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The Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of Europe
Europe
are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.[1] There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality or ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.[2]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Linguistic classifications 3 History

3.1 Prehistoric populations 3.2 Historical populations 3.3 Historical immigration 3.4 History of European ethnography

4 Minorities

4.1 Non-indigenous minorities

5 European identity

5.1 Historical 5.2 European culture 5.3 Religion 5.4 Pan-European identity

6 European ethnic groups by sovereign state 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Overview[edit] Further information: Demographics of Europe There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe. These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population:

Russians
Russians
(c. 95 million residing in Europe),[a] Germans
Germans
(c. 82 million),[b] French (c. 67 million),[c] British (c. 65 million),[d][3] Italians
Italians
(60 million),[4] Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(38–55 million), Spanish (31-50 million),[e] Polish (38–40 million).

About 20–25 million residents (3%)[year needed] are members of diasporas of non-European origin. The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain
Spain
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are special cases, in that the designation of nationality, Spanish and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain
Spain
and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are not usually discussed in terms of ethnicity, and Switzerland
Switzerland
is considered[by whom?] a "multi-lingual state" rather than a "multi-ethnic state". Linguistic classifications[edit] Further information: Languages of Europe Of the total population of Europe
Europe
of some 740 million (as of 2010), close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being;

Balto-Slavic, including Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Serbo-Croat, Macedonian, Czech, Bulgarian, Slovenian, Slovakian, Belarusian, Ruthenian, and Latvian, Lithuanian.

Romance, including; Italian, French, Spanish, Romanian, Portuguese, Catalan, Corsican, Aromanian, Walloon, Romansh, Latin, and Sardinian.

Germanic, including; English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Flemish, Luxembourgish, Icelandic, Frisian, Limburgish and Faeroese. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations.

Three stand alone Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language families;

Greek (about 12 million) Albanian (about 8 million) Armenian (about 3.5 million)

In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
of Europe, including;

Celtic (including Welsh, Breton, Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, Cornish and Manx)

Iranic, mainly Ossetian in Europe, as well as Kurdish (spoken mainly in Turkey)

Indo-Aryan is represented by the Romani language
Romani language
spoken by Roma people of eastern Europe, and is at root related to the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indian sub-Continent.

Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:

Turkic languages
Turkic languages
including, Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Bashkir and Chuvash.

Uralic languages, including; Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Mordvin, Samoyedic, Sami, Komi, Udmurt and Mari).

Semitic,including; Maltese, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
spoken in parts of eastern Turkey
Turkey
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
by Assyrian Christians, Yiddish and Hebrew, the latter spoken by some Jewish
Jewish
populations.

Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
(also known as South Caucasian languages, including Georgian, Mingrelian, Zan, Svan and Laz.

Northwest Caucasian languages, including; Circassian, Kabardian, Ubykh, Adyghe, Abkhaz and Abaza.

Northeast Caucasian languages, including; Chechen, Avar, Lak, Lezgian, Ingush and Nakho-Dagestanian.

Language Isolates; Basque, spoken in the Basque regions of Spain
Spain
and France
France
is an isolate language, the only one in Europe, and is unrelated to any other language, living or extinct.

History[edit] Prehistoric populations[edit] Further information: Genetic history of Europe, Prehistoric Europe, Eurasian nomads, and Indo-European expansion The Basques
Basques
are assumed to descend from the populations of the Atlantic Bronze Age
Atlantic Bronze Age
directly.[5] The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum
Centum
groups plus Balto-Slavic
Balto-Slavic
and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of early Indo-European groups arriving in Europe
Europe
by the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(Corded ware, Beaker people). The Finnic peoples are mostly assumed to be descended from populations that had migrated to their historical homelands by about 3,000 years ago.[6] Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe
Europe
include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages
Tyrrhenian languages
appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and perhaps also Eteocretan
Eteocretan
and Eteocypriot. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty. Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek
Proto-Greek
(ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic
Proto-Italo-Celtic
ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker
Bell beaker
period), and a Proto- Balto-Slavic
Balto-Slavic
language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages. Historical populations[edit] Further information: History of Europe

Provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in AD 117.

Iron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations of Europe
Europe
known from Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Tacitus:

Aegean: Greek tribes, Pelasgians/Tyrrhenians, and Anatolians. Balkans: Illyrians
Illyrians
(List of ancient tribes in Illyria), Dacians, and Thracians. Italian peninsula: Italic peoples, Etruscans, Adriatic Veneti, Ligurians
Ligurians
and Greek colonies. Western/Central Europe: Celts
Celts
(list of peoples of Gaul, List of Celtic tribes), Rhaetians and Swabians, Vistula Veneti, Lugii
Lugii
and Balts. Iberian peninsula: Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (Iberians, Lusitani, Aquitani, Celtiberians) Basques
Basques
and Phoenicians
Phoenicians
( Carthaginians). Sardinia: ancient Sardinians
Sardinians
(also known as Nuragic people), comprising the Corsi, Balares
Balares
and Ilienses
Ilienses
tribes. West European Isles: Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland
Celtic tribes in Britain and Ireland
and Picts/Priteni. Northern Europe: Finnic peoples, Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(list of Germanic peoples). Southern Europe: Sicani. Eastern Europe: Scythians, Sarmatians.

Historical immigration[edit] Further information: Scythians, Huns, Turkic expansion, and Islamic conquests

The Great Migrations of Late Antiquity.

Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(purple), the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(orange) and the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
(light green). (Borders are approximate.)

Ethno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe
Europe
during historical times are:

Phoenician colonies in the Mediterranean (including regions in Spain, France, Malta, Italy
Italy
and the Aegean), from about 1200 BC to the fall of Carthage after the Third Punic War
Third Punic War
in 146 BC. Assyrian conquest of Cyprus, Southern Caucasus
Southern Caucasus
(including parts of modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) and Cilicia
Cilicia
during the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911-605 BC) Iranian influence: Achaemenid
Achaemenid
control of Thrace
Thrace
(512–343 BC) and the Bosporan Kingdom, Cimmerians
Cimmerians
(possible Iranians), Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans, Ossetes. the Jewish
Jewish
diaspora reached Europe
Europe
in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period, the Jewish
Jewish
community in Italy
Italy
dating to around AD 70 and records of Jews settling Central Europe
Europe
(Gaul) from the 5th century (see History of the Jews
Jews
in Europe). The Hunnic Empire
Hunnic Empire
(5th century), converged with the Barbarian invasions, contributing to the formation of the First Bulgarian Empire Avar Khaganate (c.560s-800), converged with the Slavic migrations, fused into the South Slavic states from the 9th century. the Bulgars
Bulgars
(or proto-Bulgarians), a semi-nomadic people, originally from Central Asia, eventually absorbed by the Slavs. the Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarians), a Ugric people, and the Turkic Pechenegs
Pechenegs
and Khazars, arrived in Europe
Europe
in about the 8th century (see Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin). the Arabs
Arabs
conquered Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, some places along the coast of southern Italy, Malta, Greek Empire, Hispania
Hispania
and, in the early 11th century, Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
(831–1072) and Al-Andalus (711–1492) the Berber dynasties of the Almoravides
Almoravides
and the Almohads
Almohads
ruled much of Spain
Spain
and Portugal.[7] exodus of Maghreb
Maghreb
Christians[8] the western Kipchaks
Kipchaks
known as Cumans
Cumans
entered the lands of present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
in the 11th century. the Mongol/ Tatar invasions
Tatar invasions
(1223–1480), and Ottoman control of the Balkans
Balkans
(1389–1878). These medieval incursions account for the presence of European Turks and Tatars. the Romani people
Romani people
(Gypsies) arrived during the Late Middle Ages the Mongol
Mongol
Kalmyks
Kalmyks
arrived in Kalmykia
Kalmykia
in the 17th century.

History of European ethnography[edit]

Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of all peoples"), from Synopsis Universae Philologiae
Synopsis Universae Philologiae
(1741).

Ethnographic
Ethnographic
map of Europe, The Times Atlas
Times Atlas
(1896).

The earliest accounts of European ethnography date to Classical Antiquity. Herodotus
Herodotus
described the Scythians
Scythians
and Thraco-Illyrians. Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
gave a description of Greece
Greece
itself besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but was received by Polybius
Polybius
and others. Roman Empire
Roman Empire
period authors include Diodorus Siculus, Strabo
Strabo
and Tacitus. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
gives an account of the Celtic tribes
Celtic tribes
of Gaul, while Tacitus
Tacitus
describes the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
of Magna Germania. A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and Sallust
Sallust
depicts the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples. The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana
records the names of numerous peoples and tribes. Ethnographers of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
such as Agathias of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes
Jordanes
or Theophylact Simocatta
Theophylact Simocatta
give early accounts of the Slavs, the Franks, the Alamanni
Alamanni
and the Goths. Book IX of Isidore's Etymologiae
Etymologiae
(7th century) treats de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (of languages, peoples, realms, armies and cities). Ahmad ibn Fadlan
Ahmad ibn Fadlan
in the 10th century gives an account of the Bolghar
Bolghar
and the Rus' peoples. William Rubruck, while most notable for his account of the Mongols, in his account of his journey to Asia
Asia
also gives accounts of the Tatars
Tatars
and the Alans. Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
give an account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The Chronicon Slavorum
Chronicon Slavorum
(12th century) gives an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes. Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 Synopsis Universae Philologiae
Synopsis Universae Philologiae
published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts.[9][10] In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of Europe
Europe
were grouped into a number of "races", Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic, all part of a larger "Caucasian" group. The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism, and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.[11] The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski
Bronisław Malinowski
who emphasized the importance of fieldwork.[12] The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe
Europe
found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe
Europe
occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe
Europe
to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques
Basques
and Sami from other European populations. Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe
Europe
with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."[13][14][15] Minorities[edit] Further information: Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Further information: Multilingual countries and regions of Europe The total number of national minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.[1] The member states of the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states have signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France. Non-indigenous minorities[edit] Main article: Immigration to Europe Further information: Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism
in Europe, Islam
Islam
in Europe, Hinduism in Europe, Buddhism in Europe, and Afro-Europeans Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have immigrated to Europe
Europe
over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others immigrated more recently in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish empires.

Western Asians

Jews: approx. 2.0 million, mostly in France, the UK and Germany. They are descended from the Israelites of the Middle East
Middle East
(Southwest Asia),[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.[23][24][25][26]

Ashkenazi Jews: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom, Germany, France
France
and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived from Israel via southern Europe[27][28][29][30][31] in the Roman era[32] and settled in France
France
and Germany
Germany
towards the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust
Holocaust
wiped out the vast majority during World War II
World War II
and forced many to flee. Sephardi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France. They arrived via Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
in the pre-Roman[33] and Roman[34] eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries. Mizrahi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France, via Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East. Italqim: approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy, since the 2nd century BC. Romaniotes: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece, with communities dating at least from the 1st century AD. Crimean Karaites
Crimean Karaites
(Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. They arrived in Crimea
Crimea
in the Middle Ages.

Assyrians: mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia, Armenia, Denmark and Great Britain (see Assyrian diaspora). Assyrians have been present in Eastern Turkey
Turkey
since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(circa 2000 BCE). Kurds: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and Turkey. Iraqi diaspora: mostly in the UK, Germany
Germany
and Sweden, and can be of varying ethnic origin, including Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Shabaks, Mandeans, Turcoman, Kawliya and Yezidis. Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.[35] Syrian diaspora: Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden and can be of varying ethnic origin, including; Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Arameans, Turcoman, Mhallami and Yezidis.

Africans

North Africans
Africans
( Arabs
Arabs
and Berbers): approx. 5 million, mostly in France, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden. The bulk of North African migrants are Moroccans, although France
France
also has a large number of Algerians, and others may be from Egypt
Egypt
(including Copts), Libya
Libya
and Tunisia. Horn Africans
Africans
(Somalis, Ethiopians, Eritreans and people from Djibouti): approx. 500,000, mostly in Scandinavia, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Finland, and Italy. Majority arrived to Europe
Europe
as refugees. Proportionally few live in Italy
Italy
despite former colonial ties, most live in the Nordic countries. Sub-Saharan Africans
Africans
(many ethnicities including Afro-Caribbeans and others by descent): approx. 5 million, mostly in the UK and France, with smaller numbers in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal
Portugal
and elsewhere.[36]

Latin Americans: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain
Spain
and to a lesser extent Italy
Italy
and the UK.[37] See also Latin American Britons
Latin American Britons
(80,000 Latin American born in 2001).[38]

Brazilians: around 70,000 in Portugal
Portugal
and Italy
Italy
each, and 50,000 in Germany. Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands. Venezuelans: around 520,000 mostly in Spain
Spain
(200,000), Portugal (100,000), France
France
(30,000), Germany
Germany
(20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000), Italy
Italy
(5,000) and the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1,000).[citation needed]

South Asians: approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany
Germany
and France.

Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely), dispersed throughout Europe
Europe
but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans
Balkans
area, they are of ancestral South Asian and European descent, [39] originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Indians: approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Italy, in Germany
Germany
and smaller numbers in Ireland. Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy, but also in Norway and Sweden. Tamils: approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK. Bangladeshi residing in Europe
Europe
estimated at over 500,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy. Sri Lankans: approx. 200,000, mainly in the UK and in Italy Nepalese: approx. 50,000 in the UK Afghans, about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany
Germany
and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s.

Southeast Asians

Filipinos: above 1 million, mostly in Italy, the UK, France, Germany, Spain. Others of multiple nationalities, ca. total 1 million, such as Indonesians in the Netherlands, Thais in the UK and Sweden, Vietnamese in France
France
and former East Germany, and Cambodians in France, together with Burmese, Malaysian, Singaporean, Timorese
Timorese
and Laotian migrants. See also Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
in the Czech Republic.

East Asians

Chinese: approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain, Italy
Italy
and the Netherlands. Japanese: mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf, Germany. Koreans: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France
France
and Germany. See also Koryo-saram. Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany, Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic.

North Americans

U.S. and Canadian expatriates: American British
American British
and Canadian British, Canadiens
Canadiens
and Acadians
Acadians
in France, as well Americans/Canadians of European ancestry residing elsewhere in Europe.

African Americans
African Americans
(i.e. African American British) who are Americans of black/African ancestry reside in other countries. In the 1920s, African-American entertainers established a colony in Paris
Paris
(African American French) and descendants of World War II/Cold War-era black American soldiers stationed in France, Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
are well known.

Others

European diaspora – Australians, New Zealanders, South Africans (mostly White South Africans
Africans
of Afrikaaner
Afrikaaner
and British descent), and white Namibians, Zimbabweans, Kenyans, Malawians
Malawians
and Zambians
Zambians
mainly in the UK, together with white Angolans and Mozambicans, mainly of Portuguese descent. Pacific Islanders: A small population of Tahitians of Polynesian origin in mainland France, Fijians in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
from Fiji
Fiji
and Māori in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of the Māori people
Māori people
of New Zealand, a small number of Tongans
Tongans
and Samoans, also in the United Kingdom. Amerindians and Inuit, a scant few in the European continent of American Indian ancestry (often Latin Americans
Latin Americans
in Spain, France
France
and the UK; Inuit
Inuit
in Denmark), but most may be children or grandchildren of U.S. soldiers from American Indian tribes by intermarriage with local European women.

European identity[edit] Historical[edit] Further information: History of Western civilization

Personifications of Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Otto III; from a gospel book dated 990.

Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe
Europe
are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups. The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth
Japheth
from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents, the descendants of Shem
Shem
peopling Asia
Asia
and those of Ham peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as "Japhetites" is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic". In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period
Migration period
(as it was remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows,

The first man that dwelt in Europe
Europe
was Alanus, with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi, and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarincgi. The whole of Europe
Europe
was subdivided into these tribes.[40]

The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth
Japheth
via eighteen generations. European culture[edit] Main articles: Culture of Europe
Europe
and Western culture European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".[41] Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.[42] Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe.[43] One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:[44]

A common cultural and spiritual heritage derived from Greco-Roman antiquity, Christianity, the Renaissance
Renaissance
and its Humanism, the political thinking of the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution, and the developments of Modernity, including all types of socialism;[45] A rich and dynamic material culture that has been extended to the other continents as the result of industrialization and colonialism during the "Great Divergence";[45] A specific conception of the individual expressed by the existence of, and respect for, a legality that guarantees human rights and the liberty of the individual;[45] A plurality of states with different political orders, which are condemned to live together in one way or another;[45] Respect for peoples, states and nations outside Europe.[45]

Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations".[46] The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture
Western culture
is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon.[47] The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to Europe. Religion[edit] Main articles: Religion in Europe
Europe
and Christendom Further information: Christianity
Christianity
in Europe, Islam
Islam
in Europe, Hinduism in Europe, and Buddhism in Europe

Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results

Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe
Europe
used to be dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Protestant
and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to Slavic regions, Romania, Greece and Georgia. Also The Armenian Apostolic Church, part of the Oriental Church, is in Europe
Europe
- another branch of Christianity
Christianity
(world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western Europe, also has a very significant following in Central Europe (especially among the Germanic, Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland
Ireland
(with some in Great Britain). Christianity
Christianity
has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years.[48][49][50][51][52] Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe
Europe
has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture,[53] The Christian culture
Christian culture
was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.[54][55] The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity
Christianity
and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity
Christianity
for being the link that created a unified European identity.[56] Christianity
Christianity
is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians.[57][58] Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union
European Union
in 2012, by Eurobarometer, Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU's population.[59] Islam
Islam
has some tradition in the Balkans
Balkans
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 16th to 19th centuries. Muslims
Muslims
account for the majority of the populations in Albania, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(controlled by Turks), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe. Russia
Russia
also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars
Tatars
of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims
Muslims
in Western Europe
Europe
have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims
Muslims
in Europe
Europe
in 2010 was about 44 million (6%).[60][60][60][61][60] While the total number of Muslims
Muslims
in the European Union
European Union
in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).[62] Judaism
Judaism
has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France
France
(1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish
Jewish
population of Europe
Europe
is composed primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
likely migrated to Central Europe
Europe
at least as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews
Jews
established themselves in Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
at least one thousand years before that. Jews
Jews
originated in the Levant
Levant
where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece
Greece
as well as the Balkans
Balkans
since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish
Jewish
history was notably affected by the Holocaust
Holocaust
and emigration (including Aliyah, as well as emigration to America) in the 20th century. In modern times, significant secularization since 20th century, notably in laicist France, Estonia
Estonia
and Czech Republic. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe
Europe
is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Estonia. The 2005 Eurobarometer poll[63] found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God. Pan-European identity[edit] Main article: Pan-European identity "Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union
European Union
as a result of the gradual process of European integration
European integration
taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s Paris
Paris
Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s. From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union
European Union
even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.[64] European ethnic groups by sovereign state[edit] Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one[f] sovereign state geographically situated in Europe.[g] These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia
Latvia
or Belgium. Montenegro
Montenegro
is multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority.

Country Majority % Regional majorities Minorities[h]

Albania Albanians 82.58%[65]

Greeks
Greeks
~3%,[66][better source needed][67] and other 2% (Aromanian, Romani, Macedonians, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and Serbs/Montenegrins).[68]

Armenia Armenians 98.1%

Russians, Yazidis, Assyrians, Kurds, Greeks, Jews.

Austria Austrians 91.1%

South Slavs
South Slavs
4% (includes Burgenland Croats, Carinthian Slovenes, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs
Serbs
and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans
Germans
0.9%, and other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)

Azerbaijan[i] Azerbaijanis 91.6% Lezgin 2% Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Poles.

Belarus Belarusians 83.7%

Russians
Russians
8.3%, Poles
Poles
3.1%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009 census)

Belgium Flemings 58% Walloons 31%, Germans
Germans
1% mixed or other (i.e. Luxembourgers, Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans
Africans
and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniaks 50.11% Serbs
Serbs
30.78%, Croats
Croats
15.43% Other 2.73% (2013)

Bulgaria Bulgarians 84% Turks 8.8% Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russian, Armenian, Tatar, and Vlach). (2001 census)[69]

Croatia Croats 90%

Serbs
Serbs
4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs, Dalmatian Italians, Austrian-German, Romanian and Romani). (2001 census)

Czech Republic Czechs 90.4% Moravians 3.7% Slovaks
Slovaks
1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)

Denmark Danes 90%[70] Faroese other Scandinavian, Germans, Frisians, other European, Greenlandic people and others.

Estonia Estonians 68% Baltic Russians
Russians
25.6% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
2.1%, Belarusians
Belarusians
1.3%, Finns
Finns
0.9%, and other (Baltic Germans, Estonian Swedes
Estonian Swedes
and Estonian Danes) 2.2%. (2000 census) Included are South Estonian
South Estonian
speakers.

Finland Finns 93.4% Swedes
Swedes
5.6%, Sami 0.1% Russians
Russians
0.5%, Estonians
Estonians
0.3%, Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)

France French 86%[71] (includes sometimes considered as "regional groups" like Bretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsatians, Arpitans, Basques, Catalans
Catalans
and Flemings). other European 7%, North African
North African
7%, Sub-Saharan African, Indochinese, Asian, Latin American and Pacific Islander.[72] French with recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%.[73][74]

Germany Germans 81%-91% [75] includes Bavarians, Swabians, Saxons, Frisians, Sorbs, Silesians, Saarland
Saarland
Germans, Polish- Germans
Germans
and Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Danes). Germans
Germans
without immigrant background 81%; Germans
Germans
with immigrant background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and non-European descent about 2 to 5%).[75]

Greece Greeks 93% includes linguistic minorities 3% Albanians
Albanians
4% and other (i.e. Aromanians/Megleno-Romanians, Cretan Turks and Macedonian/ Greek Slavic
Greek Slavic
3%. (2001 census)[j]

Hungary Hungarians 92.3%

Romani 1.9%, Germans
Germans
1.2%, other (i.e. Croats, Romanians, Bulgarians, Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)

Iceland Icelanders 91%

other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Lithuanians, Danes, Germans
Germans
and Latvians) 9%. [76]

Ireland Irish 87.4%

other white (large numbers of Latvian, Polish and Ukrainian migration) 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, black 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified (i.e. Ulster Scots and Irish Travellers) 1.6%. (2006 census)

Italy Italians 91.7% German-speaking people in South Tyrol Sardinian, French, Occitan, Arpitan, Croatian, Albanian, Catalan, Greek, Ladin, Friulian, Slovene and Roma minorities,[77][78] other Europeans (mostly Romanians, Albanians, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Polish) 4%, North African
North African
Arabs
Arabs
1% and others (i.e. Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Black African and Latin American) 2.5%.[79][80][81][82]

Kazakhstan Kazakhs 63.1% Russians
Russians
23.7% Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles and Koreans.

Kosovo[k] Albanians 92% Serbs
Serbs
4% other 4% (Bosniaks, Gorani, Romani, Turk and Ashkali and Egyptians).

Latvia Latvians 62.1%[83] Baltic Russians
Russians
26.9% Belarusian 3.3%, Ukrainian 2.2%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%, Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)

Lithuania Lithuanians 83.5%

Poles
Poles
6.74%, Russians
Russians
6.31%, Belarusians
Belarusians
1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars) 2.27% and Jews
Jews
(Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001 census)

Macedonia Macedonians 64% Albanians
Albanians
25.2%, Turks 4% Romani 2.7%, Serbs
Serbs
1.8%, and other (i.e. Greeks, Bulgarians, Romanians and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)

Malta Maltese 95.3%[84]

Moldova Moldovans 75.1% Romanians
Romanians
7.0%, Gagauzs 4.4% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
6.6%, Russians
Russians
4.1%, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
1.9%, and other 0.8% (2004 census).

Montenegro —

Montenegrins
Montenegrins
44.98%, Serbs
Serbs
28.73% Bosniaks
Bosniaks
8.65%, Albanians
Albanians
4.91%, and other (Croats, Greeks, Romani and Macedonians) 12,73%. (2011 census)

Netherlands Dutch 80.7% Frisians
Frisians
3% other European Union
European Union
nationals 5%, Indonesians 2.4% including South Moluccans 1.5%,[85] Turks 2.2%, Surinamese 2%, Moroccans 2%, Iranians 1%[86] Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles & Aruban 0.8%, other 4.8% and Frisian-speaking dominant 1%. (2008 est.)

Norway Norwegians 85–87% [l] Sami 1.2–2.5%[m] Poles
Poles
1.4%. A variety of other ethnicities with background from 219 countries that together make up approximately 12% (Swedes, Pakistanis, Somalis, Iraqi Arabs
Arabs
and Kurds, Vietnamese, Germans, Lithuanians, Russians
Russians
and Indians) (2012).[87]

Poland Poles 97%

Germans
Germans
0.4%, Belarusians
Belarusians
0.1%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
0.1%, other and unspecified (i.e. Silesians, Kashubians, Masurians
Masurians
and Prussian Lithuanians) 2.7%, and about 5,000 Polish Jews
Jews
reported to reside in the country. (2002 census)

Portugal Portuguese 95% Portuguese Mirandese speakers 15.000~ (i.e. Mirandese-language speakers) other 5% - other Europeans (British, German, French, Spanish, Romanians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Croats, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Russians, Serbs, Kosovars and Albanians); Africans
Africans
from Portuguese-speaking Africa, Brazilians, Chinese, Indians, Jews, Portuguese Gypsies and Latin Americans.

Romania Romanians 83.4% Hungarians
Hungarians
6.1% Romani 3.0%, Germans
Germans
0.2%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians
Russians
0.1% (2011 census)

Russia[i] Russians 80% Tatars
Tatars
3.9%, Chuvashes
Chuvashes
1%, Chechens
Chechens
1%, Ossetians
Ossetians
0.4%, Kabardin
Kabardin
0.4%, Ingushes
Ingushes
0.3%, Kalmyks
Kalmyks
0.1% Ukrainians
Ukrainians
1.4%, Bashkir 1.2%, Armenians
Armenians
0.9%, Avars 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes unspecified people (3.94% of population)).[88][89]

Serbia[n] Serbs 83%

Hungarians
Hungarians
3.9%, Romani 1.4%, Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
1.1%, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians, Slovaks, Romanians, Croats, Ruthenes, Bulgarians, Germans, Albanians, and other (2002 census).

Slovakia Slovaks 86% Hungarians
Hungarians
9.7% Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)

Slovenia Slovenes 83.1%

Serbs
Serbs
2%, Croats
Croats
1.8%, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
1.1%, other (Dalmatian Italians, ethnic Germans, Hungarians
Hungarians
and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12% (2002 census).

Spain Spaniards 89% Various nationalities and sub-ethnicities, including Castilians and Leonese, Catalans/Valencians, Galicians, Asturians, Basques Gypsies, Jews, Latin Americans, Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, Filipinos, Levant
Levant
Arabs, British expatriates, and others.

Sweden Swedes 88% Finns
Finns
(Tornedalians), Sami people foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns
Finns
(Sweden-Finns), Yugoslavs
Yugoslavs
(Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians, Arabs
Arabs
(Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks, Turks, Iranians, Iraqis, Pakistanis, Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.[90][91]

Switzerland Germans 65% regional linguistic subgroups, including the Alamannic German-speakers, the Romand
Romand
French-speakers 24,4%, the Italian-speakers 7% and Romansh people
Romansh people
(see Romansh language). Balkans
Balkans
(Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
or Albanians) 6%, Italians
Italians
4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans
Germans
1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
0.5% and others 1%.

Turkey[i] Turks 75% Kurds
Kurds
18% Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians
Albanians
and Romanians.

Ukraine Ukrainians 77.8% Russians
Russians
17.3% Belarusians
Belarusians
0.6%, Moldovans
Moldovans
0.5%, Crimean Tatars
Tatars
0.5%, Bulgarians 0.4%, Hungarians
Hungarians
0.3%, Romanians
Romanians
0.3%, Poles
Poles
0.3%, Jews
Jews
0.2%, Armenians
Armenians
0.1%, Urums
Urums
0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).

United Kingdom White[o] British 81.9%[p] (consisting of English: ca. 75-80% Scottish: 8.0%, Welsh: approx. 4.5%, Northern Irish (could also be counted as Irish): 2.8%, also Cornish, Manx and Channel Islanders). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar. Black British, Asian British
Asian British
often consists of South Asian
South Asian
and East Indian peoples, Chinese British, British Jews, Romani, various other Commonwealth Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish, Poles, French among others.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethnic groups in Europe.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maps of ethnic groups in Europe.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Europeans.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ethnic groups in Europe

Aryan race European diaspora Caucasoid Central Asians Demography of Europe Emigration
Emigration
from Europe

European American White Latin American

Ethnic groups in the Middle East Eurolinguistics Federal Union of European Nationalities Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Genetic history of Europe

Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe

Immigration to Europe

Afro-Europeans Turks in Europe

Languages of Europe List of ethnic groups Nomadic peoples of Europe Peoples of the Caucasus White people

Notes[edit]

^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 122 million for Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
taken together. [verification needed][dead link] ^ Germans
Germans
in Germany. Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 94 million for all German-speaking groups. ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004) give 55 million for the French-speaking groups, excluding the Occitans. Recensement officiel de l'Insee INSEE.fr give 65 million. ^ Also known as Britons (Includes English, Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish people. Consists of 58 million British people
British people
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and ca. 2 million British people
British people
resident in other countries in Europe.) ^ Also known as Spaniards
Spaniards
(includes Catalans, Basques
Basques
and Galicians). Pan and Pfeil give 31 million, excluding Catalans-Valencians-Balearics, Basques
Basques
and Galicians. ^ Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the Romanians
Romanians
(in Romania
Romania
and Moldova), and the Albanians
Albanians
(in Albania
Albania
and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo). Also to note is that Luxembourg
Luxembourg
has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch. Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians, Czechs/ Slovaks
Slovaks
and the Bulgarians/Macedonians. ^ Including the European portions of Russia, not including Turkey, Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco
Monaco
and San Marino. ^ Percentages from the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
unless indicated otherwise. ^ a b c Transcontinental country, see boundaries of Europe. ^ Percents represent citizenship, since Greece
Greece
does not collect data on ethnicity. ^ partially recognized state, see international recognition of Kosovo. ^ There is no legal or generally accepted definitions of who is of Norwegian ethnicity in Norway. 87% of population have at least one parent who is born in Norway. ^ In Norway, there is no clear legal definition of who is Sami. Therefore, exact numbers are not possible. ^ Excluding Kosovo ^ Ethnicity group introduced with the ten-year United Kingdom
United Kingdom
census of 2011 by the Office for National Statistics, a non-ministerial department since 1 April 2008 ^ Since 2001 census in England and Wales, white residents could identify themselves as White Irish or White British though no separate White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White British. In the census of Northern Ireland, White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.

References[edit]

^ a b Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen, Braumüller, ISBN 3700314221 (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) ISBN 3211353070. Archived December 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx. ^ " Population
Population
by Country of Birth and Nationality
Nationality
2013: Table 2.1". Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "15° Censimento generale della popolazione e delle abitazioni" (PDF) (in Italian). ISTAT. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ see e.g. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles doi:10.1073/pnas.071036898 PNAS 24 April 2001 Vol. 98 No. 9 5078–5083. ^ Richard, Lewis (2005). Finland, Cultural Lone Wolf. Intercultural Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-18-5.  Niskanen, Markku (2002). "The Origin of the Baltic-Finns" (PDF). The Mankind Quarterly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-06.  Laitinen, Virpi; Päivi Lahermo (August 24, 2001). "Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers" (PDF). Department of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki. Retrieved 2008-10-08.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Almoravides". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 717–718.  ^ Phillips, Fr Andrew. "The Last Christians
Christians
Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". Orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Hensel, Gottfried (12 December 2017). "Synopsis vniversæ philologiæ in qua miranda vnitas et harmonia lingvarvm: Totivs orbis terrarvm occvlta, e literarvm, syllabarvm, vocvmqve natvra & recessibvs eruitur ; cum grammatica ... mappisqve geographico-polyglottis ..." In commissis apvd heredes Homannianos. Retrieved 12 December 2017 – via Google Books.  ^ Karl Friedrich Vollgraff, Erster Versuch einer Begründung sowohl der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie, wis auch der Staats und rechts-philosophie durch die Ethnologie oder Nationalität der Völker (1851), p. 257. ^ A. Kumar, Encyclopaedia of Teaching of Geography (2002), p. 74 ff.; the tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean groups persisted among some scientists into the 1960s, notably in Carleton Coon's book The Origin of Races
The Origin of Races
(1962). ^ Andrew Barry, Political Machines (2001), p. 56 ^ Measuring European Population
Population
Stratification using Microarray Genotype Data, Sitesled.com Archived 2008-12-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "DNA heritage". Retrieved 2007-07-20.  ^ Dupanloup, Isabelle; Giorgio Bertorelle; Lounès Chikhi; Guido Barbujani. "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Retrieved 2007-07-20.  ^ Tubb 1998, pp. 13–14 ^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature, 2005 ^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC-1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7.  ^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish
Jewish
people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."

"The Jewish
Jewish
people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (ʿIvrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."

Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish
Jewish
patriarch Jacob" Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish
Jewish
People. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-970205-3.  ^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X.  ^ Scheindlin, Raymond P. (1998). A Short History of the Jewish
Jewish
People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513941-9.  ^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim.  ^ Diamond, Jared (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Retrieved November 8, 2010.  Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19. ^ " Jewish
Jewish
and Middle Eastern non- Jewish
Jewish
populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97: 6769–6774. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. Retrieved 11 October 2012.  ^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish
Jewish
Diaspora". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Pala, Maria; Fernandes, Verónica; Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Rychkov, Sergei; Naumova, Oksana; Hatina, Jiři; Woodward, Scott R.; Eng, Ken Khong; Macaulay, Vincent; Carr, Martin; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Richards, Martin B. (8 October 2013). "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages". Nature Communications. 4: 2543. doi:10.1038/ncomms3543. Retrieved 12 December 2017 – via www.nature.com.  ^ "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans" (PDF). Arxiv.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Gregory Cochran, Henry Harpending, The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution, Basic Books, 2009 pp. 195–196. ^ Moses ben Machir, in Seder Ha-Yom, p. 15a, Venice 1605 (Hebrew) ^ Josephus Flavius, Antiquities, xi.v.2 ^ "Petition for expatriate voting officially launched". The Daily Star. 14 July 2012.  ^ "France's blacks stand up to be counted". Theglobeandmail.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe". Migrationinformation.org. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Born Abroad – Countries of birth, BBC News ^ Kalaydjieva, L; Gresham, D; Calafell, F (2001). "Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): a review". BMC Med. Genet. 2: 5. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5. PMC 31389 . PMID 11299048.  ^ ab Hisitione autem ortae sunt quattuor gentes Franci, Latini, Albani et Britti. ab Armenone autem quinque: Gothi, Valagothi, Gebidi, Burgundi, Longobardi. a Neguio vero quattuor Boguarii, Vandali, Saxones
Saxones
et Turingi. trans. J. A. Giles. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848. ^ Cf. Berting (2006:51). ^ Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe
Europe
is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51). ^ Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56). ^ K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d' Europe
Europe
jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism
Judaism
to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism." ^ a b c d e Berting 2006, p. 52 ^ Berting 2006, p. 51 ^ Duran (1995:81) ^ Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006 ^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. ^ Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity
Christianity
and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization
Western civilization
— the civilization of western Europe
Europe
and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant. ^ Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato. ^ Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization
Western civilization
is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization. ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.  ^ Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-298-4.  ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0-8132-1683-6.  ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836.  ^ "Regional Distribution of Christians". Pewforum.org. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population" (PDF), Pew Research Center, 383, Pew Research Center, p. 130, 2011, retrieved 14 August 2013  ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special
Special
Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013  ^ a b c d "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". Pewforum.org. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Table: Muslim Population
Population
by Country". Pewforum.org. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime" [Almost 53 million Muslims
Muslims
live in Europe
Europe
at present]. Islam.de (in German). 8 May 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2016.  ^ EC.Europa.eu Archived May 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ This is particularly the case among proponents of the so-called confederalist or neo-functionalist position on European integration. Eder and Spohn (2005:3) note: "The evolutionary thesis of the making of a European identity
European identity
often goes with the assumption of a simultaneous decline of national identities. This substitution thesis reiterates the well-known confederalist/neo-functionalist position in the debate on European integration, arguing for an increasing replacement of the nation-state by European institutions, against the intergovernmentalist/realist position, insisting on the continuing primacy of the nation-state." ^ Demographics of Albania:Demographics of Albania ^ Demographics of Albania ^ The Greeks: the land and people since the war. James Pettifer. Penguin, 2000. ISBN 0-14-028899-6 ^ " CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
2010". Retrieved 26 July 2010.  ^ "Census 2001, Population
Population
by Districts and Ethnic Groups as of 01.03.2001". Nsi.bg. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ Persons of Danish origin: 4 985 415. Total population: 5 511 451 Statistics Denmark ^ Project, Joshua. "French in France". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "France". State.gov. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ "Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history, as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third of the population currently living in France
France
is of "foreign" descent", Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, " France
France
at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations", Summa Publications, Inc., 2000, P.160 ^ " In present day France, one-third of the population has grandparents that were born outside France", Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow, "Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't be Wrong: What makes the French so French", Robson Books Ltd, 2004, p.8 ^ a b Germans
Germans
and foreigners with an immigrant background Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Background - Hagstofa". Hagstofa. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld - World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Italy". Refworld.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche, law no.482/99, Italian Parliament ^ "Indicatori demografici". Istat.it. 30 November 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "CITTADINI NON COMUNITARI REGOLARMENTE SOGGIORNANTI : Anni 2013-2014" (PDF). Istat.it. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Cittadini Stranieri. Popolazione residente per sesso e cittadinanza al 31 Dicembre 2012 Italia - Tutti i Paesi". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Италианските българи" (in Bulgarian). 24 Chasa. Archived from the original on 2015-06-08.  ^ "On key provisional results of Population
Population
and Housing Census 2011 Latvijas statistika". Csb.gov.lv. 2012-01-18. Retrieved 2012-08-13.  ^ "MALTA : general data". Populstat.info. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Australia, Project SafeCom, Western. "Moluccans in the Netherlands: a snapshot about Refugees in Holland". Safecom.org.au. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Iranians in the Netherlands
Netherlands
– Iranian expats in the Netherlands
Netherlands
- InterNations". Internations.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ Personer med innvandringsbakgrunn, etter innvandringskategori, landbakgrunn og kjønn. 1. januar 2012 ( Archived September 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. SSB (Statistics Norway), Retrieved November 6, 2012 ^ Официальный сайт Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010. Национальный состав населения РФ 2010". Gks.ru. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "SCB.se". Scb.se. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "SCB.se". Scb.se. Retrieved 12 December 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Andrews, Peter A.; Benninghaus, Rüdiger (2002), Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey, Reichert, ISBN 3-89500-325-5  Banks, Marcus (1996), Ethnicity: Anthropological Constructions, Routledge  Berting, J. (2006), Europe: A Heritage, a Challenge, a Promise, Eburon Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-5972-120-9  Cederman, Lars-Erik (2001), "Political Boundaries and Identity Trade-Offs", in Cederman, Lars-Erik, Constructing Europe's Identity: The External Dimension, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, pp. 1–34  Cole, J. W.; Wolf, E. R. (1999), The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-21681-5  Davies, N. (1996), Europe: A History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820171-0  Dow, R. R.; Bockhorn, O. (2004), The Study of European Ethnology
Ethnology
in Austria, Progress in European Ethnology, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-1747-1  Eberhardt, Piotr; Owsinski, Jan (2003), Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central Eastern Europe, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0-7656-0665-8  Eder, Klaus; Spohn, Willfried (2005). Collective Memory and European Identity: The Effects of Integration and Enlargement. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7546-4401-4.  Gresham, D.; et al. (2001), "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)", American Journal of Human Genetics, 69 (6): 1314–1331, doi:10.1086/324681, PMC 1235543 , PMID 11704928  Online article Karolewski, Ireneusz Pawel; Kaina, Viktoria (2006), European Identity: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Insights, LIT Verlag, ISBN 3-8258-9288-3  Jordan-Bychkov, T.; Bychkova-Jordan, B. (2008), The European Culture Area: A Systematic Geography. Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-1628-8  Latham, Robert Gordon (1854), The Native Races of the Russian Empire, Hippolyte Baillière (London)  Full text on google books Laitin, David D. (2000), Culture and National Identity: "the East" and European Integration, Robert Schuman Centre  Gross, Manfred (2004), Romansh: Facts & Figures, Lia Rumantscha, ISBN 3-03900-037-3  Online version Levinson, David (1998), Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-57356-019-1  part I: Europe, pp. 1–100. Hobsbawm, E. J.; Kertzer, David J. (1992), "Ethnicity and Nationalism in Europe
Europe
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Anthropology
Today, 8: 3–8, doi:10.2307/3032805, JSTOR 3032805  Minahan, James (2000), One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-30984-1  Panikos Panayi, Outsiders: A History of European Minorities (London: Hambledon Press, 1999) Olson, James Stuart; Pappas, Lee Brigance; Pappas, Nicholas Charles (1994), An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empire, Greenwood, ISBN 0-313-27497-5  O'Néill, Diarmuid (2005), Rebuilding the Celtic languages: reversing language shift in the Celtic countries, Y Lolfa, ISBN 0-86243-723-7  Panayi, Panikos (1999), An Ethnic History of Europe
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External links[edit]

Ron Balsdon, The Cultural Mosaic of the European Union: Why National Boundaries and the Cultures Inside Still Matter Migration Policy Institute - Country and Comparative Data  Mason, Otis Tufton (1905). "Europe, Peoples of". New International Encyclopedia. 

v t e

Overview map of the peoples of Europe

Size and geographic distribution of the 87 peoples of Europe, according to Pan & Pfeil (2003).[1] Font size reflects population size (groups smaller than 2 million not to scale) Groups not shown due to lack of geographic concentration: Romani (3.8 million), Jews
Jews
(1.3 million), Karaim (4,600). Small Finnic and Caucasian groups (<0.2 million) not shown in map: Votes, Ludes, Setos, Võros; Balkars, Karachays, Laks, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tats, Tsakhurs.

Albanians

Belarusians

Bulgarians

Croats

Czechs

Danes

Finns

French

Occitans

Ger ma ns

Greeks

Hungarians

Irish

Ita     li         ans

Tatars

Lithuanians

Dutch

Norwegians

Poles

Portu guese

Romanians

Russians

Serbs

Slovaks

Span iards

[[Galicians iards]]

Catalans

Swedes

Turks

Ukrainians

English

Scots

Georgians

Circassians

Welsh

Basques

Slovenes

Macedonians

Bosniaks

Montenegrins

Faroese

Sami

Icelanders

Manx

Maltese

Latvians

Livonians

Estonians

Frisians

Chuvash

Bashkirs

Chechens

Avars

Dargins

Lezgins

Mordvins

Ingush

Ossete

Udmurts

Komi Permyaks

Mari

Komi

Kazakhs

Kalmyks

Karelians

Vepsians

Izhorians

Romansh

Kashubs

Bretons

Cornish

Aromanians

Lux.

Sorbs

Kumyks

Gagauz

Inuit

v t e

Ethnic groups in Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

v t e

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the world by continent

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

South America

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
by geographic regions

v t e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab
Arab
League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia

v t e

White people

Caucasian race European peoples West Asian peoples Central Asian peoples North African
North African
peoples

Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

Worldwide diaspora

Africa

Algeria Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Morocco Namibia Saint Helena South Africa Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe

Asia

Pakistan

United States Canada Bermuda Bahamas Barbados Cayman Islands Jamaica Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Latin America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela

Oceania

Australia New Caledonia New Zealand

Historical concepts

Apartheid Aryan First white child Honorary whites Play the white man Racial whitening

Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento

White Australia policy The White Man's Burden White gods

Sociological phenomena and theories

Acting white
Acting white
(Passing as white) Angry white male Missing white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight

South African farm attacks

White fragility White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashed film roles White savior

White American caricatures and stereotypes

Poor Whites

Redlegs Rednecks Mountain whites

Identity politics in the United States

US definitions of whiteness

One-drop rule

Alt-right Christian Identity Non-Hispanic whites White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Old Stock Americans White ethnic White Hispanic White nationalism White pride White separatism White supremacy

Scientific racism

Human skin color Color terminology for race Alpine Armenoid Dinaric East Baltic Irano-Afghan Mediterranean

Commons

^ Pan, Christoph; Pfeil, Beate S. (2003). "The Peoples of Europe
Europe
by Demographic Size, Table 1". National Minorities in Europe: Handbook. Wien: Braumueller. p. 11f. ISBN 978-3-7003-1443-1.  (a breakdown by country of these 87 groups is given in Ta

.