HOME
The Info List - European Free Trade Association



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (EFTA) is a regional trade organisation and free trade area consisting of four European states : Iceland
Iceland
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Norway
Norway
, and Switzerland
Switzerland
. The organisation operates in parallel with the European Union
European Union
(EU), and all four member states participate in the European single market .

On 3 May 1960, the EFTA was established to serve as an alternative trade bloc for those European states that were unable or unwilling to join the then European Economic Community (EEC) (which subsequently became the European Union). The Stockholm
Stockholm
Convention , to establish the EFTA, was signed on 4 January 1960 in the Swedish capital by seven countries (known as the "outer seven "). Since 1995, only two founding members remain: Norway
Norway
and Switzerland. The other five, Austria
Austria
, Denmark
Denmark
, Portugal
Portugal
, Sweden
Sweden
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, have joined the EU in the intervening years. The initial Stockholm
Stockholm
Convention was superseded by the Vaduz Convention, which aimed to provide a successful framework for continuing the expansion and liberalization of trade , both among the organisation's member states and with the rest of the world.

Whilst the EFTA is not a customs union and member states have full rights to enter into bilateral third-country trade arrangements, it does have a co-ordinated trade policy. As a result, its member states have jointly concluded free trade agreements with the EU and a number of other countries. To participate in the EU's single market, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway
Norway
are parties to the Agreement on a European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA), with compliances regulated by the EFTA Surveillance Authority and the EFTA Court . Switzerland
Switzerland
has a set of bilateral agreements with the EU instead.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Portugal
Portugal
Fund

* 2 Membership

* 2.1 History * 2.2 Current members * 2.3 Former members

* 2.4 Future

* 2.4.1 Microstates * 2.4.2 Norway
Norway
* 2.4.3 Switzerland
Switzerland
* 2.4.4 Iceland
Iceland
* 2.4.5 Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
* 2.4.6 United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* 3 Organisation

* 3.1 Council * 3.2 Secretariat * 3.3 EEA institutions * 3.4 Norway
Norway
Grants * 3.5 Locations

* 4 Relationship with the European Union
European Union
* 5 International conventions

* 6 International trade relations

* 6.1 Free trade agreements * 6.2 Ongoing free trade negotiations * 6.3 Declarations on cooperation or dialogue on closer trade relations

* 7 Travel policies

* 7.1 Free movement of people within the EEA * 7.2 Dual citizenship

* 8 General secretaries * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

On 12 January 1960, the Treaty on the European Free Trade
Trade
Association was initiated in the Golden Hall of the Prince's Palace of Stockholm
Stockholm
. This established the progressive elimination of customs duties on industrial products, but did not affect agricultural or fisheries products.

The main difference between the early EEC and the EFTA was that the latter did not operate common external customs tariffs unlike the former: each EFTA member was free to establish its individual customs duties against, or its individual free trade agreements with, non-EFTA countries. Despite this modest initiative, the financial results were excellent as it stimulated an increase of foreign trade volume among its members from $US 3.5 billion to $US 8.2 billion between 1959 and 1967.

EFTA's interactive Free Trade
Trade
Map gives an overview of the partners worldwide.

After the accession of Denmark, Ireland, and the UK to the EEC in January 1973 , the EFTA began to falter. Portugal
Portugal
(1985), followed in 1995 by Austria, Finland
Finland
and Sweden, left to join the EU. Four members remained: Switzerland
Switzerland
, Norway
Norway
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Iceland
Iceland
.

PORTUGAL FUND

The Portugal
Portugal
Fund was established in 1975 when Portugal
Portugal
was still a member of EFTA. It was to provide funding for the development of Portugal
Portugal
after the Carnation Revolution and the consequential restoration of democracy and the decolonisation of the country's former empire. This followed the period of economic sanctions by most of the international community, having left Portugal
Portugal
economically underdeveloped compared to the rest of the western Europe
Europe
. When Portugal
Portugal
left EFTA in 1985 in order join the EEC, the remaining EFTA members decided to continue the Portugal
Portugal
Fund so that Portugal
Portugal
would continue to benefit from it. The Fund originally took the form of a low-interest loan from the EFTA member states to the value of USD 100 million. Repayment was originally to commence in 1988, however EFTA then decided to postpone the start of repayments until 1998. The Portugal
Portugal
Fund has now been dissolved.

MEMBERSHIP

HISTORY

EFTA member states Former members, now EU member states Rest of EU member states

The founding members of the EFTA were: Austria
Austria
, Denmark
Denmark
, Norway, Portugal
Portugal
, Sweden
Sweden
, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. During the 1960s, these countries were often referred to as the OUTER SEVEN , as opposed to the Inner Six of the then European Economic Community (EEC).

Finland
Finland
became an associate member in 1961 and a full member in 1986, and Iceland
Iceland
joined in 1970. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Denmark
Denmark
joined the EEC in 1973, and hence ceased to be EFTA members. Portugal
Portugal
also left EFTA for the European Community in 1986. Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
joined the EFTA in 1991 (previously its interests had been represented by Switzerland). Austria, Sweden, and Finland
Finland
joined the EU in 1995 and thus ceased to be EFTA members.

Twice, in 1973 and in 1995 , the Norwegian government had tried to join the EU (still the EEC, in 1973) and by doing so, leave the EFTA. However, both the times, the membership to the EU was rejected in national referenda, keeping Norway
Norway
in the EFTA. Iceland
Iceland
applied for EU membership in 2009 due to the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis , but has since dropped its bid.

CURRENT MEMBERS

CONTRACTING PARTY ACCESSION POPULATION AREA (KM²) CAPITAL GDP IN MILLIONS (PPP) GDP PER CAPITA (PPP)

Iceland
Iceland
000000001970-01-01-00001 January 1970 7005332600000000000♠332,600 7005103000000000000♠103,000 Reykjavík
Reykjavík
7004128310000000000♠12,831 7004392230000000000♠39,223

Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
000000001991-01-01-00001 January 1991 7004378000000000000♠37,800 7002160400000000000♠160.4 Vaduz 7003354500000000000♠3,545 7004984320000000000♠98,432

Norway
Norway
000000001960-05-03-00003 May 1960 7006524200000000000♠5,242,000 7005385155000000000♠385,155 Oslo
Oslo
7005265911000000000♠265,911 7004534700000000000♠53,470

Switzerland
Switzerland
000000001960-05-03-00003 May 1960 7006834500000000000♠8,345,000 7004412850000000000♠41,285 Bern
Bern
7005363421000000000♠363,421 7004454170000000000♠45,417

FORMER MEMBERS

STATE ACCESSION Left EFTA and joined EU/EEC

Austria
Austria
1960 1995

Denmark
Denmark
1960 1973

Finland
Finland
1986 1995

Portugal
Portugal
1960 1986

Sweden
Sweden
1960 1995

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
1960 1973

FUTURE

Members of the European Union
European Union
(blue) and EFTA (green)

Between 1994 and 2011, EFTA memberships for Andorra
Andorra
, San Marino
San Marino
, Monaco
Monaco
, the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
, Turkey
Turkey
, Israel
Israel
, Morocco
Morocco
, and other EU \'European Neighbourhood Policy\' partners were discussed.

Microstates

In November 2012, after the Council of the European Union
European Union
had called for an evaluation of the EU\'s relations with the sovereign European microstates of Andorra, Monaco, and San Marino, which they described as "fragmented", the European Commission
European Commission
published a report outlining the options for their further integration into the EU. Unlike Liechtenstein, which is a member of the EEA via the EFTA and the Schengen Agreement , relations with these three states are based on a collection of agreements covering specific issues. The report examined four alternatives to the current situation:

* A Sectoral Approach with separate agreements with each state covering an entire policy area. * A comprehensive, multilateral Framework Association Agreement (FAA) with the three states. * EEA membership, and * EU membership.

However, the Commission argued that the sectoral approach did not address the major issues and was still needlessly complicated, while EU membership was dismissed in the near future because "the EU institutions are currently not adapted to the accession of such small-sized countries". The remaining options, EEA membership and a FAA with the states, were found to be viable and were recommended by the Commission. In response, the Council requested that negotiations with the three microstates on further integration continue, and that a report be prepared by the end of 2013 detailing the implications of the two viable alternatives and recommendations on how to proceed.

As the EEA memberships are currently only open to the EFTA or EU members, the consent of the existing EFTA member states is required for the microstates to join the EEA without becoming members of the EU. In 2011, Jonas Gahr Støre , then Foreign Minister of Norway
Norway
which is an EFTA member state, said that EFTA/EEA membership for the microstates was not the appropriate mechanism for their integration into the internal market due to their different requirements from those of large countries such as Norway, and suggested that a simplified association would be better suited for them. Espen Barth Eide , Støre's successor, responded to the Commission's report in late 2012 by questioning whether the microstates have sufficient administrative capabilities to meet the obligations of EEA membership. However, he stated that Norway
Norway
was open to the possibility of EFTA membership for the microstates if they decide to submit an application, and that the country had not made a final decision on the matter. Pascal Schafhauser, the Counsellor of the Liechtenstein Mission to the EU, said that Liechtenstein, another EFTA member state, was willing to discuss EEA membership for the microstates provided their joining, did not impede the functioning of the organization. However, he suggested that the option direct membership in the EEA for the microstates, outside of both the EFTA and the EU, should be considered. On 18 November 2013, the EU Commission concluded that "the participation of the small-sized countries in the EEA is not judged to be a viable option at present due to the political and institutional reasons," and that, Association Agreements were a more feasible mechanism to integrate the microstates into the internal market.

Norway

The Norwegian electorate had rejected treaties of accession to the EU in two referendums. At the time of the first referendum in 1972, their neighbour, Denmark
Denmark
joined. Following the second referendum in 1994, two other Nordic neighbours , Sweden
Sweden
and Finland, joined the EU. The last two governments of Norway
Norway
have been unable and unwilling to advance the question positively, as they have both been coalition governments consisting of proponents and opponents.

Switzerland

Since Switzerland
Switzerland
rejected the EEA membership in a referendum in 1992 , more referendums on EU membership have been initiated, the last time being in 2001 . These were all rejected.

Iceland

See also: Accession of Iceland
Iceland
to the European Union
European Union

On 16 July 2009, the government of Iceland
Iceland
formally applied for the EU membership, but the negotiation process had been suspended since mid-2013, and in 2015 the foreign ministers wrote to withdraw its application.

Faroe Islands

In mid-2005, representatives of the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
raised the possibility of their territory joining the EFTA. According to Article 56 of the EFTA Convention, only states may become members of the EFTA. The Faroes are a constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
, and not a sovereign state in their own right. Consequently, they considered the possibility that the "Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
in respect of the Faroes" could join the EFTA, though the Danish Government has stated that this mechanism would not allow the Faroes to become a separate member of the EEA because Denmark
Denmark
was already a party to the EEA Agreement.

The Faroes already have an extensive bilateral free trade agreement with Iceland, known as the Hoyvík Agreement .

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was a co-founder of EFTA in 1960, but ceased to be a member upon joining the European Economic Community. The country held a referendum in 2016 on withdrawing from the EU (popularly referred to as " Brexit "), resulting in a 51.9% vote in favour of withdrawing. While the referendum result was only advisory, the UK Government is following the result. A 2013 research paper presented to the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
proposed a number of alternatives to EU membership which would continue to allow it access to the EU's internal market , including continuing EEA membership as an EFTA member state, or the Swiss model of a number of bilateral treaties covering the provisions of the single market.

In the first meeting since the Brexit vote, EFTA reacted by saying both that they were open to a UK return, and that Britain has many issues to work through. The president of Switzerland
Switzerland
Johann Schneider-Ammann stated that its return would strengthen the association. However, in August 2016 the Norwegian Government expressed reservations. Norway's European affairs minister, Elisabeth Vik Aspaker , told the Aftenposten newspaper: "It’s not certain that it would be a good idea to let a big country into this organisation. It would shift the balance, which is not necessarily in Norway’s interests."

In late 2016, the Scottish First Minister said that her priority was to keep the whole of the UK in the European single market but that taking Scotland alone into the EEA was an option being "looked at". However, other EFTA states have stated that only sovereign states are eligible for membership, so it could only join if it became independent from the UK.

ORGANISATION

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

EFTA is governed by the EFTA Council and serviced by the EFTA Secretariat. In addition, in connection with the EEA Agreement of 1992, two other EFTA organisations were established, the EFTA Surveillance Authority and the EFTA Court.

COUNCIL

The EFTA Council is the highest governing body of EFTA. The Council usually meets eight times a year at the ambassadorial level (heads of permanent delegations to EFTA) and twice a year at Ministerial level. In the Council meetings, the delegations consult with one another, negotiate and decide on policy issues regarding EFTA. Each Member State is represented and has one vote, though decisions are usually reached through consensus.

The Council discusses substantive matters, especially relating to the development of EFTA relations with third countries and the management of free trade agreements, and keeps under general review relations with the EU third-country policy and administration. It has a broad mandate to consider possible policies to promote the overall objectives of the Association and to facilitate the development of links with other states, unions of states or international organisations . The Council also manages relations between the EFTA States under the EFTA Convention. Questions relating to the EEA are dealt with by the Standing Committee in Brussels.

SECRETARIAT

The day-to-day running of the Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, Kristinn F. Árnason , who is assisted by two Deputy Secretaries-General, one based in Geneva
Geneva
and the other in Brussels
Brussels
. The three posts are shared between the Member States. The division of the Secretariat reflects the division of EFTA’s activities. The Secretariat employs approximately 100 staff members, of whom a third are based in Geneva
Geneva
and two thirds in Brussels
Brussels
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
.

The Headquarters in Geneva
Geneva
deals with the management and negotiation of free trade agreements with non-EU countries, and provides support to the EFTA Council.

In Brussels, the Secretariat provides support for the management of the EEA Agreement and assists the Member States in the preparation of new legislation for integration into the EEA Agreement. The Secretariat also assists the Member States in the elaboration of input to EU decision making.

The two duty stations work together closely to implement the Vaduz Convention’s stipulations on the intra-EFTA Free Trade
Trade
Area.

The EFTA Statistical Office in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
contributes to the development of a broad and integrated European Statistical System. The EFTA Statistical Office (ESO) is located in the premises of Eurostat , the Statistical Office of the European Union
European Union
in Luxembourg, and functions as a liaison office between Eurostat and the EFTA National Statistical Institutes. ESO's main objective is to promote the full inclusion of the EFTA States in the European Statistical System, thus providing harmonised and comparable statistics to support the general cooperation process between EFTA and the EU within and outside the EEA Agreement. The cooperation also entails technical cooperation programmes with third countries and training of European statisticians.

EEA INSTITUTIONS

A Joint Committee consisting of the EEA States plus the European Commission (representing the EU) has the function of extending relevant EU law to the non EU members. An EEA Council meets twice yearly to govern the overall relationship between the EEA members.

Rather than setting up pan-EEA institutions, the activities of the EEA are regulated by the EFTA Surveillance Authority
EFTA Surveillance Authority
and the EFTA Court . The EFTA Surveillance Authority
EFTA Surveillance Authority
and the EFTA Court regulate the activities of the EFTA members in respect of their obligations in the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA). Since Switzerland
Switzerland
is not an EEA member, it does not participate in these institutions.

The EFTA Surveillance Authority
EFTA Surveillance Authority
performs a role for EFTA members that is equivalent to that of the European Commission
European Commission
for the EU, as "guardian of the treaties" and the EFTA Court performs the European Court of Justice -equivalent role.

The original plan for the EEA lacked the EFTA Court or the EFTA Surveillance Authority: the European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
and the European Commission were to exercise those roles. However, during the negotiations for the EEA agreement, the European Court of Justice informed the Council of the European Union
European Union
by way of letter that it considered that it would be a violation of the treaties to give to the EU institutions these powers with respect to non-EU member states. Therefore the current arrangement was developed instead.

NORWAY GRANTS

The EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants are the financial contributions of Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway
Norway
to reduce social and economic disparities in Europe. They were established in conjunction with the 2004 enlargement of the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA), which brought together the EU, Iceland, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and Norway
Norway
in the Internal Market. In the period from 2004 to 2009, €1.3 billion of project funding was made available for project funding in the 15 beneficiary states in Central and Southern Europe. The EEA and Norway
Norway
Grants are administered by the Financial Mechanism Office, which is affiliated to the EFTA Secretariat in Brussels.

LOCATIONS

The EFTA Secretariat is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, but also has duty stations in Brussels, Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City], Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. The EFTA Surveillance Authority
EFTA Surveillance Authority
has its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium
Belgium
(the same location as the headquarters of the European Commission), while the EFTA Court has its headquarters in Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
(the same location as the headquarters of the European Court of Justice).

RELATIONSHIP WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION

Main article: European Economic Area
European Economic Area
See also: Accession of Iceland to the European Union
European Union
, Liechtenstein– European Union
European Union
relations , Norway– European Union
European Union
relations , and Switzerland–European Union relations

Except for Switzerland, the EFTA members are also members of the European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA). The EEA comprises three member states of the European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
(EFTA) and 28 member states of the European Union
European Union
(EU), including Croatia
Croatia
which is provisionally applying the agreement pending its ratification by all EEA countries. It was established on 1 January 1994 following an agreement with the European Community (which had become the EU two months earlier). It allows the EFTA-EEA states to participate in the EU's Internal Market without being members of the EU . They adopt almost all EU legislation related to the single market, except laws on agriculture and fisheries. However, they also contribute to and influence the formation of new EEA relevant policies and legislation at an early stage as part of a formal decision-shaping process. One EFTA member, Switzerland, has not joined the EEA but has a series of bilateral agreements, including a free trade agreement , with the EU.

The following table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the EFTA countries and their sovereign territories. Some territories of EU member states also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied as is the case with some European microstates .

EFTA MEMBER STATES AND TERRITORIES APPLICATION OF EU LAW EURATOM EUROPEAN DEFENCE AGENCY SCHENGEN AREA EU VAT AREA EU CUSTOMS UNION EU SINGLE MARKET EUROZONE

Iceland
Iceland
Partial No No Yes No No With exemptions No, ISK

Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
Partial No No Yes No, Swiss– Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
VAT area No, Swiss– Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
customs territory With exemptions No, CHF

Norway
Norway
, except: Partial No Participating non‑member state Yes No No With exemptions No, NOK

Svalbard Partial No Demilitarised No No, VAT free No No No, NOK

Bouvet Island No No Participating No No No No No, NOK

Peter I Island No No Demilitarised No No No No No, NOK

Queen Maud Land No No Demilitarised No No No No No, NOK

Switzerland
Switzerland
, except: Partial Participating associated state No Yes No, Swiss– Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
VAT area No, Swiss– Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
customs territory With exemptions No, CHF

Samnaun Partial Participating No Yes No, VAT free No, Swiss– Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
customs territory With exemptions No, CHF

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

* v * t * e

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS

EFTA also originated the Hallmarking Convention and the Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention , both of which are open to non-EFTA states.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE RELATIONS

Map of free trade agreements between EFTA and other countries EFTA Free trade agreement Ongoing free trade negotiation European Economic Area
European Economic Area
Declaration on cooperation or dialogue on closer trade relations

EFTA has several free trade agreements with non-EU countries as well as declarations on cooperation and joint workgroups to improve trade. Currently, the EFTA States have established preferential trade relations with 24 states and territories, in addition to the 28 member states of the European Union
European Union
.

FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS

* Albania
Albania
* Bosnia-Herzegovina * Canada
Canada
(Canada- European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
Free Trade Agreement ) * Central American States ( Costa Rica
Costa Rica
, Panama
Panama
) * Chile
Chile
* Colombia
Colombia
* Egypt
Egypt
* Gulf Co-operation Council ( Bahrain
Bahrain
, Kuwait
Kuwait
, Oman
Oman
, Qatar
Qatar
, Saudi Arabia , United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
) * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Israel
Israel
* Jordan
Jordan
* South Korea
South Korea
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Macedonia * Mexico
Mexico
* Montenegro
Montenegro
* Morocco
Morocco
(excluding Western Sahara
Western Sahara
) * Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
* Peru
Peru
* Serbia
Serbia
* Singapore
Singapore
* Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union
( Botswana
Botswana
, Lesotho
Lesotho
, Namibia
Namibia
, South Africa
South Africa
, Swaziland
Swaziland
) * Tunisia
Tunisia
* Turkey
Turkey
* Ukraine
Ukraine

ONGOING FREE TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

* Algeria
Algeria
* Central American States ( Guatemala
Guatemala
, Honduras
Honduras
) * Ecuador
Ecuador
* India
India
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Russia
Russia
/ Belarus
Belarus
/ Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Thailand
Thailand
* Vietnam
Vietnam

DECLARATIONS ON COOPERATION OR DIALOGUE ON CLOSER TRADE RELATIONS

* Georgia * Mauritius
Mauritius
* MERCOSUR ( Argentina
Argentina
, Brazil
Brazil
, Paraguay
Paraguay
, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Venezuela
Venezuela
) * Mongolia
Mongolia
* Myanmar
Myanmar
* Philippines
Philippines
* Pakistan
Pakistan

TRAVEL POLICIES

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

FREE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE EEA

Main article: Citizens’ Rights Directive

Free movement of people is part of the EEA agreement. Switzerland, while in EFTA, is not party to EEA; but essentially mimicked its effects in bilateral treaties with the EU.

As a result, de facto, a citizen of an EFTA country can live and work in all the other EFTA countries and in all the EU countries, and a citizen of an EU country can live and work in all the EFTA countries (but for voting and working in sensitive fields, such as government / police / military, citizenship is often required, and non-citizens may not have the same rights to welfare and unemployment benefits as citizens).

DUAL CITIZENSHIP

Since each EFTA and EU country can make its own citizenship laws, dual citizenship is not always possible. Of the EFTA countries, Iceland
Iceland
and Switzerland
Switzerland
allow it (in Switzerland, the conditions for the naturalization of immigrants vary regionally), but Norway
Norway
only in exceptional cases, and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
only for citizens by descent, but not for foreigners wanting to naturalize.

Some non-EFTA/non-EU countries do not allow dual citizenship either, so immigrants wanting to naturalize must sometimes renounce their old citizenship.

See also Multiple citizenship and the nationality laws of the countries in question for more details.

GENERAL SECRETARIES

STATE NAME YEAR

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Frank Figgures 1960–1965

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
John Coulson 1965–1972

Sweden
Sweden
Bengt Rabaeus 1972–1975

Switzerland
Switzerland
Charles Müller 1976–1981

Norway
Norway
Per Kleppe 1981–1988

Austria
Austria
Georg Reisch 1988–1994

Iceland
Iceland
Kjartan Jóhannsson 1994–2000

Switzerland
Switzerland
William Rossier 2000–2006

Norway
Norway
Kåre Bryn 2006-2012

Iceland
Iceland
Kristinn F. Árnason 2012–present

SEE ALSO

* Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) * Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MEFTA) * European Union
European Union
Association Agreement * European Union
European Union
free trade agreements * Free trade areas in Europe
Europe

NOTES

* ^ A B in international dollars (rounded) * ^ A B Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
, Infobox * ^ Svalbard treaty * ^ A B Through multiple sectoral agreements * ^ Notification pending

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C "1949-BULLETIN-10-WEB" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "The European Free Trade
Trade
Association". efta.int. efta.int. Retrieved 12 December 2014. * ^ " European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
by Shobicka Mehanathan on Prezi". Prezi.com. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "Free Trade
Trade
Map European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ "Finland: Now, the Seven and a Half". TIME. 7 April 1961. Retrieved 18 July 2009. * ^ AFP in Reykjavik (2015-03-12). " Iceland
Iceland
drops EU membership bid: \'interests better served outside\' union World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ A B "Iceland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013. * ^ A B "Norway". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April 2012. * ^ A B "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ " Norway
Norway
and the EU" (PDF). Eu-norway.org. Retrieved 2017-05-08.

* ^ "Council conclusions on EU relations with EFTA countries" (PDF). Council of the European Union
European Union
. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2013. * ^ "Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions - EU Relations with the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Monaco
Monaco
and the Republic of San Marino
San Marino
- Options for Closer Integration with the EU". 2012. * ^ "Council conclusions on EU relations with the Principality of Andorra, the Republic of San Marino
San Marino
and the Principality of Monaco" (PDF). Council of the European Union
European Union
. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. * ^ "Norge sier nei til nye mikrostater i EØS". 19 May 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2013. * ^ "Innlegg på møte i Stortingets europautvalg". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway
Norway
. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. * ^ "Eide: Bedre blir det ikke". 21 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013. * ^ A B Aalberg Undheim, Eva (8 December 2012). "Regjeringa open for diskutere EØS-medlemskap for mikrostatar" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 6 April 2013. * ^ "La Norvegia chiude le porte a San Marino" (PDF). La Tribuna Sammarinese. 3 January 2013. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2013. * ^ "EU Relations with the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Monaco
Monaco
and the Republic of San Marino: Options for their participation in the Internal Market". European Commission
European Commission
. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. * ^ " Iceland
Iceland
moves towards joining EU". BBC News. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009. * ^ Spongenberg, Helena (8 October 2007). " Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
seek closer EU relations". EUobserver. Retrieved 18 July 2009. * ^ "Convention Establishing the European Free Trade
Trade
Association" (PDF). 21 June 2001. Retrieved 18 July 2009. * ^ A B "The Faroes and the EU - possibilities and challenges in a future relationship" (PDF). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Faroes. 2010. p. 53. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-23. Retrieved 15 August 2013. Under its constitutional status the Faroes cannot become an independent Contracting Party to the EEA Agreement due to the fact that the Faroes are not a state. * ^ "Leaving the EU - RESEARCH PAPER 13/42" (PDF). House of Commons Library. 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2015-05-19. * ^ "The Latest: Lithuania
Lithuania
says UK must say if decision is final". CNBC
CNBC
. 2016-06-27. Archived from the original on 2016-07-03. Retrieved 2016-09-18 – via Associated Press
Associated Press
. * ^ Patrick Wintour (2016-08-09). " Norway
Norway
may block UK return to European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association
World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ "Sturgeon hints the Scottish Government could seek Norway-style EU relationship" . 2016-11-17. Retrieved 2016-11-17. * ^ "Iceland: Scotland could not start applying for EFTA until after independence". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2017-03-24. * ^ "EEA Agreement European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. 1994-01-01. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ " Croatia
Croatia
joins the EEA". European Free Trade
Trade
Association. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. * ^ "AGREEMENT ON THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AREA". European Free Trade Association. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "Influencing the EU - EEA Decision Shaping European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ A B C D "The Basic Features of the EEA Agreement European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "The requested document does not exist. - EUR-Lex". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "EUR-Lex - 21994A0103(41) - EN". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ "Choose a language - Consilium". Consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ A B "EUR-Lex - 32014D0954 - EN - EUR-Lex". Eur-lex.europa.eu. 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ "Free Trade
Trade
European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ A B "Free Trade
Trade
Agreements European Free Trade
Trade
Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ " Western Sahara
Western Sahara
excluded from EFTA- Morocco
Morocco
free trade agreement". SPS. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2010. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-07. * ^ A B "Joint Declarations on Cooperation European Free Trade Association". Efta.int. Retrieved 2016-08-17. * ^ "President Aquino and Swiss President Widmer-Schlumpf agree to expand economic relations at ASEM9". Philippine Information Agency. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013. * ^ "What is an EEA country? What is an EFTA country?". Livingingreece.gr. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ "All You Need to Know About Moving to Iceland
Iceland
– A guest post by Jenna Gottlieb". Iheartreykjavik.net. Retrieved 2017-05-08.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to