Europe has an
Oceanic climate , far southern
Europe has a
Mediterranean climate , and eastern
Europe is classified as having a
Continental climate . The climate of western
Europe is strongly
conditioned by the
Gulf Stream , which keeps mild air (for the
latitude) over Northwestern
Europe in the winter months, especially in
Ireland, the UK and coastal Norway. Parts of the central European
plains have a hybrid oceanic/continental climate. Four seasons occur
in Eastern Europe, while southern
Europe experiences distinct wet
season and dry seasons , with prevailing hot and dry conditions during
the summer months.
* 1 Overview
* 3 Precipitation
* 4 Temperature
* 5 Tornadoes
* 6 See also
* 7 References
Szczecin , under the influence of
Baltic Sea on the
climate in the city and all western parts of
Prevailing westerlies create the basic climate across much of
Siberian High brings colder, drier weather from the east.
Away from the sea, parts of Central and Eastern
Europe have a
borderline Oceanic/Continental Climate as they are milder than they
would otherwise be due to the open ice-free waters of the North/Baltic
Seas and lack of mountain barriers, but are not as mild as the Western
coasts, and are subject to more frequent snowfalls. The Danube region
through the Balkans, Ukraine and Southern
Russia have a continental
climate with cold winters and hotter summers, some areas bordering on
a dry steppe climate with only certain months of higher precipitation,
often due to thunderstorms.
A narrow strip along the eastern side of the Black Sea has a modified
version of a humid subtropical climate, for example in
Sochi , Russia
. On the plains of Northern European
Russia up to the Ural Mountains,
the winter climate is much harsher than elsewhere in
Europe with many
months of below freezing average temperatures but with periods of hot
summer weather. Nevertheless, year-to-year variations can produce
different climates such as temperate in the winter, and tropical in
Image of the Gulf Stream's path and its related branches
Average number of days per year with precipitation Average
amount of sunshine yearly (hours) Main article:
Gulf Stream See
North Atlantic Drift
The climate of Western
Europe is milder in comparison to other areas
of the same latitude around the globe due to the influence of the Gulf
Stream . The Mediterranean’s waters are not as deep as the large
oceans, allowing it to become a heat store tempering winters along its
Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating",
because it makes Europe's climate warmer and wetter than it would
otherwise be. The
North Atlantic Oscillation
North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation
also play large roles in determining the amount of Arctic air that
penetrates southward diminishing the Gulf stream’s warming effects
Compared to areas located in the higher middle latitudes, parts of
Europe have mild winters and higher annual temperatures(though
summers are cooler than locations at the same latitude). Berlin,
Germany; Calgary, Canada; and Irkutsk, in the Asian part of Russia,
lie on around the same latitude; January temperatures in Berlin
average around 8 °C (15 °F) higher than those in Calgary (although
Calgary sits 1200m higher in altitude), and they are almost 22 °C (40
°F) higher than average temperatures in Irkutsk. This difference is
even larger on the northern part of the continent; the January average
Brønnøysund , Norway, is almost 15 °C warmer than the January
Nome, Alaska , both towns are situated upwind on the west
coast of the continents at 65°N, and as much as 42 °C warmer than
the January average in
Yakutsk which is actually slightly further
south. Further south the oceanic climate of
Europe compares thermally
to North America, at around 48°N
Rennes, France has about an equal
average temperature throughout the year to
Seattle, Washington ,
although the latter has drier summers with much wetter winters.
Earth rainfall climatology ,
Monsoon , and
Europe in September 2012
The lack of precipitation found along the eastern coasts of Europe
is due to the westerly wind flow which dominates across the continent.
A bulk of the precipitation across the Alps falls between March and
December. The wet season in lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea
lasts from October through March, with November and December typically
the wettest months. For example, the monthly rainfall at Athens
ranges from 6 mm (July) during their dry season to 71 mm (December)
during their wet season. Summer rainfall across the continent
evaporates completely into the warm atmosphere, leaving winter
precipitation to be the source of groundwater for Europe. Places with
significant impact by acid rain across the continent include most of
Poland northward into
The EUROPEAN MONSOON (more commonly known as the RETURN OF THE
WESTERLIES) is the result of a resurgence of westerly winds from the
Atlantic , where they become loaded with wind and rain. Rather than a
traditional monsoon, where warm seas fuel precipitation and storms,
they are more cyclonic low-pressure systems that travel along the
section of the gulfstream These Westerly winds are a common
phenomenon during the European winter, but they ease as Spring
approaches in late March and through April and May. The winds pick up
again in June, which is why this phenomenon is also known as "the
return of the westerlies".
The rain usually arrives in two waves, at the beginning of June and
again in mid to late June. These storms generally feature
significantly lower than average temperatures, fierce rain or hail,
thunder and strong winds. The Return of the Westerlies affects
Atlantic coastline, such as
Ireland , Great Britain
Benelux countries ,
Western Germany ,
Northern France and parts
There are cycles seen within the rainfall data from Northern Europe
Great Britain and Germany, which are seen at 16 years.
Europe experiences a 22-year cycle in rainfall variation.
Other smaller term cycles are seen at 10-12 year and 6-7 year periods
within the rainfall record. Long term trends suggest rainfall within
Greece has been decreasing since 1981.
Rainfall averages between 36 mm (March)to 54 mm (November) in London
and from 36 mm (March) to 88 mm (July) in
Europe sees seasonal temperatures consistent with temperate
climates in other parts of the world, though summers north of the
Mediterranean Sea are cooler than most temperate climates experience
in summer. Among the cities with a population over 100,000 people in
Europe, the coldest winters are mostly found in
Russia , with daily
highs in winter averaging 0 C (32 F), while the mildest winters in the
continent are in southern Spain and the southernmost Greek islands.
Ierapetra average over 12 °C (54
°F) in January with 16–20 °C (61–68 °F) during the day. The
hottest summers of the continent occur in cities and towns of the
hinterland of southern Spain: July average highs in this region are
36.2 °C (97.2 °F) in
Seville and 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in Cordoba .
Average daytime temperature (°C)
Average sea temperature (°C)
The Netherlands has the highest average number of recorded tornadoes
per area of any country (more than 20, or 0.0013 per sq mi (0.00048
per km2), annually), followed by the UK (around 33, or 0.00035 per sq
mi (0.00013 per km2), per year), but most are small and cause minor
damage. In absolute number of events, ignoring area, the UK
experiences more tornadoes than any other European country, excluding
Europe uses its own tornado scale, known as the TORRO
scale , which ranges from a T0 for extremely weak tornadoes to T11 for
the most powerful known tornadoes.
2003 European heat wave
* ^ A B "European Climate". World Book. World Book, Inc. Archived
from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
* ^ Seager, Richard (July–August 2006). "The Source of Europe\'s
Mild Climate". American Scientist Online. Retrieved 2008-09-23.
* ^ Brønnøysund
* ^ Nome
* ^ Yakutsk
* ^ A B A. V. Mehta and S. Yang (2008-12-22). "Precipitation
climatology over Mediterranean Basin from ten years of TRMM
measurements" (PDF). Advances in Geosciences. Copernicus Publications.
Bibcode :2008AdG....17...87M. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
* ^ Athens, Greece(retrieved 9 January 2010)
* ^ Richard Thornsen (1990). "Effect of Climate Variability and
Change in Groundwater in Europe" (PDF). Nordic Hydrology. 21: 187.
* ^ Ed. Hatier (1993). "Acid Rain in Europe". United Nations
Environment Programme GRID Arendal. Archived from the original on
2009-08-22. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
* ^ Visser, S.W. (1953). Some remarks on the European monsoon.
* ^ Leo Hickman (2008-07-09). "The Question: What is the European
monsoon?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
* ^ Paul Simons (2009-06-07). "\'European Monsoon\' to blame for
cold and rainy start to June". The Times. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
* ^ R. G. Vines (1985-03-25). "European Rainfall Patterns".
International Journal of Climatology. 5 (6): 607–616. Bibcode
:1985IJCli...5..607V. doi :10.1002/joc.3370050603 . Retrieved
* ^ J. D. Pnevmatikos and B. D. Katsoulis (2006-05-31). "The
changing rainfall regime in Greece and its impact on climatological
Meteorological Applications . Cambridge University Press. 13
Bibcode :2006MeApp..13..331P. doi
* ^ Average conditions: London, United Kingdom(retrieved 9 January
* ^ Average conditions: Moscow, Russian Federation(retrieved 9
* ^ A B
* ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved 8 September 2007.
* ^ http://met.hu/
* ^ http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/gcpuzu47t
* ^ "Bucuresti Baneasa Climate Normals 1961-1990" . www.NOAA.gov.
Retrieved 31 October 2012.
* ^ "Weather Information for
Barcelona - World Meteorological
Organization (United Nations)".
* ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales.
Barcelona / Aeropuerto -
Agencia Estatal de Meteorología".
* ^ "Monthly Averages for Lisbon, Portugal". Instituto de
Meteorologia . Retrieved 2012-06-16.
* ^ http://www.yr.no/place/Greece/Attica/Athens/statistics.html
* ^ "Valores climatológicos normales.
Valencia - Agencia Estatal
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-08-06.
* ^ J Holden, A Wright (2003-03-13). "UK tornado climatology and
the development of simple prediction tools" (PDF). Quarterly Journal
of the Meteorological Society. Royal Meteorological Society. 130:
Bibcode :2004QJRMS.130.1009H. doi :10.1256/qj.03.45 .
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
* ^ Staff (2002-03-28). "Natural Disasters: Tornadoes". BBC Science
and Nature. BBC. Archived from the original on 2002-10-14. Retrieved
* ^ Nikolai Dotzek (2003-03-20). "An updated estimate of tornado
occurrence in Europe" (PDF). Atmospheric Research. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
* ^ Meaden, Terrance (2004). "Wind Scales: Beaufort, T — Scale,
and Fujita\'s Scale". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation.
Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
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