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This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the European Union
European Union

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* v * t * e

EUROPEAN INTEGRATION is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic , social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe. European integration
European integration
has primarily come about through the European Union
European Union
and its policies.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Theories of integration * 3 Citizens\' organisations calling for further integration

* 4 Overlap of membership in various agreements

* 4.1 Common membership of member states of the European Union
European Union
* 4.2 Most integrated countries

* 5 Geographic scope

* 5.1 Beyond geographic Europe
Europe

* 5.2 Limited to regions within geographic Europe
Europe

* 5.2.1 Nordic countries * 5.2.2 Baltic Sea region * 5.2.3 Nordic-Baltic Eight * 5.2.4 Low Countries
Low Countries
region (Benelux) * 5.2.5 Black Sea
Black Sea
region * 5.2.6 Britain and Ireland * 5.2.7 Central Europe
Europe
* 5.2.8 Eastern Europe * 5.2.9 Danube region

* 6 Council of Europe * 7 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe * 8 European Free Trade Association * 9 European Broadcasting Union * 10 European Patent Convention * 11 European Communities

* 12 European Union
European Union

* 12.1 Competences

* 12.2 Economic integration

* 12.2.1 Free trade area * 12.2.2 Customs union * 12.2.3 Single market * 12.2.4 Eurozone
Eurozone
* 12.2.5 Fiscal union * 12.2.6 Aviation * 12.2.7 Energy * 12.2.8 Standardisation

* 12.3 Social and political integration

* 12.3.1 Education * 12.3.2 Research * 12.3.3 Health * 12.3.4 Charter of Fundamental Rights * 12.3.5 Right to vote * 12.3.6 Schengen zone * 12.3.7 Visa policy in EU

* 12.4 Military
Military
* 12.5 Space * 12.6 Membership in European Union
European Union
agreements

* 13 Future of European integration
European integration

* 13.1 European Security Treaty * 13.2 Common space from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
* 13.3 Concept of a single legal space for the CIS and Europe
Europe

* 14 Beyond Europe
Europe

* 14.1 Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

* 14.1.1 Ties with partners

* 14.2 Commonwealth of Independent States * 14.3 Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations * 14.4 EU and other regions and countries in the world * 14.5 Other organisations in world * 14.6 European languages in the world * 14.7 World integration

* 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Further reading

HISTORY

One of the first to conceive of a union of European nations was Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi , who wrote the Pan-Europa manifesto in 1923. His ideas influenced Aristide Briand , who gave a speech in favour of a European Union
European Union
in the League of Nations on 8 September 1929, and who in 1930 wrote a "Memorandum on the Organization of a Regime of European Federal Union" for the Government of France, which became the first European government formally to adopt the principle.

“ We must build a kind of United States
United States
of Europe. In this way only, will hundreds of millions of toilers be able to regain the simple joys and hopes which make life worth living.

_Winston Churchill_ ”

At the end of World War II, the continental political climate favoured unity in democratic European countries, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent. In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich , Switzerland, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
postulated a United States of Europe . The same speech however contains remarks, less often quoted, which make it clear that Churchill did not initially see Britain as being part of this United States
United States
of Europe: _We British have our own Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
... And why should there not be a European group which could give a sense of enlarged patriotism and common citizenship to the distracted peoples of this turbulent and mighty continent and why should it not take its rightful place with other great groupings in shaping the destinies of men?_ ... _ France
France
and Germany
Germany
must take the lead together. Great Britain, the British Commonwealth of Nations, mighty America and I trust Soviet Russia-for then indeed all would be well-must be the friends and sponsors of the new Europe
Europe
and must champion its right to live and shine._

THEORIES OF INTEGRATION

The question of how to avoid wars between the nation-states was essential for the first theories. Federalism and Functionalism proposed the containment of the nation-state, while TRANSACTIONALISM sought to theorise the conditions for the stabilisation of the nation-state system.

One of the most influential theories of European integration
European integration
is neofunctionalism , developed by Ernst B. Haas (1958) and further investigated by Leon Lindberg (1963). The important debate between neofunctionalism and (liberal) intergovernmentalism still remains central in understanding the development and setbacks of the European Union. But as the empirical world has changed, so have the theories and thus the understanding of European Integration. Today there is a relatively new focus on the complex policy-making in the EU and multi-level governance (MLG) trying to produce a theory of the workings and development of the EU.

CITIZENS\' ORGANISATIONS CALLING FOR FURTHER INTEGRATION

Various federalist organisations have been created over time supporting the idea of a federal Europe. These include the Union of European Federalists , the European Movement International and the European Federalist Party . The Union of European Federalists (UEF) is a European non-governmental organisation, campaigning for a Federal Europe. It consists of 20 constituent organisations and it has been active at the European, national and local levels for more than 50 years. The European Movement International is a lobbying association that coordinates the efforts of associations and national councils with the goal of promoting European integration, and disseminating information about it. The European Federalist Party is the pro-European, pan-European and federalist political party which advocates further integration of the EU and the establishment of a Federal Europe. Its aim is to gather all Europeans to promote European federalism and to participate in all elections all over Europe. It has national sections in 15 countries.

OVERLAP OF MEMBERSHIP IN VARIOUS AGREEMENTS

A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

* v * t * e

There are various agreements with overlapping membership. Several countries take part in a larger number of agreements than others.

COMMON MEMBERSHIP OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

All member states of the European Union
European Union
(EU) are members of the:

* Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) * Council of Europe (CoE) * Single Euro
Euro
Payments Area (SEPA) * European Union
European Union
Customs Union (EUCU) * European Olympic Committees (EOC) * European Common Aviation Area (ECAA) * European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) * European Committee for Standardization (CEN) * European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) * European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) * European Patent Convention (EPC) * European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC, Euratom) * European Higher Education Area (EHEA) - Belgium
Belgium
as Flemish Community and French Community , i.e. the German-speaking Community of Belgium
Belgium
is not included.

have organizations that are members of the:

* European Broadcasting Union (EBU) * Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) * European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity

have organisations that are members, associated partners or observers of the

* European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas

are located in the European Broadcasting Area (EBA)

MOST INTEGRATED COUNTRIES

Fourteen states are part of Eurozone
Eurozone
and NATO
NATO
. These are Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Spain.

They are all members of:

* the European Union
European Union
* the European Economic Area (EEA) * the Schengen Area * the European Defence Agency (EDA)

Of these countries,

* Estonia, Latvia, France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
did not sign the Declaration 52 on symbols of the European Union
European Union
* Spain
Spain
did not sign the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court * Lithuania
Lithuania
is not part of EUMETNET * Latvia, Lithuania, Greece, Italy, Portugal
Portugal
did not sign the Prüm Convention , but all except Latvia
Latvia
notified the Council of their desire to become part of the convention * Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
are not members of the European Space Agency (ESA). * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Slovenia
Slovenia
are not part of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Slovenia
Slovenia
has formally confirmed its wish to become a member. * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Slovakia
Slovakia
are not part of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), but have signed a co-operation agreement * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia
are not members of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), but Lithuania
Lithuania
and Slovakia
Slovakia
are EMBL Prospect Member State. * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
don't participate in the Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Luxembourg, Greece don't participate in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) * Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
Lithuania
are not part of the RG Continental Europe
Europe
of the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity * Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Slovakia
Slovakia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
do not participate to the European Gendarmerie Force ;

Thus, no country is part of all of these groups.

GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE

BEYOND GEOGRAPHIC EUROPE

Some agreements that are mostly related to countries of the European continent, are also valid in territories outside the continent.

Not listed below are agreements if their scope is beyond geographic Europe
Europe
only because the agreement includes:

* Territories of transcontinental countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia contain some territory in Europe
Europe
and some in Asia * Special
Special
territories of European countries, e.g. Special territories of member states of the European Union
European Union
* Cyprus, which is a member of the Council of Europe and several other agreements

List:

* NATO
NATO
contains USA and Canada, but has a European focus, Article 10 of the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
describes how non-member states may join: "The Parties may invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty" * Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) contains USA, Canada, Central Asian countries and Mongolia * European Broadcasting Union (EBU) contains North African and Middle East countries * European Olympic Committees (EOC) contains Israel
Israel

LIMITED TO REGIONS WITHIN GEOGRAPHIC EUROPE

Several regional integration efforts have effectively promoted intergovernmental cooperation and reduced the possibility of regional armed conflict. Other initiatives have removed barriers to free trade in European regions, and increased the free movement of people, labour, goods, and capital across national borders.

Nordic Countries

Since the end of the Second World War, the following organisations have been established in the Nordic region :

The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is a co-operation forum for the parliaments and governments of the Nordic countries created in February 1953. It includes the states of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, and their autonomous territories ( Faroe Islands , Greenland and Åland ).

The Nordic Passport Union , created in 1954 but implemented on 1 May 1958, establishes free movement across borders without passports for the countries' citizens. It comprises Denmark, Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
as foundational states; further, it includes Finland
Finland
and Iceland
Iceland
since 24 September 1965, and the Danish autonomous territories of Faroe Islands since 1 January 1966.

Baltic Sea Region

The following political and/or economic organisations have been in the Baltic region in the post-modern era :

The Baltic Assembly aims to promote co-operation between the parliaments of the Baltic states , namely the Republics of Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania. The organisation was planned in Vilnius
Vilnius
on 1 December 1990, and the three nations agreed to its structure and rules on 13 June 1994.

The Baltic Free Trade Area (BAFTA) was a trade agreement between Estonia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Latvia. It was signed on 13 September 1993 and came into force on 1 April 1994. The agreement was later extended to apply also to agricultural products, effective from 1 January 1997. BAFTA ceased to exist when its members joined the EU on 1 May 2004.

The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) was founded in 1992 to promote intergovernmental cooperation among Baltic Sea countries in questions concerning economy, civil society development, human rights issues, and nuclear and radiation safety. It has 12 members including Denmark
Denmark
, Estonia
Estonia
, Finland
Finland
, Germany
Germany
, Iceland
Iceland
(since 1995), Latvia
Latvia
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, Norway
Norway
, Poland
Poland
, Russia
Russia
, Sweden
Sweden
and the European Commission .

In 2009 the European Council approved the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR) following a communication from the European Commission . The EUSBSR was the first macro-regional strategy in Europe. The Strategy aims to reinforce cooperation within the Baltic Sea Region, to address challenges together, and to promote balanced development in the Region. The Strategy contributes to major EU policies, including Europe 2020 , and reinforces integration within the Region.

Nordic-Baltic Eight

Main article: NB8

Low Countries
Low Countries
Region (Benelux)

Since the end of the First World War the following unions have been set in the Low Countries
Low Countries
region:

The Benelux is an economic and political union between Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. On 5 September 1944, a treaty establishing the Benelux Customs Union was signed. It entered into force in 1948, and ceased to exist on 1 November 1960, when it was replaced by the Benelux Economic Union after a treaty signed in The Hague on 3 February 1958. A Benelux Parliament was created in 1955.

The Belgium- Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Economic Union (BLEU) can be seen as a forerunner of the Benelux. BLEU was created by the treaty signed on 25 July 1921. It established a single market between both countries, while setting the Belgian franc and Luxembourgian franc at a fixed parity.

Black Sea
Black Sea
Region

Several regional organisations have been founded in the Black Sea region since the fall of the Soviet Union, such as:

The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) aims to ensure peace, stability and prosperity by encouraging friendly and good-neighbourly relations among the 12 state members, located mainly in the Black Sea
Black Sea
region. It was created on 25 June 1992 in Istanbul, and entered into force on 1 May 1999. The 11 founding members were Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. Serbia
Serbia
(then Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro) joined in April 2004.

The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development is a regional organisation of four post-Soviet states, which aims to promote cooperation and democratic values, ensure stable development, enhance international and regional security, and stepping up European integration. Current members include the four founding ones, namely, Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. Uzbekistan joined in 1999, and left in 2005.

Britain And Ireland

Since the end of the First World War, the following agreements have been signed in the Britain and Ireland and Irish region:

The British-Irish Council was created by the Belfast Agreement in 1998 to _"promote the harmonious and mutually beneficial development of the totality of relationships among the peoples of these islands"_. It was formally established on 2 December 1999. Its membership comprises Ireland, the United Kingdom, three of the countries of the UK ( Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, Scotland and Wales), and three British Crown dependencies ( Guernsey
Guernsey
, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and Jersey
Jersey
). Because England does not have a devolved government , it is not represented on the Council as a separate entity.

The Common Travel Area is a passport-free zone established in 1922 that comprises Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey.

Central Europe

The following cooperation agreements have been signed in Central Europe:

The Visegrad Group is a Central-European alliance for cooperation and European integration, based on an ancient strategic alliance of core Central European countries. The Group originated in a summit meeting of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Hungary
Hungary
and Poland
Poland
held in the Hungarian castle town of Visegrád on 15 February 1991. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia became members after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1993.

In 1989, Central European Initiative , a forum of regional has been formed in Hungary.

The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between countries in Central Europe
Europe
and the Balkans, which works as a preparation for full European Union
European Union
membership. As of 2013 , it has 7 members: Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and UNMIK-administered Kosovo
Kosovo
province .

It was established in 1992 by Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Hungary
Hungary
and Poland, but came into force only in 1994. Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
had in the meantime split into the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Slovenia
Slovenia
joined in 1996, while Romania
Romania
did the same in 1997, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1999, and Croatia
Croatia
in 2003. In 2004, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia
Slovenia
left the CEFTA
CEFTA
to join the EU. Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
left it in 2007 for the same reason. Subsequently, Macedonia joined it in 2006, and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and UNMIK (on behalf of Kosovo) in 2007. In 2013, Croatia
Croatia
left the CEFTA
CEFTA
to join the EU.

SWITZERLAND AND LIECHTENSTEIN participate in a customs union since 1924, and both employ the Swiss franc as national currency.

Eastern Europe

The effects of the EU integration process of the countries from Eastern bloc are still debated. As a result, the relationship between immigration levels and EU public support remains uncertain. Through the integration, the countries in Eastern Europe have experienced growth of the economy, benefits of the free market agreements and freedom of the labor movement within the EU. However, the results of the empirical socioeconomic analyses suggest that in Spain
Spain
, France
France
, Ireland and the Netherlands
Netherlands
, the immigration from CEE had negative effects on support for European integration
European integration
in the host societies. The research also implies that the immigration from the CEE seems to undermine the long-term effects of the integration. There are theories for the programs of social development that range in views from: an extended contact with the immigrants from the Eastern Europe might help forge a common European identity and it could also lead to a potential national isolation, caused by tightening support mechanisms for the labor immigration. Equal amount of research also implies that the internal migration of the countries within the EU is necessary for the successful development of its economic union.

Danube Region

The EU Strategy for the Danube Region was endorsed by the European Council in 2011 and is the second macro-regional strategy in Europe. The Strategy provides a basis for improved cooperation among 14 countries along the Danube River . It aims to improve the effectiveness of regional integration efforts and leverage the impact of policies at the EU, national and local levels.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE

Main article: Council of Europe Ten founding members Joined subsequently Official candidates Observer at the Parliamentary Assembly Observer at the Committee of Ministers Observer at the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly

Against the background of the devastation and human suffering during the Second World War as well as the need for reconciliation after the war, the idea of European integration
European integration
led to the creation of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
in 1949.

The most important achievement of the Council of Europe is the European Convention on Human Rights of 1950 with its European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which serves as a _de facto_ supreme court for human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout Europe. Human rights are also protected by the Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture and the European Social Charter .

Most conventions of the Council of Europe pursue the aim of greater legal integration, such as the conventions on legal assistance, against corruption, against money laundering , against doping in sport , or internet crime .

Cultural co-operation is based on the Cultural Convention of 1954 and subsequent conventions on the recognition of university studies and diplomas as well as on the protection of minority languages.

After the fall of the Berlin Wall, former communist European countries were able to accede to the Council of Europe, which now comprises 47 states in Europe. Therefore, European integration
European integration
has practically succeeded at the level of the Council of Europe, encompassing almost the whole European continent, with the exception of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Belarus, the latter due to its still non-democratic government.

European integration
European integration
at the level of the Council of Europe functions through the accession of member states to its conventions as well as through political coordination at the level of ministerial conferences and inter-parliamentary sessions. In accordance with its Statute of 1949, the Council of Europe works to achieve greater unity among its members based on common values, such as human rights and democracy.

ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is a trans-Atlantic intergovernmental organisation whose aim is to secure stability in Europe. It was established as the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(CSCE) in July 1973, and was subsequently transformed into its current form in January 1995. The OSCE has 56 member states, covering most of the northern hemisphere .

The OSCE develops three lines of activities, namely the _Politico- Military
Military
Dimension_, the _Economic and Environmental Dimension_ and the _Human Dimension_. These respectively promote (i) mechanisms for conflict prevention and resolution; (ii) the monitoring, alerting and assistance in case of economic and environmental threats; and (iii) full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION

EFTA members

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a European trade bloc which was established on 3 May 1960 as an alternative for European states who did not join the EEC . EFTA currently has four member states: Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein; just Norway and Switzerland
Switzerland
are founding members.

The EFTA Convention was signed on 4 January 1960 in Stockholm
Stockholm
by seven states: Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Finland
Finland
became an associate member in 1961 and a full member in 1986; Iceland
Iceland
joined in 1970 and Liechtenstein did the same in 1991.

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Denmark
Denmark
left in 1973, when they joined the European Community (EC). Portugal
Portugal
left EFTA in 1986, when it also joined the EC. Austria, Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
ceased to be EFTA members in 1995 by joining the European Union, which superseded the EC in 1993.

EUROPEAN BROADCASTING UNION

Countries with Active EBU Membership coloured in order of accession from 1950. Main article: European Broadcasting Union

The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) is an alliance of public service media entities, established on 12 February 1950. As of 2015 , the organisation comprises 73 active members in 56 countries, and 34 associate members from a further 20 countries. Most EU states are part of this organisation and therefore EBU has been subject to supranational legislation and regulation. It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the institution itself.

EUROPEAN PATENT CONVENTION

EPC contracting states and the extension states, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Main article: European Patent Convention

As of 2013 there are 38 parties to European Patent Convention. The Convention on the Grant of European Patents was first signed on 5 October 1973.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

In 1951, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and West Germany
Germany
agreed to confer powers over their steel and coal production to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in the Treaty of Paris , which came into force on 23 July 1952.

Coal and steel production was essential for the reconstruction of countries in Europe
Europe
after the Second World War and this sector of the national economy had been important for warfare in the First and Second World Wars. Therefore, France
France
had originally maintained its occupation of the Saarland with its steel companies after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(West Germany) in 1949. By transferring national powers over the coal and steel production to a newly created ECSC Commission, the member states of the ECSC were able to provide for greater transparency and trust among themselves.

This transfer of national powers to a "Community" to be exercised by its Commission was paralleled under the 1957 Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (or Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) in Brussels.

In 1967, the Merger Treaty (or BRUSSELS TREATY) combine the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC. They already shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts . Collectively they were known as the European Communities . In 1987, the Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome that formally established the single European market and the European Political Cooperation. The Communities originally had independent personalities although they were increasingly integrated, and over the years were transformed into what is now called the European Union.

The six states that founded the three Communities were known as the "inner six " (the "outer seven" were those countries who formed the European Free Trade Association ). These were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The first enlargement was in 1973, with the accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Greece
Greece
joined in 1981, and Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
in 1986. On 3 October 1990 East Germany
Germany
and West Germany
Germany
were reunified, hence East Germany
Germany
became part of the Community in the new reunified Germany
Germany
(not increasing the number of states).

A key person in the Community creation process was Jean Monnet , regarded as the "founding father" of the European Union, which is seen as the dominant force in European integration.

EUROPEAN UNION

The territories of the member states of the European Union ( European Communities pre-1993), animated in order of accession. Territories outside of the European neighbourhood not shown. EU current members (as of 2013) Candidate countries Potential candidate countries

The European Union
European Union
(EU) is an association of twenty-eight sovereign member states , that by treaty have delegated certain of their competences to common institutions, in order to coordinate their policies in a number of areas, without however constituting a new state on top of the member states. Officially established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the pre-existing European Economic Community .

Thus, 12 states are founding members, namely, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. In 1995, Austria, Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
entered the EU. Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia
Slovenia
joined in 2004. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Romania
Romania
joined in 2007. Croatia
Croatia
acceded in 2013. Official candidate states include Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
and Turkey. Morocco's application was rejected by the EEC, Iceland's application is withdrawn by government and Switzerland's is frozen. Norway
Norway
rejected membership in two referendums.

The institutions of the European Union, its parliamentarians, judges, commissioners and secretariat, the governments of its member states as well as their people, all play a role in European Integration. Nevertheless, the question of who plays the key role is disputed as there are different theories on European Integration focusing on different actors and agency.

The European Union
European Union
has a number of relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union. According to the European Union's official site, and a statement by Commissioner Günter Verheugen, the aim is to have a ring of countries, sharing EU's democratic ideals and joining them in further integration without necessarily becoming full member states.

COMPETENCES

Main article: Member State of the European Union
European Union

Whilst most responsibilities ('competences') are retained by the member states, some competences are conferred exclusively on the Union for collective decision, some are shared pending Union action and some receive Union support. These are shown on this table:

As outlined in Title I of Part I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union

* view * talk * edit

Exclusive competence

Shared competence

Supporting competence

"_The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act._"

* the customs union * the establishing of the competition rules necessary for the functioning of the internal market * monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the euro * the conservation of marine biological resources under the common fisheries policy * Common Commercial Policy * conclusion of certain international agreements

"_Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so._"

* the internal market * social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty * economic, social and territorial cohesion * agriculture and fisheries , excluding the conservation of marine biological resources * environment * consumer protection * transport * trans-European networks * energy * the area of freedom, security and justice * common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty

"_Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in_" …

* research, technological development and (outer) space * development cooperation, humanitarian aid

"_The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to theirs common policies, not covered elsewhere_"

* coordination of economic, employment and social policies * common foreign, security and defence policies

"_The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in_" …

* the protection and improvement of human health * industry * culture * tourism * education , youth, sport and vocational training * civil protection (disaster prevention) * administrative cooperation

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

Economic integration blocs in Europe;EU , EFTA , CEFTA
CEFTA
and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
Further information: Economy of the European Union
European Union
Further information: Third country economic relationships with the European Union
European Union

The European Union
European Union
operates a single economic market across the territory of all its members, and uses a single currency between the Eurozone
Eurozone
members. Further, the EU has a number of economic relationships with nations that are not formally part of the Union through the European Economic Area and custom union agreements.

Free Trade Area

EU Free trade agreements

The creation of the EEC eliminated tariffs, quotas and preferences on goods among member states, which are the requisites to define a free trade area (FTA).

Numerous countries have signed a European Union
European Union
Association Agreement (AA) with FTA provisions. These mainly include Mediterranean countries (Algeria in 2005, Egypt in 2004, Israel
Israel
in 2000, Jordan in 2002, Lebanon in 2006, Morocco in 2000, Palestinian National Authority in 1997, and Tunisia in 1998), albeit some countries from other trade blocs have also signed one (such as Chile in 2003, Mexico in 2000, and South Africa in 2000).

Further, many Balkan states have signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) with FTA provisions, such as Albania (signed 2006), Montenegro
Montenegro
(2007), Macedonia (2004), Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia
Serbia
(both 2008, entry-into-force pending).

In 2008, Poland
Poland
and Sweden
Sweden
proposed the Eastern Partnership which would include setting a FTA between the EU and Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine.

Customs Union

European Union
European Union
Customs Union

The European Union
European Union
Customs Union defines an area where no customs are levied on goods travelling within it. It includes all member states of the European Union
European Union
. The abolition of internal tariff barriers between EEC member states was achieved in 1968.

Andorra and San Marino
San Marino
belong to the EU customs unions with third states. Turkey
Turkey
is linked by the European Union- Turkey
Turkey
Customs Union .

Single Market

European Economic Area : EFTA member countries excluding Switzerland
Switzerland
European Union
European Union
member states (excluding Croatia) EU member state provisionally applying the agreement (Croatia) EFTA signatory state that did not ratify (Switzerland)

A prominent goal of the EU since its creation by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 is establishing and maintaining a single market . This seeks to guarantee the four basic freedoms , which are related to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and people around the EU's internal market.

The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement allows Norway, Iceland
Iceland
and Liechtenstein to participate in the European Single Market without joining the EU. The four basic freedoms apply. However, some restrictions on fisheries and agriculture take place. Switzerland
Switzerland
is linked to the European Union
European Union
by Swiss-EU bilateral agreements , with a different content from that of the EEA agreement.

Eurozone

Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union
European Union
(2014) Members of the Eurozone
Eurozone
ERM-II-member with opt-out (Denmark) EU-member with opt-out (United Kingdom) The rest of the EU-members, which are obliged to join

The Eurozone
Eurozone
refers to the European Union
European Union
member states that have adopted the euro currency union as the third stage of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Further, certain states outside the EU have adopted the euro as their currency, despite not belonging to the EMU. Thus, a total of 25 states, including 19 European Union states and six non-EU members, currently use the euro.

The Eurozone
Eurozone
came into existence with the official launch of the euro on 1 January 1999. Physical coins and banknotes were introduced on 1 January 2002.

The original members were Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Greece
Greece
adopted the euro on 1 January 2001. Slovenia
Slovenia
joined on 1 January 2007, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta
Malta
were admitted on 1 January 2008, Slovakia
Slovakia
joined on 1 January 2009, Estonia
Estonia
on 1 January 2011, Latvia on 1 January 2014 and Lithuania
Lithuania
on 1 January 2015.

Outside the EU, agreements have been concluded with Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City
Vatican City
for formal adoption, including the right to issue their own coins. Montenegro
Montenegro
and Kosovo
Kosovo
unilaterally adopted the euro when it launched.

Fiscal Union

Main article: European Fiscal Union

There has long been speculation about the possibility of the European Union eventually becoming a fiscal union . In the wake of the European sovereign debt crisis , calls for closer fiscal ties, possibly leading to some sort of fiscal union have increased; though it is generally regarded as implausible in the short term, some analysts regard fiscal union as a long-term necessity. While stressing the need for coordination, governments have rejected talk of fiscal union or harmonisation in this regard.

Aviation

ECAC , Eurocontrol , ECAA , EU ECAC , Eurocontrol , ECAA ECAC , Eurocontrol ECAC , ECAA ECAC

There are three main aviation related institutions present in Europe:

* European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) * Eurocontrol * European Common Aviation Area (ECAA)

Energy

Energy Community
Energy Community
in 2014 - Contracting Parties in dark blue, Observers in light blue

The transnational energy related structures present in Europe
Europe
are:

* Energy Community
Energy Community
* European Atomic Energy Community * European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity * European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas * INOGATE * Energy Charter Treaty

Standardisation

The transnational standardisation organisations present in Europe are:

* European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) * European Committee for Standardization (CEN) * European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) * Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM)

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INTEGRATION

Education

The ERASMUS programme (European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students) seeks to encourage and support free movement of the academic community. It was established in 1987.

A total of 33 states (including all European Union
European Union
states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland
Switzerland
and Turkey) are involved. European Higher Education Area

The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) aims to integrate education systems in Europe. Thus, degrees and study periods are recognised mutually. This is done by following the Bologna process , and under the Lisbon Recognition Convention of the Council of Europe .

The Bologna declaration was signed in 1999 by 29 countries, all EU members or candidates at the moment (except Cyprus
Cyprus
which joined later) and three out of four EFTA countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom. Croatia, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, and Turkey
Turkey
joined in 2001. In 2003, Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Holy See
Holy See
(a Council of Europe permanent observer), Macedonia, Russia, and Serbia
Serbia
signed the convention. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
followed in 2005. Montenegro
Montenegro
joined in 2007. Finally, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(not a member of the Council of Europe ) joined in 2010. This makes a total of 47 member states. Monaco
Monaco
and San Marino
San Marino
are the only members of the Council of Europe which have not adopted the convention. The other European nation that is eligible to join, but has not, is Belarus.

Research

There are a number of multinational research institutions based in Europe. Of these, eight are engaged in the EIROforum collaboration.

* European Space Agency * European Molecular Biology Laboratory * European Fusion Development Agreement * European Southern Observatory

PARTICLE PHYSICS:

* CERN * European Synchrotron Radiation Facility * Institut Laue–Langevin * European XFEL

METEOROLOGY:

* EUMETSAT * European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts * EUMETNET

Health

EHIC participating nations (EU members in blue, non-members in green) epSOS participating nations

The European Health Insurance Card (or EHIC) is issued free of charge and allows anyone who is insured by or covered by a statutory social security scheme of the EEA countries and Switzerland
Switzerland
to receive medical treatment in another member state for free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit (for example, due to illness or an accident), or if they have a chronic pre-existing condition which requires care such as kidney dialysis .

The EPSOS project, also known as _Smart Open Services for European Patients_, aims to promote free movement of patients. It will allow health professionals to electronically access the data from patients from another country, to electronically process prescriptions in all involved countries, or to provide treatment in another EU state to a patient on a waiting list.

The project has been launched by the EU and 47 member institutions from 23 EU member states and 3 non-EU members. They include national health ministries, national competence centres, social insurance institutions and scientific institutions as well as technical and administrative management entities.

Charter Of Fundamental Rights

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
European Union
is a document enshrining certain fundamental rights . The wording of the document has been agreed at ministerial level and has been incorporated into the Treaty of Lisbon . Poland
Poland
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
have negotiated an opt out from this Charter.

Right To Vote

The European integration
European integration
process has extended the right of foreigners to vote . Thus, European Union
European Union
citizens were given voting rights in local elections by the 1992 Maastricht Treaty . Several member states (Belgium, Luxembourg, Lithuania, and Slovenia) have extended since then the right to vote to all foreign residents. This was already the case in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Sweden. Further, voting and eligibility rights are granted among citizens of the Nordic Passport Union , and between numerous countries through bilateral treaties (i.e. between Norway
Norway
and Spain, or between Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil, Cape Verde, Iceland, Norway, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile and Argentina), or without them (i.e. Ireland and the United Kingdom). Finally, within the EEA , Iceland
Iceland
and Norway
Norway
also grant the right to vote to all foreign residents.

Schengen Zone

Schengen Agreement Full Schengen EU members Non-EU Schengen members Future members Cooperating countries Visa policy in the European Union
European Union
Main article: Schengen Area

The main purpose of the establishment of the Schengen Agreement is the abolition of physical borders among European countries. A total of 30 states, including 26 European Union
European Union
states (all except Ireland and United Kingdom) and four non-EU members (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland), are subject to the Schengen rules. Its provisions have already been implemented by 26 states, leaving just Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, and Romania
Romania
to do so among signatory states.

Further, Monaco, San Marino
San Marino
and Vatican City
Vatican City
are _de facto_ members.

Visa Policy In EU

Main article: Visa policy in the European Union
European Union

European Union
European Union
has visa-free regime agreements with some European countries outside EU and discussing such agreements with others; Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. Matters concerning Turkey
Turkey
have also been debated. Ireland and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
maintain independent visa policies in the EU.

MILITARY

Main article: Military
Military
of the European Union
European Union
Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO
NATO
EU member only NATO
NATO
member only member of both NATO
NATO
members in blue, CSTO members in orange

There are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU, and therefore can be seen as the core for a future European Union
European Union
army. These corps include forces from 26 EU states – all except Denmark, which has an opt-out clause in its accession treaty and is not obliged to participate in the common defence policy; and Malta, which currently does not participate in any battlegroup –, Norway
Norway
and Turkey. Further, the WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU) capabilities and functions have been transferred to the European Union, under its developing Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).

The EU also has close ties with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), according to the Berlin Plus agreement . This is a comprehensive package of agreements made between NATO
NATO
and the EU on 16 December 2002. With this agreement the EU is given the possibility to use NATO
NATO
assets in case it wanted to act independently in an international crisis, on the condition that NATO
NATO
does not want to act itself – the so-called "right of first refusal". The participation in European defence organisations

In fact, many EU member states are among the 28 NATO
NATO
members. The Treaty of Brussels is considered the precursor to NATO. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington, D.C. in 1949. It included the five Treaty of Brussels states, as well as the United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark
Denmark
and Iceland. Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
joined the alliance in 1952, and West Germany
Germany
did the same in 1955. Spain
Spain
entered in 1982. In 1999, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland
Poland
became NATO
NATO
members. Finally, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia
Slovakia
joined in 2004. In 2009, Croatia
Croatia
and Albania
Albania
joined. In 2008, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Georgia were told that they will also eventually become members. The Republic of Macedonia's application process is finished, but it is blocked by Greece. Thus, 22 out of 28 NATO
NATO
states are among the 28 EU members, another two are members of the EEA, and one more is an EU candidate and also a member of the European Union
European Union
Customs Union .

SPACE

_ ESA member countries ECS states signed Cooperation Agreement (CA) ESA and EU member countries ESA-only members EU-only members For more information on ESA enlargement see also: Enlargement of the European Space Agency _

On 22 May 2007, the member states of the European Union
European Union
have agreed to create a common political framework for space activities in Europe by unifying the approach of the European Space Agency (ESA) with those of the individual European Union
European Union
member states.

However, ESA is an intergovernmental organisation with no formal organic link to the EU; indeed the two institutions have different member states and are governed by different rules and procedures. ESA was created in 1975 by the merger of the two pre-existing European organisations engaged in space activities, ELDO and ESRO . The 10 founding members were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
Switzerland
and the United Kingdom. Ireland joined on 31 December 1975. In 1987, Austria
Austria
and Norway
Norway
became member states. Finland
Finland
joined in 1995, Portugal
Portugal
in 2000, Greece
Greece
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
in 2005, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
in 2008, and Romania
Romania
in 2011. Currently, it has 20 member states: all the EU member states before 2004, plus Czech Republic, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Switzerland. In addition, Canada has had the special status of a Cooperating State under a series of cooperation agreements dating since 1979.

The political perspective of the European Union
European Union
is to make ESA an agency of the EU by 2014. ESA is likely to expand in the coming years with the countries which joined the EU in both 2004 and 2007. Currently, almost all EU member states are in different stages of affiliation with ESA. Poland
Poland
has joined on 19 November 2012. Hungary
Hungary
and Estonia
Estonia
have signed ESA Convention. Latvia
Latvia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
have started to implement a Plan for European Cooperating State (PECS) Charter. Slovakia, Lithuania
Lithuania
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
have signed a European Cooperating State (ECS) Agreement. Cyprus, and Malta
Malta
have signed Cooperation Agreements with ESA. The only EU member state that has not signed any agreement with ESA is Croatia.

MEMBERSHIP IN EUROPEAN UNION AGREEMENTS

_ EU, Schengen, EMU, CSDP (All agreements): 17 c. EU, Schengen, CSDP: 4 c. EU, Schengen: 1 c. EU, EMU, CSDP: 2 c. EU, CSDP: 3 c. EEA, Schengen: 2 c. Schengen, Bilateral treaties: 1 c. Candidates, some agreements: 5 c. Microstates, some agreements: 5 c. Association Agreement: 5 c. some agreements: 0 c. For participation of non-EU countries in EU integration initiatives see also Multi-speed Europe _

A small group of EU member states have joined all European treaties, instead of opting out on some. They drive the development of a federal model for the European integration. This is linked to the concept of Multi-speed Europe where some countries would create a core union; and goes back to the Inner Six references to the founding member states of the European Communities .

At present the formation of a formal Core Europe
Europe
Federation ("a federation within the confederation") had been held off at every occasion that such a federation treaty had been discussed. Instead supranational institutions are created that govern more areas in "Inner Europe" than the existing European integration
European integration
provides for.

Among the 28 EU state members, seventeen states have signed all integration agreements: Austria, Belgium, Finland, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Spain.

The agreements considered include the fifth stage of economic integration or EMU , the Schengen agreement and the Common Security and Defence Policy .

Thus, among the 28 EU countries, 19 have joined the Eurozone, 22 have joined Schengen, and 27 compose the European Military.

Further, some countries which do not belong to the EU have joined several of these initiatives, albeit sometimes at a lower stage such as the Customs Union , the Common Market (EEA) , or even unilaterally adopting the euro; by taking part in Schengen , either as a signatory state, or _de facto_; or by joining some common military forces.

Thus, six non-EU countries have adopted the euro (four through an agreement with the EU and two unilaterally), four non-EU states have joined the Schengen agreement officially, and other countries have joined common military corps.

The following table shows the status of each state membership to the different agreements promoted by the EU. It lists 45 countries, including the 28 EU member states, 5 candidate states, members of EEA (2 countries plus one EU candidate), 3 countries with some soft ties to the EU, such as those with SAA or participation agreements, as well as the 4 remaining Microstates ( Liechtenstein is an EEA member) and Switzerland
Switzerland
which has multiple bilateral treaties with the EU, as well as two Eastern Partner states.

Hence, this table summarises some components of EU laws applied in the European states. Some territories of EU member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied. Some territories of EFTA member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates . For member states that do not have special-status territories the EU law applies fully with the exception of the opt-outs in the European Union
European Union
and states under a safeguard clause or alternatively some states participate in enhanced co-operation between a subset of the EU members. Additionally there are various examples of non-participation by some EU members and non-EU states participation in particular Agencies of the European Union , the programmes for European Higher Education Area , European Research Area and Erasmus Mundus .

European Union
European Union
Agreements STATE MAP EU EEA CUSTOMS UNION SCHENGEN EMU (EURO) CSDP

_ Austria

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Belgium

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eurocorps , EU BGs

Estonia

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Finland

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

France

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eurocorps , EU BGs , EGF

Germany

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eurocorps , EU BGs

Greece

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Italy

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs , EGF

Latvia

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Lithuania

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs , EGF (Partner)

Luxembourg

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eurocorps , EU BGs

Malta

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes,

Netherlands

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs , EGF

Portugal

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs , EGF

Slovakia

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Slovenia

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes EU BGs

Spain

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Eurocorps , EU BGs , EGF

Czech Republic

Yes Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join EU BGs

Hungary

Yes Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join EU BGs

Poland

Yes Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join Eurocorps , EU BGs , EGF

Sweden

Yes Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join EU BGs

Denmark

Yes Yes Yes Yes Opt-out , ERM II No

Cyprus

Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join Yes EU BGs

Ireland

Yes Yes Yes No , Visa Free Yes EU BGs

Bulgaria

Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join Obliged to join EU BGs

Croatia

Yes Accession agreement initialled Yes Obliged to join Obliged to join EU BGs

Romania

Yes Yes Yes Obliged to join Obliged to join , Target is 2019. EU BGs , EGF

United Kingdom

Yes Yes Yes No , Visa Free Opt-out EU BGs

Norway

Applications withdrawn Yes No Yes No No; EU BGs

Iceland

Applications withdrawn Yes No Yes No No

Switzerland

Application frozen Bilateral treaties No (Swiss-Liecht CU ) Yes No No

Albania

Candidate No, EC , ECAA No No, Visa Free No No

Macedonia

Candidate No, EC , ECAA No No, Visa Free No No; EU BGs

Montenegro

Candidate No, EC , ECAA No No, Visa Free Unilaterally adopted No

Serbia

Candidate No, EC , ECAA No No, Visa Free No No; EU BGs

Turkey

Candidate No Customs Union No No No; EU BGs

Andorra

No No Customs Union No , Visa Free Yes No

Liechtenstein

No Yes No (Swiss-Liecht CU ) Yes No No

Monaco

No No de facto_, with France _de facto_, with France
France
Yes No

San Marino

No No Customs Union Open border Yes No

Vatican City

No No No Open border Yes No

Bosnia and Herzegovina

SAA, Application Submitted 2/15/2016 No, EC , ECAA No No, Visa Free No No

Moldova

AA No, EC , CAA signed No No, Visa Free No No

Georgia

AA No, EC , CAA signed No No, Visa Free No No

Ukraine

AA signed No, EC No No, Visa Free No No; EU BGs

Republic of Kosovo

SAA No, EC , ECAA No No Unilaterally adopted No

Notes:

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ In a customs union with the EU. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Formal agreement with the EU to issue euros.

FUTURE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

Main articles: Enlargement of the European Union
European Union
, Future enlargement of the European Union
European Union
, Federal Europe , Eurosphere , Eurasian Union , and Enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union Current EU members Candidate countries Potential candidate countries Membership possible

There is no fixed end to the process of integration. The discussion on the possible final political shape or configuration of the European Union is sometimes referred to as the debate on the FINALITé POLITIQUE (French for “political purpose”). Integration and enlargement of the European Union
European Union
are major issues in the politics of Europe, each at European, national and local level. Integration may conflict with national sovereignty and cultural identity , and is opposed by eurosceptics . To the east of the European Union, the countries of Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia
Russia
launched the creation of the Eurasian Union in the year 2015, which was subsequently joined by Armenia
Armenia
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. Other states in the region, such as Moldova and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
may also join. Meanwhile, the post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic , South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, and Transnistria have created the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations to closer integrate among each other. Some Eastern European countries such as Armenia
Armenia
have opted to cooperate with both the EU and the Eurasian Union. On February 24, 2017 Tigran Sargsyan , the Chairman of the Eurasian Economic Commission stated that Armenia's stance was to cooperate and work with both the European Union
European Union
and the Eurasian Union . Sargsyan added that although Armenia
Armenia
is part of the Eurasian Union, a new European Union
European Union
Association Agreement between Armenia
Armenia
and the EU would be finalized shortly. Several countries in Eastern Europe have engaged the EU with the aim to grow economic and political ties. The Euronest Parliamentary Assembly , established in 2003, is the inter-parliamentary forum in which members of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of Ukraine
Ukraine
, Moldova , Belarus
Belarus
, Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia participate and forge closer political and economic ties with the European Union. All of these States participate in the EU's Eastern Partnership program. The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and the Community of Democratic Choice are other organizations established to promote European integration, stability, and democracy. On 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. Currently, Georgia is the only country in the Caucasus
Caucasus
actively seeking EU membership.

EUROPEAN SECURITY TREATY

In 2008 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced a new concept for Russian foreign politics and called for the creation of a common space in Euro-Atlantic and Eurasia area "from Vancouver to Vladivostok". On 5 June 2009 in Berlin he proposed a new all-European pact for security that would include all European, CIS countries and the United States. On 29 November 2009 a draft version of the European Security Treaty appeared. French president Sarkozy spoke positively about Medvedev's ideas and called for closer security and economic relation between Europe
Europe
and Russia. Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych also called for stronger integration of Europe, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia. On the other hand, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and NATO
NATO
chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said such new agreement is unnecessary.

COMMON SPACE FROM LISBON TO VLADIVOSTOK

Area from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
with all European and CIS countries

Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in a German newspaper in 2010 called for common economic space, free-trade area or more advanced economic integration, stretching from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
. He also said it is quite possible Russia
Russia
could join the eurozone one day. French president Nicolas Sarkozy in 2010 said he believes in 10 or 15 years there will be common economic space between EU and Russia
Russia
with visa-free regime and general concept of security.

CONCEPT OF A SINGLE LEGAL SPACE FOR THE CIS AND EUROPE

Member states of the European Union
European Union
Current enlargement agenda Special
Special
member state territories outside the EU EEZ of special member state territories outside the EU

Russian legal scholar Oleg Kutafin and economist Alexander Zakharov produced a Concept of a Single Legal Space for the CIS and Europe
Europe
in 2002. This idea was fully incorporated in the resolution of the 2003 Moscow Legal Forum. The Forum gathered representatives of more than 20 countries including 10 CIS countries. In 2007 both the International Union of Jurists of the CIS and the International Union (Commonwealth) of Advocates passed resolutions that strongly support the Concept of a Single Legal Space for Europe
Europe
and post-Soviet Countries.

The concept said: "Obviously, to improve its legislation Russia
Russia
and other countries of CIS should be oriented toward the continental legal family of European law. The civil law system is much closer to the Russian and other CIS countries will be instrumental in harmonising legislation of CIS countries and the European Community but all values of common law should be also investigated on the subject of possible implementation in some laws and norms. It is suggested that the introduction of the concept of a Single legal space and a single Rule of Law space for Europe
Europe
and CIS be implemented in four steps:

* Development plans at the national level regarding adoption of selected EC legal standards in the legislation of CIS countries; * Promotion of measures for harmonisation of law with the goal of developing a single legal space for Europe
Europe
and CIS countries in the area of commercial and corporate law; * Making the harmonisation of judicial practice of CIS countries compatible with Rule of Law principles and coordination of the basic requirements of the Rule of Law in CIS countries with the EU legal standards. * Development of ideas the Roerich Pact (International Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institution and Historic Monuments initiated by Russian thinker Nicholas Roerich and signed in 1935 by 40 % of sovereign states in Washington D.C.) into the law of CIS countries and European law.

BEYOND EUROPE

EURO-MEDITERRANEAN PARTNERSHIP

EU regional initiatives; current enlargement agenda (SAP and candidate countries ), ENP ; Eastern Partnership , Euromediterranean Partnership and EU- Russia
Russia
Common Spaces

The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership or Barcelona Process was organised by the European Union
European Union
to strengthen its relations with the countries in the Mashriq and Maghreb regions. It started in 1995 with the Barcelona Euro-Mediterranean Conference , and it has been developed in successive annual meetings.

The European Union
European Union
enlargement of 2004 brought two more Mediterranean countries ( Cyprus
Cyprus
and Malta) into the Union, while adding a total of 10 to the number of Member States. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership today comprises 43 members: 28 European Union
European Union
member states, and 15 partner countries (Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia, as well as the Palestinian Territories). Libya has had observer status since 1999.

The Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area (EU-MEFTA) is based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). It will cover the EU, the EFTA , the EU customs unions with third states (Andorra, San Marino, and Turkey), the EU candidate states , and the partners of the Barcelona Process .

The Union for the Mediterranean is a community of countries, mostly bordering the Mediterranean Sea , established in July 2008.

Ties With Partners

Morocco already has a number of close ties with the EU, including an Association Agreement with FTA provisions, air transport integration, or the participation in military operations such as ALTHEA in Bosnia.

Further, it will be the first partner to go beyond association by enhancing political and economic ties, entering the Single Market, and participating in some EU agencies.

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

See also: Post-Soviet states § Regional organizations European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a loose organisation in which most former Soviet republics participate. A visa-free regime operates among members and a free-trade area is planned. Ukraine
Ukraine
is not an official member, but has participated in the organisation. Some members are more integrated than others, for example Russia
Russia
and Belarus
Belarus
form a Union State . In 2010 Belarus, Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan formed a customs union and a single market (Common Economic Space ) commenced on 1 January 2012. The Presidents of Belarus, Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
established the Eurasian Union with a Eurasian Commission in 2015, subsequently joined by Armenia
Armenia
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
. A common currency is also planned, potentially to be named "evraz". Some other countries in the region, such as Moldova
Moldova
are potential members of these organisations.

COMMUNITY FOR DEMOCRACY AND RIGHTS OF NATIONS

The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
, the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic , South Ossetia
South Ossetia
, and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations which aims to forge closer integration.

EU AND OTHER REGIONS AND COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD

ASEM
ASEM
ACP countries EuroLat Proposed TAFTA
TAFTA

The European Union
European Union
has made loose organisations and meeting with some other countries and regions. ASEM
ASEM
is forum held every two years since 1996, consisting of EU and some Asian countries, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States with EU form ACP–EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly promoting ACP–EU development cooperation , democracy and human rights, EU and Latin American countries have made Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly . TAFTA
TAFTA
is proposed free trade area between EU and United States
United States
.

* ASEM
ASEM
Asia–Europe Meeting * ACP – African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (Economic Partnership Agreements ) * EuroLat – Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly * TAFTA
TAFTA
Transatlantic Free Trade Area

OTHER ORGANISATIONS IN WORLD

European countries like the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, France
France
, Spain
Spain
, Portugal
Portugal
have made organisations with other countries in the world with which they have strong cultural and historical links. Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Francophonie Ibero-American States Latin Union

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES IN THE WORLD

English is considered to be the global lingua franca . European languages like English, French , Spanish , Portuguese , Russian and German are official, co-official or widely in use in many countries with a colonial past or with a European diaspora . Anglophone Francophone Hispanophone and Lusophone Russophone
Russophone
Germanophone

WORLD INTEGRATION

Main article: Globalisation WTO members Economic integration ICC members Death penalty Conscription
Conscription
Kyoto Protocol

SEE ALSO

* Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation * CIS * Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations * Community of Democratic Choice * Council of Europe * Enlargement of the European Union
European Union
* Eurasian Economic Union * Euronest Parliamentary Assembly * European Coal and Steel Community * European Foreign Policy * European Policy Centre * Euroscepticism * Eurovoc * Federal Europe * Federalism * Intergovernmentalism * International organisations in Europe * Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification * Multi-level governance * Multi-speed Europe * Neofunctionalism * Pan-European identity * Politics of Europe * Pro-European * Pulse of Europe Initiative * Regions of Europe * Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* Supranationalism * TRACECA * United States of Europe

* Europe
Europe
portal

REFERENCES

* ^ Ben Rosamond, Theories of European Integration, Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, pp. 21–22. * ^ D. Weigall and P. Stirk, editors, _The Origins and Development of the European Community_, Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1992, pp. 11–15. * ^ Churchill, Winston (1946). _Speech to the Academic Youth_ (Speech). Zürich, Switzerland. * ^ "The political consequences". Centre virtuel de la connaissance sur l\' Europe
Europe
. Retrieved 16 January 2015. * ^ "Ein britischer Patriot für Europa: Winston Churchills Europa-Rede, Universität Zürich, 19. September 1946" . _Zeit Online_. Retrieved 13 January 2010. * ^ Declaration 52 at Wikisource * ^ "The North Atlantic Treaty". 29 November 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2008. * ^ What is the EUSBSR : EUSBSR : GroupSpaces. Balticsea-region-strategy.eu. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. * ^ Alsasua, Jesús, Javier Bilbao‐Ubillos, and Jon Olaskoaga. "The EU integration process and the convergence of social protection benefits at national level." _International Journal of Social Welfare_ 16.4 (2007): 297-306. * ^ Toshkov, Dimiter, and Elitsa Kortenska. "Does immigration undermine public support for integration in the European Union?." _JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies_ 53.4 (2015): 910-925. * ^ http://files.groupspaces.com/EUStrategyfortheDanubeRegion/files/720746/TOmnsaHj4huI83uSbzat/Pamphlet.pdf * ^ "EBU Active Members". _ebu.ch_. EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015. * ^ "EBU Associate Members". _ebu.ch_. EBU. Retrieved 9 June 2015. * ^ " European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Commission approves the EBU-Eurovision system". europa.eu. Retrieved 24 October 2016. * ^ "EBU - Eurovision Debate". EBU. Retrieved 24 October 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Officially referred to by the EU and most other European organisations by the provisional appellation "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", due to an ongoing naming dispute . * ^ Belarus
Belarus
still Participating in "Eastern Partnership," FM. Telegraf.by. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. * ^ "EU Looks East as Foreign Policy Council Convenes". _Deutsche Welle_. Bonn. 25 May 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008. * ^ Münchau, Wolfgang (10 November 2010). " Fiscal union is crucial to the euro\'s survival". _Financial Times_. London. Retrieved 20 January 2011. The establishment of a fiscal union would require such a massive change in the European treaties that it is hard to see how it could be done. * ^ Münchau, Wolfgang (12 December 2010). "How a mini fiscal union could end instability". _Financial Times_. London. Retrieved 20 January 2011. Yet almost all political and legal experts who specialise in the European Union
European Union
believe a fiscal union is Utopian. If both are right a fiscal union is simultaneously necessary and impossible. * ^ Saltmarsh, Matthew (24 January 2011). "Tighter Fiscal Union in Europe? Not So Fast, Says French Finance Minister". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 24 January 2011. * ^ "Smart Open Services". * ^ "Visa-free travel between Russia
Russia
and the EU? Yes, but not yet". _European Voice_. Brussels. 9 September 2010. * ^ " Russia
Russia
optimistic on EU visa-free travel". _EU Observer_. 3 September 2010. * ^ Ukraine
Ukraine
Reconfirms its Aspiration for Closer Integration With the European Union. _PRNewswire_. 13 September 2010. * ^ " Moldova
Moldova
eyes EU visa-free travel". _EU Observer_. 10 May 2010.

* ^ Turkey\'s visa policy: Has Turkey
Turkey
given up its demand of free movement in the EU?. _Hurriyet_. 15 February 2010. * ^ " Turkey
Turkey
determined to lift visa with the EU". _European Union Platform_. 26 May 2010. * ^ New force behind EU foreign policy BBC News – 15 March 2007 * ^ Marseille Declaration 2000 weu.int * ^ Bram Boxhoorn, _Broad Support for NATO
NATO
in the Netherlands_, 21 September 2005, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2007. * ^ "European Space Policy". Esa.int. 22 May 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2011. * ^ _Canada-ESA Evaluation 2010_ (PDF). Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ "ESA Portal
Portal
– Benefits for Europe
Europe
– ESA and Canada renew partnership in space science and technology – printer version". Esa.int. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2011. * ^ "ESA BR-268" (PDF). Retrieved 17 October 2011. * ^ "ESA Portal
Portal
– Polish flag raised at ESA". Esa.int. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012. * ^ " Hungary
Hungary
accedes to ESA Convention / Welcome to ESA / About Us / ESA". Esa.int. Retrieved 2016-01-06. * ^ " Estonia
Estonia
accedes to ESA Convention / Press Releases / For Media / ESA". Esa.int. Retrieved 2016-01-06. * ^ "ESA – About ESA – Cyprus
Cyprus
signs Cooperation Agreement". Esa.int. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2011. * ^ 3 October 1990 for East Germany * ^ Though a member of the CSDP, Malta
Malta
doesn't participate in the Eurocorps , EGF , or EU BGs . * ^ Malta
Malta
considers token part in EU \'battle groups\'. timesofmalta.com (2004-11-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-19. * ^ Polska dołączy do ważnego europejskiego _klubu". Wojskowego_ * ^ accession suspended (1962 and 1967). Then rejected in two referendums (1972 and 1994) * ^ " Iceland
Iceland
withdraws EU accession bid News DW.COM 12.03.2015". Dw.de. Retrieved 2016-01-06. * ^ "Swiss say \'no\' to EU". BBC. 4 March 2001. Retrieved 2012-09-15. * ^ "Trade – Switzerland". European Commission . Retrieved 2012-09-15. * ^ "EU Battle Group, including Macedonian army troops, ends military exercise Republika Online". English.republika.mk. 2014-06-13. Retrieved 2016-01-06. * ^ " Andorra : Customs Unions and preferential arrangements". European Commission . Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-12. * ^ " San Marino
San Marino
: Customs Unions and preferential arrangements". European Commission . Retrieved 2012-09-12. * ^ "Trade : Turkey". European Commission . Retrieved 2012-09-12. * ^ " Turkey
Turkey
: Customs Unions and preferential arrangements". European Commission . Retrieved 2012-09-12. * ^ The debate on the finalité politique of the European Enion in the applicant countries from central and eastern Europe: measures accompanying other EU activities to prepare the IGC 2004 * ^ " Armenia
Armenia
president and European Commission official discuss EU- Armenia
Armenia
talks". 2017-02-03. * ^ "Initial Agreement Reached To Establish Parliamentary Assembly Of European Parliament\'s Eastern Neighbors". * ^ (PDF) http://www.libertas-institut.com/de/PDF/Armenia%20ante%20portas.pdf Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ "New concept of the Russian foreign policy: from Vancouver to Vladivostok?". Geopolitika.lt. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ MEDVEDEV PROPOSES ALL-EUROPEAN SECURITY PACT DURING BERLIN VISIT 9 June 2008 * ^ http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/email/medvedev-and-the-new-european-security-architecture 3 August 2009 * ^ "The draft of the European Security Treaty". Eng.news.kremlin.ru. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ The draft of the European Security Treaty In Russian * ^ Russia
Russia
proposes new Euro-Atlantic security treaty 30 November 2009 * ^ Sarkozy wants new EU-US- Russia
Russia
security accord 14 November 2008 * ^ Sarkozy backs Russian calls for pan-European security pact 15 November 2008 * ^ http://en.rian.ru/world/20100619/159490485.html 19 June 2010 * ^ "http://english.ruvr.ru/2010/10/06/24433259.html". :. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011. External link in title= (help ) * ^ Sarkozy to Propose New Bond With Russia
Russia
1 October 2010 * ^ "France\'s Sarkozy supports Russian-European security plan World RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 19 June 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ No need for new European security treaty – NATO
NATO
chief 8 October 2010 * ^ Donahue, Patrick (25 November 2010). "Putin Promotes Trade Zone From ‘ Lisbon
Lisbon
to Vladivostok’". Bloomberg. Retrieved 20 April 2011.

* ^ sueddeutsche.de GmbH, Munich, Germany. "Von Lissabon bis Wladiwostok". Sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved 20 April 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "From Lisbon
Lisbon
to Vladivostok" (in German). Translate.google.de. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ "Putin Envisions a Russia-EU Free Trade Zone". _Der Spiegel_. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ " Russia
Russia
and Europe: From an Analysis of Crisis Lessons to a New Partnership Agenda". Government.ru. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ Armitstead, Louise (26 November 2010). "Putin: Russia
Russia
will join the euro one day". _The Daily Telegraph_. UK. Retrieved 20 April 2011.

* ^ " Nicolas Sarkozy believes the visa-free regime (EU-Russia) is possible in 10–15 years". Visahouse.com. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2011. * ^ Evgeny Semenyako, Petr Barenboim, _The Moscow-Bruges Concept of a Single Legal and Rule of Law Space for Europe
Europe
and Russia_, Justitceinform, Moscow, 2007, ISBN 978-5-7205-0911-8 ; Peter Barenboim, Naeem Sidiqi, _Bruges, the Bridge between Civilizations: The 75 Anniversary of the Roerich Pact_, Grid Belgium, 2010. ISBN 978-5-98856-114-9 * ^ Sarkozy sounds out basis for Mediterranean Union Euractiv.com 16 July 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2007. * ^ . Retrieved 15 October 2008. * ^ . Retrieved 15 October 2008. * ^ . Retrieved 15 October 2008. * ^ . Retrieved 15 October 2008.

FURTHER READING

* Carrasco, C. A., & Peinado, P. (2014). _On the origin of European imbalances in the context of European integration,_ Working papers wpaper71, Financialisation, Economy, Society ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

_ Foreign relations of the European Union
European Union

BILATERAL RELATIONS

See also_: Economic relationships with third countries

AFRICA border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;width:auto;">

* Bahrain * Cape Verde * Iran * Iraq * Israel
Israel
* Jordan * Lebanon * Morocco * Palestine† * South Africa * Syria * Yemen

_

AMERICAS

* Argentina * Brazil * Canada * Cuba * Greenland * Mexico * United States
United States

ASIA-PACIFIC

* Australia * Bangladesh * China (People\'s Republic of) * India * Indonesia * Japan * Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Malaysia * Nepal * New Zealand * North Korea * Pakistan * Philippines * South Korea

EUROPE

* Albania
Albania
* Andorra * Armenia
Armenia
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
* Belarus
Belarus
* Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Faroe Islands * Georgia * Iceland
Iceland
* Kosovo† * Liechtenstein * Macedonia * Moldova
Moldova
* Monaco
Monaco
* Montenegro
Montenegro
* Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(Turkish Republic of)† * Norway
Norway
* Russia
Russia
* San Marino
San Marino
* Serbia
Serbia
* Switzerland
Switzerland
* Turkey
Turkey
* Ukraine
Ukraine
* Vatican City
Vatican City

GENERAL

* Members’ overseas territories * Largest trading partners * Association Agreements * Free trade agreements

* †= Disputed state, may not be recognised as an independent state by some or all European Union
European Union
members.

MULTILATERAL RELATIONS AND INITIATIVES

ORGANISATIONS

* Arab League * ASEAN * Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
* Council of Europe * ECHR * G8 * ICC * United Nations

INITIATIVES

* African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States * Asia–Europe Meeting * CARIFORUM * Customs Union * Eastern Partnership * Energy Community
Energy Community
* Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly * European Common Aviation Area * European Economic Area * Euro-Mediterranean free trade area * Euro-Mediterranean Partnership * Euronest * Economic Partnership Agreements * EU CBRN Risk Mitigation CoE Initiative * Neighbourhood Policy * Northern Dimension * Mediterranean Union * Stabilisation and Association Process

ADMINISTRATION AND POLICIES

FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY

* Security Strategy * Everything but Arms * Security and Defence Policy * Enlargement

ADMINISTRATION

* Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department * Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development * External Action Service * Foreign Affairs Council * High Representative ( Federica Mogherini ) * Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee * Foreign Policy Instruments Service * Diplomatic missions of the EU (ambassadors ) / to the EU * Special
Special
Representatives

MILITARY AND SECURITY

INITIATIVES

* Defence Initiative * Synchronised Armed Forces * Defence Procurement * Petersberg tasks * Helsinki Headline Goal

STRUCTURES

* Political and Security Committee * Military
Military
Committee * Military
Military
Staff * Operations Centre * Security border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;width:auto;">

* Eurofor * Eurocorps * EU Battlegroup * EU Gendarmerie Force * EU Maritime Force * Deployments

* v * t * e

International reach and expansion of the European Union
European Union

THEORY

* Integration * Eurosphere * Pax Europaea * Superpower status * Federalisation

REACH

* ACP ( Economic Partnership Agreements ) * Association Agreement * Free trade agreements * Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) * European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) (missions ) * European Economic Area * Stabilisation and Association Process * Europeanisation * High Representative (Bosnia) * International Civilian Representative (Kosovo)

PARTNERSHIPS

* European Neighbourhood Policy (statistics ) * Eastern Partnership * Northern Dimension * Union for the Mediterranean

REPRESENTATION

* High Representative * President of the European Council * President of the European Commission * Delegations of the European Parliament

ASSETS

* Economy * Euro
Euro
(International status and usage ) * ECHO * Galileo * Military
Military

* v * t * e

Europe
Europe
articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Prehistory * Classical antiquity * Late antiquity * Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* Early modernity * World War I border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Military
Military

* Sovereignty

* predecessor states

GEOGRAPHY

* Areas and populations * Largest metropolitan areas * Cities * Extreme points * Geology * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers

* Sovereign states and dependent territories

* by population

* Villages

POLITICS

* Eurosphere * International organisations * Integration * Law * Politics * Post-Soviet Europe
Europe
* Transatlantic relations
Transatlantic relations

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) * Council of Europe (CoE) * Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) * GUAM Organization * North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation (NATO)

* Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

* statistics

EUROPEAN UNION

* Economy

* relations * free trade agreements

* Education * European Economic Area (EEA) * European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) * European Union
European Union
Customs Union (EUCU) * Eurozone
Eurozone
* Foreign relations

* Members

* enlargement

* Politics * Schengen Area * Statistics * Visa policy

ECONOMY

* History * Financial (and social) rankings * Free trade areas * Energy * Telecommunications * Transport

INTERGOVERNMENTAL

* Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) * Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Russia
(CUBKR) * Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC) * European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

SOVEREIGN STATES BY

* Average wage

* Budget revenues

* per capita

* Corruption index

* GDP (nominal)

* per capita

* GDP (PPP)

* per capita

* GNI (nominal) per capita * GNI (PPP) per capita * HDI * Internet users (%) * Minimum wage * Press Freedom Index * Unemployment rate (%) * Health expense per capita * Military
Military
spending (%) * Childhood population (%) * Urban population (%) * Life expectancy * Electricity use per capita

SOCIETY

* Etiquette * Social (and financial) rankings

* Languages

* endangered

* Universities

* Bologna Process * Erasmus

CULTURE

* Art

* painting * sculpture

* Architecture * Capital of Culture

* Cinema

* film festivals

* Classical music * Cuisine * Dance * Literature * Philosophy

* Religion

* Christianity * Islam * Judaism

* Sport * Symbols

DEMOGRAPHICS

* Ageing

* Ethnic groups

* genetic history

* Immigration * Life expectancy * Retirement

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal
* Maps

* v * t * e

European Union
European Union
articles

HISTORY

TIMELINE

* Pre-1945 * 1945–57 * 1958–72 * 1973–93 * 1993–2004 * Since 2004

PREDECESSORS

* Timeline * Founders * European Coal and Steel Community (1951–2002) * European Economic Community (1958–1993/2009) * Euratom (1958–present) * European Communities (1967–1993/2009) * Justice and Home Affairs (1993–2009)

GEOGRAPHY

* Extreme points * Largest municipalities * Urban areas * Larger urban zones * Member states * Regions (first-level NUTS) * Special
Special
territories

POLITICS

INSTITUTIONS

* European Council * European Commission * European Parliament * Council of the European Union
European Union
* Court of Justice of the European Union
European Union
* European Central Bank
European Central Bank
* European Court of Auditors

AGENCIES

* Banking * Border security (Frontex) * Criminal intelligence (Europol) * Disease prevention and control * Environment * Foreign affairs (External Action Service) * Judicial co-operation (Eurojust) * Maritime safety * Reconstruction

LAW

* Acquis * Charter of Fundamental Rights * Competition law * Copyright law

* Directive

* Citizens’ Rights Directive

* Enhanced cooperation * Environmental policy

* Four freedoms

* labour mobility

* Government procurement * Journal * Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification * Legislative procedure * Citizens\' Initiative * Regulation * Rural Development Policy * Schengen Area

* Treaties

* opt-outs

* LGBT rights

POLITICS

* Elections

* parliamentary constituencies

* Enlargement

* 1973 * 1981 * 1986 * 1995 * 2004 * 2007 * 2013 * Future

* Euromyths * Political parties (National parties by affiliation ) * Euroscepticism * Foreign relations * Integration * Parliamentary groups * Pro- Europeanism * Withdrawal ( Brexit ) * 2012 Nobel Peace Prize

ECONOMY

* Budget * Central bank * Agricultural policy * Fisheries policy * Currencies * Energy policy * Euro
Euro
* Eurozone
Eurozone
* Free trade agreements * Investment bank * Investment fund * Regional development * Single market * Societas Europaea _ * Solidarity Fund

* Transport

* Galileo navigation system

* minimum wage * average wage * unemployment rate * health expense per person * Healthcare * Health Insurance Card * Driving licence

CULTURE

* Citizenship

* passports * identity cards

* Cultural policies * Demographics * _ Douzelage _ * Driving licence * Education * Institute of Innovation and Technology * Laissez-passer * Languages * Media freedom * Public holidays * Religion * Sport * Telephone numbers * Statistics * Symbols

LISTS

* Concepts, acronyms, border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Eurosphere * Intergovernmentalism * Multi-speed * Neofunctionalism * Optimum currency area * Supranational union

* Outline

* Book
Book
* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Forms of economic integration

TRADE BLOC

* Preferential trading area * Free-trade area * Economic partnership * Passport-free zone * Single market

ECONOMIC UNION

* Customs union * Monetary union * Customs and monetary union * Economic and monetary union * Complete economic integration

SHARED POLICIES

* Fiscal union * Social union * Political union

THEORY

* Economic integration effects * Friction of distance * Harmonisation of law * Theory of the second best

REGIONS

* Europe * Latin America * Middle East * North America

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 7511684-4 * NDL : 00568986 * NKC : ph137464

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