of Ham
peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as "Japhetites" is also
reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages
In this tradition, the
Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a
genealogy of the peoples of the
Migration period (as it was remembered
in early medieval historiography) as follows,
The first man that dwelt in
Europe was Alanus, with his three sons,
Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus,
Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus,
Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three
sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus.
From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the
Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi,
Burgundi, and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones,
and Tarincgi. The whole of
Europe was subdivided into these
The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him
Japheth via eighteen generations.
Main articles: Culture of
Europe and Western culture
European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its
"common cultural heritage". Due to the great number of
perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to
form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.
Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon
as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe. One list of
these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:
A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman
antiquity, Christianity, the
Renaissance and its Humanism, the
political thinking of the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution,
and the developments of Modernity, including all types of
A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the
other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism
during the "Great Divergence";
A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of,
and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the
liberty of the individual;
A plurality of states with different political orders, which are
condemned to live together in one way or another;
Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.
Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive
realisations". The concept of European culture is generally linked
to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition,
Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political,
artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other
civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is
collected in the Western canon. The term has come to apply to
countries whose history has been strongly marked by European
immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as
the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to Europe.
Main articles: Religion in
Europe and Christendom
Christianity in Europe,
Islam in Europe, Hinduism
in Europe, and Buddhism in Europe
Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results
Since the High Middle Ages, most of
Europe used to be dominated by
Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic,
Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly
to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece
and Georgia. Also The Armenian Apostolic Church, part of the Oriental
Church, is in
Europe - another branch of
Christianity (world's oldest
National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western
Europe, also has a very significant following in Central Europe
(especially among the Germanic, Western Slavic and Hungarian
peoples/regions) as well as in
Ireland (with some in Great Britain).
Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture
for at least the last 1700 years. Modern
philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian
philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout
most of its history,
Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian
Christian culture was the predominant force in
western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and
science. The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has
been intimately connected with the concept of "
Christendom" many even attribute
Christianity for being the link that
created a unified European identity.
Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a
2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves
Christians. Also according to a study on Religiosity in the
European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer,
Christianity is the largest
religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU's
Islam has some tradition in the
Balkans and the
Caucasus due to
conquest and colonization from the
Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th
Muslims account for the majority of the populations in
Albania, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Northern
Cyprus (controlled by Turks),
and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the
rest of Europe.
Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities
in Europe, including the
Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple
groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others.
With 20th-century migrations,
Muslims in Western
Europe have become a
noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum, the total number of
Europe in 2010 was about 44 million
(6%). While the total number of
Muslims in the
European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).
Judaism has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority
France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish
population in excess of 0.5%. The
Jewish population of
composed primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi.
Ancestors of Ashkenazi
Jews likely migrated to Central
Europe at least
as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi
Portugal at least one thousand years before
Jews originated in the
Levant where they resided for thousands
of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the
Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known
to exist in
Greece as well as the
Balkans since at least the 1st
Jewish history was notably affected by the
emigration (including Aliyah, as well as emigration to America) in the
In modern times, significant secularization since 20th century,
notably in laicist France,
Estonia and Czech Republic. Currently,
distribution of theism in
Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than
95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the
Czech Republic and Estonia.
Eurobarometer poll found that 52% of EU citizens believe
Main article: Pan-European identity
"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of
personal identification with Europe, or the
European Union as a result
of the gradual process of
European integration taking place over the
last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after
the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE
following the 1990s
Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a
political level during the 1990s and 2000s.
From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a
synonym for the
European Union even though there are millions of
people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The
prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and
especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted
with national identity.
European ethnic groups by sovereign state
Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority
population in at least one[f] sovereign state geographically situated
in Europe.[g] These majorities range from nearly homogeneous
populations as in Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in
Latvia or Belgium.
Montenegro is multiethnic state in which no group
forms a majority.
Greeks ~3%,[better source needed] and other 2%
(Aromanian, Romani, Macedonians,
Russians, Yazidis, Assyrians, Kurds, Greeks, Jews.
South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats, Carinthian Slovenes,
Serbs and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%,
Germans 0.9%, and
other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)
Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars,
Ukrainians 1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009
mixed or other (i.e. Luxembourgers, Eastern or Southern Europeans,
Africans and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Other 2.73% (2013)
Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russian, Armenian, Tatar, and Vlach).
Serbs 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes,
Czechs, Dalmatian Italians, Austrian-German, Romanian and Romani).
Slovaks 1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)
other Scandinavian, Germans, Frisians, other European, Greenlandic
people and others.
Finns 0.9%, and other (Baltic
Estonian Swedes and Estonian Danes) 2.2%. (2000 census)
South Estonian speakers.
Swedes 5.6%, Sami 0.1%
Estonians 0.3%, Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)
(includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like Bretons,
Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Arpitans, Basques,
other European 7%,
North African 7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese,
Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander. French with recent
immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.
includes Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, Frisians, Sorbs, Silesians,
Saarland Germans, Polish-
Germans without immigrant background 81%;
Germans with immigrant
background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial
immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and
non-European descent about 2 to 5%).
includes linguistic minorities 3%
Albanians 4% and other (i.e. Aromanians/Megleno-Romanians, Cretan
Turks and Macedonian/
Greek Slavic 3%. (2001 census)[j]
Germans 1.2%, other (i.e. Croats, Romanians, Bulgarians,
Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)
other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Lithuanians, Danes,
Germans and Latvians) 9%. 
other white (large numbers of Latvian, Polish and Ukrainian migration)
7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified (i.e. Ulster
Scots and Irish Travellers) 1.6%. (2006 census)
German-speaking people in South Tyrol
Sardinian, French, Occitan, Arpitan, Croatian, Albanian, Catalan,
Greek, Ladin, Friulian, Slovene and Roma minorities, other
Europeans (mostly Romanians, Albanians,
Ukrainians and Polish) 4%,
Arabs 1% and others (i.e. Chinese, Filipino, Indian,
Black African and Latin American) 2.5%.
Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles
other 4% (Bosniaks, Gorani, Romani, Turk and Ashkali and Egyptians).
Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainian 2.2%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%,
Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)
Belarusians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars)
Jews (Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001 census)
Albanians 25.2%, Turks 4%
Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e. Greeks, Bulgarians, Romanians
and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)
Romanians 7.0%, Gagauzs 4.4%
Bulgarians 1.9%, and other 0.8% (2004
Albanians 4.91%, and other (Croats, Greeks, Romani and
Macedonians) 12,73%. (2011 census)
European Union nationals 5%, Indonesians 2.4% including South
Moluccans 1.5%, Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Iranians
Netherlands Antilles & Aruban 0.8%, other 4.8% and
Frisian-speaking dominant 1%. (2008 est.)
Poles 1.4%. A variety of other ethnicities with background from 219
countries that together make up approximately 12% (Swedes, Pakistanis,
Arabs and Kurds, Vietnamese, Germans, Lithuanians,
Russians and Indians) (2012).
Ukrainians 0.1%, other and unspecified
(i.e. Silesians, Kashubians,
Masurians and Prussian Lithuanians) 2.7%,
and about 5,000 Polish
Jews reported to reside in the country. (2002
Portuguese Mirandese speakers 15.000~ (i.e. Mirandese-language
other 5% - other Europeans (British, German, French, Spanish,
Romanians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Croats, Ukrainians, Moldavians,
Russians, Serbs, Kosovars and Albanians);
Portuguese-speaking Africa, Brazilians, Chinese, Indians, Jews,
Portuguese Gypsies and Latin Americans.
Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%,
Ukrainians 1.4%, Bashkir 1.2%,
Armenians 0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins
0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes
unspecified people (3.94% of population)).
Hungarians 3.9%, Romani 1.4%,
Montenegrin 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians, Slovaks, Romanians,
Croats, Ruthenes, Bulgarians, Germans, Albanians, and other (2002
Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001
Bosniaks 1.1%, other (Dalmatian Italians,
Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12% (2002
Various nationalities and sub-ethnicities, including
Leonese, Catalans/Valencians, Galicians, Asturians, Basques
Gypsies, Jews, Latin Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan
Africans, Chinese, Filipinos,
Levant Arabs, British expatriates, and
Finns (Tornedalians), Sami people
foreign-born or first-generation immigrants:
Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians,
Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks, Turks, Iranians,
Iraqis, Pakistanis, Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.
regional linguistic subgroups, including the Alamannic
Romand French-speakers 24,4%, the
Italian-speakers 7% and
Romansh people (see Romansh language).
Balkans (Serbs, Croats,
Bosniaks or Albanians) 6%,
Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%,
Ukrainians 0.5% and
Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians,
Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs,
Albanians and Romanians.
Moldovans 0.5%, Crimean
Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians
Urums 0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).
(consisting of English: ca. 75-80% Scottish: 8.0%, Welsh: approx.
4.5%, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish): 2.8%, also
Cornish, Manx and Channel Islanders). Included are the inhabitants of
Asian British often consists of
South Asian and East
Indian peoples, Chinese British, British Jews, Romani, various other
Commonwealth Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish, Poles,
French among others.
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Ethnic groups in Europe
Demography of Europe
Emigration from Europe
White Latin American
Ethnic groups in the Middle East
Federal Union of European Nationalities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Genetic history of Europe
Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe
Immigration to Europe
Turks in Europe
Languages of Europe
List of ethnic groups
Nomadic peoples of Europe
Peoples of the Caucasus
^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for
together. [verification needed][dead link]
Germans in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for all
^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking groups,
excluding the Occitans. Recensement officiel de l'Insee INSEE.fr give
^ Also known as Britons (Includes English, Scottish, Welsh, and
Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million
British people in the
United Kingdom and ca. 2 million
British people resident in other
countries in Europe.)
^ Also known as
Spaniards (includes Catalans,
Basques and Galicians).
Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding
Basques and Galicians.
^ Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the
Romania and Moldova), and the
the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo). Also to note is that
Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the
partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic
origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the
relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its
people is Letzeburgesch. Closely related groups holding majorities in
separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians,
Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the various South Slavic ethnic
groups in the states of former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the
Slovaks and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.
^ Including the European portions of Russia, not including Turkey,
Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000
inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein,
Monaco and San Marino.
^ Percentages from the
CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.
^ a b c Transcontinental country, see boundaries of Europe.
^ Percents represent citizenship, since
Greece does not collect data
^ partially recognized state, see international recognition of Kosovo.
^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of
Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one
parent who is born in Norway.
^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami.
Therefore, exact numbers are not possible.
^ Excluding Kosovo
^ Ethnicity group introduced with the ten-year
United Kingdom census
of 2011 by the Office for National Statistics, a non-ministerial
department since 1 April 2008
^ Since 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could
identify themselves as White Irish or
White British though no separate
White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white
residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White
British. In the census of Northern Ireland, White Irish and White
British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census
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to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient
Jewish people, who were
themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim),
were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the
Jewish patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were
the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
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^ Cf. Berting (2006:51).
^ Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal
definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard
to avoid the conclusion that
Europe is an essentially contested
concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51).
^ Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting
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Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in
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constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many
items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the
Christian world in Greece, Rome and
Judaism to modern phenomena such
as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism,
liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism."
^ a b c d e Berting 2006, p. 52
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indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of
western nations since the christian era.
^ Caltron J.H Hayas,
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Europe in the Anthropological Imagination,
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Stephens, Meic (1976), Linguistic Minorities in Western Europe, Gomer
Press, ISBN 0-608-18759-3
Szaló, Csaba (1998), On European Identity: Nationalism, Culture &
History, Masaryk University, ISBN 80-210-1839-9
Stone, Gerald (1972), The Smallest Slavonic Nation: The
Lusatia, Athlene Press, ISBN 0-485-11129-2
Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press.
Vembulu, R. Pavananthi (2003), Understanding European Integration:
History, Culture, and Politics of Identity, Aakar Books,
Ron Balsdon, The Cultural Mosaic of the European Union: Why National
Boundaries and the Cultures Inside Still Matter
Migration Policy Institute - Country and Comparative Data
Mason, Otis Tufton (1905). "Europe, Peoples of". New
Overview map of the peoples of Europe
Size and geographic distribution of the 87 peoples of Europe,
according to Pan & Pfeil (2003).
Font size reflects population size (groups smaller than 2 million not
to scale) Groups not shown due to lack of geographic concentration:
Romani (3.8 million),
Jews (1.3 million), Karaim (4,600). Small Finnic
and Caucasian groups (<0.2 million) not shown in map: Votes, Ludes,
Setos, Võros; Balkars, Karachays, Laks, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans,
Ethnic groups in Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
States with limited
Isle of Man
Indigenous peoples of the world by continent
Indigenous peoples by geographic regions
Ingroups and outgroups
Ethnicity in census
Ethnic interest group
Ethnic theme park
West Asian peoples
Central Asian peoples
North African peoples
Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European
people are the majority group
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Trinidad and Tobago
First white child
Play the white man
Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento
White Australia policy
The White Man's Burden
phenomena and theories
Acting white (Passing as white)
Angry white male
Missing white woman syndrome
South African farm attacks
Whitewashed film roles
caricatures and stereotypes
in the United States
US definitions of whiteness
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Old Stock Americans
Human skin color
Color terminology for race
^ Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate S. (2003). "The Peoples of
Demographic Size, Table 1". National Minorities in Europe: Handbook.
Wien: Braumueller. p. 11f. ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1. (a
breakdown by country of these 87 groups is given in Ta