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The European Green Party
European Green Party
(EGP), sometimes referred to as European Greens, is the European political party
European political party
that operates as a federation of political parties across Europe supporting green politics. The EGP cooperates with the European Free Alliance
European Free Alliance
(EFA) to form the Greens–European Free Alliance
Greens–European Free Alliance
(Greens/EFA) parliamentary group in the European parliament.

Contents

1 History

1.1 1979 to 1993 1.2 1993 to 2004 1.3 Since 2004

2 Ideology and issues 3 Representation 4 Organisation

4.1 Organisational structure

5 Membership

5.1 Full members 5.2 Candidate members 5.3 Associate members 5.4 Applicants 5.5 Former members 5.6 Networks

6 Elected representatives of member parties

6.1 European institutions

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] The European Green Party
European Green Party
was founded on 22 February 2004 at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties
(EFGP) in Rome attended by over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-four Green parties from all over Europe have joined this new pan-European party. The Greens were the first to form a political party at European level. The other European political federations followed suit in the period 2004–06. For the Greens this was the culmination of a process which had started with the formation of a loose co-ordination 1979–93 and the EFGP 1993–2004.[3] 1979 to 1993[edit] In 1979 the Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties (CEGRP) was set up to co-ordinate the participation of Green and Radical parties in the 1979 European Parliament
European Parliament
election: There were considerable differences between the Green and Radical groups and the parties were unable to form a common pan-European electoral platform.[4] Although some parties polled well, no Green entered the European Parliament. In the 1984 election the Greens participated again. They held a congress in the spring of 1984 in Liège and set up a restructured European Green Coordination (EGC), with a secretariat provided by the Dutch Political Party of Radicals. They also issued a Joint Declaration of the European Green Parties. Furthermore, overall the member parties had grown stronger. Eleven MEPs of member parties were elected to the European Parliament.[a] They formed the Green Alternative European Link (GRAEL) in the European Parliament. The group was too small to be recognised by the Parliament for funds and committees and therefore it joined the Rainbow Group, which also encompassed regionalists, the Danish People's Movement against the European Community and some radicals and socialists. The European Greens formed a loose confederal triangular structure with the autonomous GRAEL in parliament, the weak EGC as a supra-national co-ordinating body and the member parties. The position of the European Greens was also weakened by the principle of rotation which some member parties ( Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands) used, with their MEPs being replaced by another after serving half their term. This rotation technique originated with the German Greens to prevent their members being co-opted by the informal negotiation system within the Bundestag,[5] but it served them badly within the European Parliament. For the Dutch parties, the choice for rotation was a compromise between three parties which had only two seats in parliament: one seat was kept by the top candidate while the second seat rotated between the second and the third candidate. This way each party would have a representative in the EP. Finally, there still was considerable diversity in the opinions of the Greens, especially between pro-European and Eurosceptic
Eurosceptic
tendencies. These factors weakened the position of the Greens in Parliament. In the 1989 election the Green parties won 26 seats.[b] Because of political conflicts with the continuing Rainbow Group, the European Greens formed a separate parliamentary group, The Green Group in the European Parliament. During this period, the Greens became more entrenched in parliament. 1993 to 2004[edit] In June 1993 the European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties
was formed by the members of the EGC in Kirkkonummi, Finland. The organisation became more structured, it now had a triennial Congress, a Council and a Federation Committee (executive). It strengthened its ties with the Green Group in the European parliament. In the 1994 European elections Green parties won a total of 20 seats.[c] They were joined by a member of the Danish Socialist People's Party and one member of both the Italian South Tyrolean People's Party and The Network. Again the Greens formed a separate group from Rainbow Group, now renamed the European Radical Alliance. In the 1999 European elections the European Greens performed particularly well winning 38 seats.[d] They formed a combined group with the European Free Alliance, which represented regionalist parties and independence movements, which previously participated in the European Radical Alliance. The relationship between the Greens and these parties was different from before, as the Greens were stronger both numerically and politically. Since 2004[edit]

In 2015 and 2016, Raimonds Vējonis
Raimonds Vējonis
(Latvia) and Alexander Van der Bellen (Austria, pictured) became Europe’s first two green heads of state.

The European Green Party
European Green Party
was founded at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties
European Federation of Green Parties
on 20–22 February 2004 in Rome, a party convention with over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-two Green parties from all over Europe joined this new pan-European party. The foundation of the new party was finalised with the signing of the treaty constituting the party in the Capitol of Rome. As such the Greens were the first to form a political party at European level, the other European federations followed suit between 2004 and 2006. In the 2004 European Parliament
European Parliament
election the member parties won 35 Seats. In the 2009 European Parliament
European Parliament
election, even though the European Parliament
European Parliament
was reduced in size, the EGP member parties won 46 seats, the best result of the Green Parties in 30 years. Ideology and issues[edit] The European Greens have always been committed to basic tenets of Green politics, such as environmental responsibility, individual freedom, inclusive democracy, diversity, social justice, gender equality, global sustainable development and non-violence.[6] However, its relationship to the European Union
European Union
and its institutions has changed dramatically and is still the subject of a lively debate. In the 1970s and 1980s the European Greens were generally sceptical of European political and economic integration, which was seen as contrary to environmental and social interests. In its 1984 program, the European Greens advocated the formation of an alternative Europe, which would be neutral and decentralised. In 1989, some member parties adopted a more parliamentary course and became more supportive of European integration. The program advocates the democratisation of Europe's institutions. In their 1994 program, the Greens abandoned their principled opposition of European integration and began to propose pragmatic alternatives for the European Union's policies and institutions. The 1999 and 2004 programs also reflect this.[citation needed] In the area of Internet politics, the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) parliamentary group became famous for the strong support of a proposed free information infrastructure, especially in their work on the directive against software patents in 2003.[citation needed] Nowadays the majority of the party is European federalist. Its former leader, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, is a member of the federalist The Spinelli Group, and has written with Guy Verhofstadt
Guy Verhofstadt
a book with a federalist manifesto purpose. The European Green Party
European Green Party
affiliated to the European Movement International in February 2014.[7] Representation[edit] In this table one can see the results of the Greens for the six direct elections to the European Parliament, in terms of seats and votes. It also shows how many European Commissioners the European Greens have, who led the parliamentary group. It also lists how the Green parliamentary group and supra-national organisations was named and what European parliamentary group they joined.[8]

Year MEPs MEPs % Votes % EC Leaders EP Subgroup EP group Organization

1979 0 0 2.4% 0 none none none Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties

1984 11 2.5% 4.2% 0 Friedrich-Wilhelm Graefe zu Baringdorf (1984–86), Bram van der Lek (1984–86), Brigitte Heinrich (1986), François Roelants du Vivier (1986), Frank Schwalba-Hoth (1986–87), Paul Staes (1987–88), Wilfried Telkämper
Wilfried Telkämper
(1987–89) Green Alternative
Green Alternative
European Link Rainbow Group European Green Coordination

1989 25 4.8% 7.4% 0 Maria Amelia Santos (1989–90), Alexander Langer
Alexander Langer
(1990), Adelaide Aglietta (1990–94), Paul Lannoye (1990–94) Green Group in the European Parliament European Green Coordination

1994 21 3.7% 7.4% 0 Claudia Roth
Claudia Roth
(1994–98), Alexander Langer
Alexander Langer
(1994–95), Magda Aelvoet (1997–99) Green Group in the European Parliament European Federation of Green Parties

1999 38 6.1% 7.7% 1[e] Heidi Hautala
Heidi Hautala
(1999–2002), Paul Lannoye (1999–2002), Monica Frassoni (2002–04), Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
(2002–04) European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Federation of Green Parties

2004 35 4.8% 7.3% 0 Monica Frassoni
Monica Frassoni
(2004–09), Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
(2004–09) European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party

2009 48[f] 6.2% 7.3% 0 Rebecca Harms
Rebecca Harms
(2009–14), Daniel Cohn-Bendit
Daniel Cohn-Bendit
(2009–14) European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party

2014 50[9][g] 6.7%

0 Rebecca Harms
Rebecca Harms
(2014–2016), Ska Keller
Ska Keller
(2017- ), Philippe Lamberts (2014– ) European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party

Organisation[edit] Organisational structure[edit]

States with member and observer parties of the European Greens in 2011.   States with member parties   States with observer parties

The European Green Party
European Green Party
is an international association without lucrative purpose constituted out of political parties from European countries (although not necessarily from European Union
European Union
member states). Parties can also become associate member. Members of the Green Group not belonging to a member party can be admitted as a special member with speaking rights but no vote. The governing bodies of the EGP are the Council and the Committee.[10]

The Council consists of delegates of member parties. These are allotted on the basis of their most recent European or national election results. Each party has at least two delegates. The council is responsible for political affairs between congresses and it decides over organizational matters, such as the election of committee, the application of members and observers and the statutes of the EGP.[11] The Committee consists of nine members, including two spokespersons (one man and one woman), a secretary-general and a treasurer. They are responsible for daily political affairs, execution of the council's decisions and the activities of the EGP office and staff. The Congress is an enlarged meeting of the Council which is convened by the Council at least once every 5 years.

The European Greens are organised in several regional networks. These are organised around seas, creating somewhat of a bioregional structure: such as the Green Islands Network ("a network for Green Parties in Britain, Ireland and associated islands"), the Baltic Sea Greens, the Green Mediterranean Network, Green Adriatic Network and the North Sea Greens. Membership[edit]

  States in which member (and possibly candidate/associate) parties exist   States in which associate parties exist   States in which candidate parties exist

As of March, 2017, the EGP comprises 37 (full) member parties, 4 associate member parties and 3 candidate member parties. These are listed in Annex B (pp. 22-23) of the respective Rule Book.[12] Full members[edit]

Country or Region Name MEPs National MPs

 Albania Green Party of Albania n/a

0 / 140

 Andorra Greens of Andorra n/a

0 / 28

 Austria The Greens – The Green Alternative

3 / 18

0 / 183

 Belgium ( Flemish) Groen

1 / 12

[13]

6 / 102

[h] 13 / 213

[i]

 Belgium ( French and  German) Ecolo

1 / 9

[j]

6 / 63

[k] 15 / 289

[l]

 Bulgaria Green Party of Bulgaria[14]

0 / 17

0 / 240

 Bulgaria The Greens

0 / 17

0 / 240

 Cyprus Ecological and Environmental Movement

0 / 6

2 / 56

 Czech Republic Green Party

0 / 21

0 / 200

 Denmark Socialist People's Party

1 / 13

7 / 179

 Estonia Estonian Greens

0 / 6

0 / 101

 Finland Green League

1 / 13

15 / 200

 France Europe Ecology – The Greens

6 / 74

1 / 577

 Georgia Green Party of Georgia n/a

6 / 150

 Germany Alliance '90/The Greens

11 / 96

67 / 709

 Greece Ecologist Greens

0 / 21

2 / 300

 Hungary Politics Can Be Different

1 / 21

5 / 199

 Ireland Green Party/Comhaontas Glas[m]

0 / 11

2 / 158

 Italy Federation of the Greens

0 / 73

0 / 630

0 / 315

 Italy Greens (South Tyrol)

0 / 73

1 / 630

0 / 315

 Latvia Latvian Green Party

0 / 8

6 / 100

 Luxembourg The Greens

1 / 6

6 / 60

 Malta Democratic Alternative

0 / 6

0 / 69

 Moldova Ecologist Green Party n/a

0 / 101

 Netherlands The Greens

0 / 26

0 / 150

 Netherlands GreenLeft

2 / 26

14 / 150

 Norway Environmental Party The Greens n/a

1 / 169

 Poland The Greens

0 / 51

0 / 460

 Portugal Ecologist Party "The Greens"

0 / 21

2 / 230

 Romania Green Party

0 / 32

0 / 315

 Slovakia Green Party[15]

0 / 13

0 / 150

 Slovenia Youth Party – European Greens

0 / 8

0 / 90

 Spain EQUO

1 / 54

3 / 350

 Spain ( Catalonia) Initiative for Catalonia
Catalonia
Greens

1 / 54

2 / 47

[n]

 Sweden Environmental Party The Greens

4 / 20

25 / 349

  Switzerland Green Party of Switzerland n/a

11 / 200

 Ukraine Party of Greens of Ukraine n/a

0 / 450

 United Kingdom (  England
England
and  Wales) Green Party of England
England
and Wales

3 / 64

[o]

1 / 650

[p] 0 / 60

[q]

 United Kingdom ( Northern Ireland) Green Party in Northern Ireland[r]

0 / 3

[s]

0 / 18

[t] 2 / 90

[u]

 United Kingdom ( Scotland) Scottish Green Party

0 / 6

[v]

0 / 59

[w] 6 / 129

[x]

Candidate members[edit]

Country or Region Name (in English) MEPs National MPs

 Macedonia Democratic Renewal of Macedonia n/a

1 / 123

Croatia ORaH

1 / 11

0 / 151

Turkey Green Left Party n/a

0 / 550

sources[16][17]

Associate members[edit]

Country or Region Name (in English) MEPs National MPs

Azerbaijan Green Party of Azerbaijan n/a

0 / 125

Belarus Belarusian Party "The Greens" n/a

0 / 110

Russia Green Russia n/a

0 / 450

 Russia Green Alternative[18] n/a

0 / 450

sources[16]

Applicants[edit]

Country or Region Name (in English) MEPs National MPs

Serbia Greens of Serbia n/a

2 / 250

Former members[edit] De Grønne from Denmark
Denmark
were expelled from the EGP in 2008. The reason was that De Grønne intended to co-operate with the People's Movement against the EU in the upcoming 2009 European elections, a national party which sits with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group instead of the Greens–European Free Alliance. On 13 May 2012, the Council of the EGP withdrew the membership of Confederation of the Greens
Confederation of the Greens
(Los Verdes) from Spain,[19] after several months of negotiations, and mainly because 13 out of 16 parties (formerly within the Confederation of the Greens) decided to join EQUO. Zöld Baloldal from Hungary
Hungary
withdrew its membership on September 7, 2015 because of financial reasons. Networks[edit] The EGP hosts a collection of networks that have specific special interest focus, including:

Federation of Young European Greens, a federation of European Green youth organisations European Network of Green Seniors EGP Gender Network European Queer Greens

Elected representatives of member parties[edit] European institutions[edit]

Organisation Institution Number of seats

 EU European Commission

0 / 28

 EU European Council (Heads of Government)

0 / 28

 EU Council of the European Union (Participation in Government)

3 / 28

 EU European Parliament

39 / 751

 Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly

3 / 318

See also[edit]

Environmental movement Via Campesina Post-growth Ecological economics Political ecology Green politics Club of Rome List of green political parties List of environmental organisations

Notes[edit]

^ 7 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch Political Party of Radicals, 1 for the Dutch Pacifist Socialist Party, an ally of the PPR, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev ^ 7 for the German Greens, 8 for French Greens, 2 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 2 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Spanish IP, 2 for the Italian Rainbow Greens and 2 for the Italian Green Lists ^ 12 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish The Greens IP, 2 for the Italian Federation of the Greens
Federation of the Greens
and 2 for the Green Party ^ 7 for the German Alliance '90/The Greens, 4 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 3 for Ecolo and 2 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish The Greens, 2 for the Italian Federation of the Greens, 2 for the Green Party, 9 for The Greens of France, 2 for the Austrian Greens, 2 for the Finnish Green League, 2 for the Swedish Green Party and 2 for the Green Party of England
England
and Wales ^ Michaele Schreyer
Michaele Schreyer
for Alliance '90/The Greens ^ includes 6 independent MEPs elected for the Europe Écologie group ^ Includes 14 MEPs, from 8 countries, NOT affiliated with EGP member parties. ^ Flemish seats in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels. ^ All seats in Flemish Parliament, a legislature for both the Flanders region and the Flemish Community, and the bilingual Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region. ^ All seats for the French- and German-speaking electoral colleges. ^ All seats for French and German-speaking Communities in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels. ^ All seats in the parliaments of the Brussels, Walloon Region, and the French and German-speaking Communities plus the seats for Brussels in the Flemish Parliament. ^ The Irish Green Party operates also in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom as "Green Party in Northern Ireland". The Northern Irish party is separately listed in this table although it does not have separate membership in the EGP. ^ Catalan seats in the Congress of Deputies. ^ English and Welsh seats in the European Parliament. ^ English and Welsh seats in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. ^ National Assembly for Wales. ^ It does not have separate membership in the EGP because it is a part of the Irish Green Party. ^ Northern Irish seats in the European Parliament. ^ Northern Irish seats in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. ^ Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly. ^ Scottish seats in the European Parliament. ^ Scottish seats in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. ^ Scottish Parliament.

References[edit]

^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Letters (26 February 2018). "Pros and cons of a red-green alliance - Letters". the Guardian.  ^ history of the European Green Party
European Green Party
at EuropeanGreens.eu ^ Elizabeth Bomberg (2 August 2005). Green Parties and Politics in the European Union. Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-134-85145-4.  ^ Hines, Eric (2003). "The European Parliament
European Parliament
and the Europeanization of Green Parties" (PDF). University of Iowa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-01.  ^ charter of the European Green Party
European Green Party
Archived 4 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. at europeangreens.org ^ "Greens join pro-European parties' network". Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Directory". Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "Results of the 2014 European elections - European Parliament". results-elections2014.eu. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ statutes of the European Green party
Green party
at europeangreens.eu ^ "Learn about the EGP". europeangreens.eu.  ^ [1], retrieved on October 28, 2017. ^ Dutch-speaking electoral college. ^ "European Greens". European Greens.  ^ Although the Nov 2015 EGP register lists the Green Party of Slovakia (GPS) as a full member since 1995, the March 2017 register of EGP, omits GPS as a member within any membership category ^ a b "Member Parties". European Greens.  ^ "Search". Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ Full member from 1994-2016. Downgraded to associate member in 2016. ^ "Confederación de Los Verdes" no longer part of the European Green family (retrieved on 13 May 2012)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to European Green Party.

European Greens website

v t e

Pan-European political organisations

Political parties recognised by the EU

Current

Alliance for Direct Democracy
Democracy
in Europe Alliance for Peace and Freedom Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party Europeans United for Democracy European Alliance for Freedom Alliance of European National Movements European Christian Political Movement European Democratic Party European Free Alliance European Green Party European People's Party Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom Party of European Socialists Party of the European Left

Defunct

Alliance for Europe of the Nations Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe Libertas Movement for a Europe of Liberties and Democracy

Political parties not recognised by the EU

Current

Europe – Democracy
Democracy
– Esperanto European Federalist Party European Pirate Party European Party for Individual Liberty Initiative of Communist and Workers' Parties

Defunct

European National Front Europe United Party Movement for European Reform Newropeans

Other confederations of national parties

Current

European Anti-Capitalist Left Liberal South East European Network Nordic Green Left Alliance

Defunct

Euronat Platform for Transparency European Democrat Union

National parties by European organisation Political groups of the European Parliament Political foundations at European level European parliamentary elections European Council
European Council
composition by party Politics portal

v t e

Green parties by country

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Burkina Faso

Ecologist Party Greens of Burkina Rally of the Ecologists

Burundi Central African Republic Chad Cameroon Democratic Republic of the Congo Egypt Gabon Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kenya Madagascar Mali Mauritius Morocco

The Greens Izigzawen

Mozambique Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia

Green Party Democratic Green Party

South Africa

Green Alliance Green Party

Togo Tunisia Uganda

Ecological Party Green Party

Zambia

Americas

Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Guatemala French Guyana Haiti Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Saint Vincent and the Grenadines United States Uruguay

Green Sol PERI

Venezuela

Asia-Pacific

Australia

Australian Greens Nuclear Disarmament (defunct) United Tasmania Group

Fiji French Polynesia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel

The Green Movement The Greens

Japan Kurdistan Lebanon Malaysia Mongolia

Civil Will–Green Green Party

Nepal

Hariyali Green Civil Society

New Caledonia New Zealand Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Uzbekistan Vanuatu

Europe

(EGP FYEG)

Albania Andorra Austria Belarus Belgium

Flanders
Flanders
and Brussels Wallonia and Brussels

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria

Green Party The Greens

Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic

Green Party Liberal-Environmental Party

Denmark

Socialist People's Party The Greens

Estonia Finland France

CAP21 Génération Écologie Europe Ecology – The Greens Les Verts Mouvement Ecologiste Indépendant

Georgia Germany

Alliance 90/The Greens Ecological Democratic Party

Greece Hungary

Dialogue for Hungary Politics Can Be Different

Iceland Ireland Italy

Federation of the Greens Green Italy

Kosovo Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania

Green Party Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union

Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands

GroenLinks The Greens

Norway Poland Portugal

Earth Party The Greens LIVRE

Romania

Ecologist Party Green Party

Russia

Civil United Green Alternative Ecological Party "The Greens" Union of Greens Alliance of Greens and Social Democrats

Serbia

Green Party Greens of Serbia

Slovakia Slovenia

Greens Youth Party

Spain

Catalonia
Catalonia
Greens Confederation of the Greens Equo

Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

England
England
and Wales
Wales
(Wales) Northern Ireland Scotland

Italic links indicate non-members or observers of the Global Greens.

Authority control

GND: 7519605-0

European Union
European Union
portal Politics portal Sustainable development
Sustainable development
portal Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences po

.