The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community,
were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions
. These were the European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC), the European Atomic Energy Community
(EAEC or Euratom), and the European Economic Community
(EEC); the last of which was renamed the ''European Community'' (''EC'') in 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty
, which formed the European Union
When the Communities were incorporated into the European Union in 1993, they became its first pillar
. The European Coal and Steel Community ceased to exist in 2002 when its founding treaty expired. The European Community was dissolved into the European Union by the Treaty of Lisbon
in 2009; with the EU becoming the legal successor to the Community. Euratom remained an entity distinct from the EU, but is governed by the same institutions.
The ECSC was created first. Following its proposal in 1950 in the Schuman Declaration
, the Netherlands
, and West Germany
came together to sign the Treaty of Paris
in 1951 which established the Community. The success of this Community led to the desire to create more, but attempts at creating a European Defence Community
and a European Political Community
failed leading to a return to economic matters. In 1957, the EAEC and EEC were created by the Treaties of Rome
. They were to share some of the institutions of the ECSC but have separate executive structures.
The ECSC's aim was to combine the coal and steel industries of its members to create a single market in those resources. It was intended that this would increase prosperity and decrease the risk of these countries going to war through the process of European integration
. The EAEC was working on nuclear energy
co-operation between the members. The EEC was to create a customs union
and general economic co-operation. It later led to the creation of a European single market
[The European Communities](_blank)
on CVCE website
The EEC became the European Community pillar of the EU
, with the ECSC and EAEC continuing in a similar subordinate position, existing separately in a legal sense but governed by the institutions of the EU as if they were its own. The ECSC's treaty had a 50-year limit and thus expired in 2002, all its activities are now absorbed into the European Community. The EAEC had no such limit and thus continues to exist. Due to the sensitive nature of nuclear power
with the European electorate, the treaty has gone without amendment since its signing and was not even to be changed with the European Constitution
intended to repeal all other treaties (the Constitution's replacement, the Treaty of Lisbon
, likewise makes no attempt at amendment).
As the EAEC has a low profile, and the profile of the European Community is dwarfed by that of the EU, the term "European Communities" sees little usage. However, when the EU was established the institutions that dealt solely or mainly with the European Community (as opposed to all three pillars) retained their original names, for example the formal name of the European Court of Justice
was the "Court of Justice of the European Communities" until 2009
In 1967, the Merger Treaty
combined these separate executives. The Commission and Council of the EEC were to take over the responsibilities of its counterparts in the other organisations. From then on they became known collectively as the "European Communities", for example the Commission was known as the "Commission of the European Communities", although the communities themselves remained separate in legal terms.
Structural evolution of the European Commission
The Maastricht Treaty
built upon the Single European Act
and the Solemn Declaration on European Union
in the creation of the European Union
. The treaty was signed on 7 February 1992 and came into force on 1 November 1993. The Union superseded and absorbed the European Communities as one of its three pillars
. The first Commission President
following the creation of the EU was Jacques Delors
, who briefly continued his previous EEC tenure before handing over to Jacques Santer
Only the first pillar followed the principles of supranationalism
. The pillar structure
of the EU allowed the areas of European co-operation to be increased without leaders handing a large amount of power to supranational institutions. The pillar system segregated the EU. What were formerly the competencies of the EEC fell within the European Community pillar. Justice and Home Affairs
was introduced as a new pillar while European Political Cooperation
became the second pillar (the Common Foreign and Security Policy
The Community institutions became the institutions of the EU but the roles of the institutions between the pillars are different. The Commission, Parliament and Court of Justice are largely cut out of activities in the second and third pillars, with the Council dominating proceedings. This is reflected in the names of the institutions, the Council is formally the "Council of the ''European Union''" while the Commission is formally the "Commission of the ''European Communities''". This allowed the new areas to be based on intergovernmentalism
(unanimous agreement between governments) rather than majority voting and independent institutions according to supranational democracy.
However, after the Treaty of Maastricht, Parliament gained a much bigger role. Maastricht brought in the codecision procedure
, which gave it equal legislative power with the Council on Community matters. Hence, with the greater powers of the supranational institutions and the operation of Qualified Majority Voting
in the Council, the Community pillar could be described as a far more federal
method of decision making.
The Amsterdam Treaty
transferred rule making powers for border controls, immigration, asylum and cooperation in civil and commercial law from the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) pillar to the European Community (JHA was renamed Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters
(PJCC) as a result). Both Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice
also extended codecision procedure to nearly all policy areas, giving Parliament equal power to the Council in the Community.
In 2002, the Treaty of Paris
which established the European Coal and Steel Community
(one of the three communities which comprised the European Communities) expired, having reached its 50-year limit (as the first treaty, it was the only one with a limit). No attempt was made to renew its mandate; instead, the Treaty of Nice
transferred certain of its elements to the Treaty of Rome
and hence its work continued as part of the EEC area of the Community's remit.
The Treaty of Lisbon
merged the three pillars and abolished the European Community; with the European Union becoming the Community's legal successor. Only one of the three European Communities still exists and the phrase "European Communities" no longer appears in the treaties.
The abolition of the pillar structure was first proposed under the European Constitution
but that treaty was not ratified.
EU evolution timeline
By virtue of the Merger Treaty
, all three Communities were governed by the same institutional framework. Prior to 1967, the Common Assembly/European Parliamentary Assembly
and the Court of Justice
, established by the ECSC, were already shared with the EEC and EAEC, but they had different executives. The 1967 treaty gave the Council and Commission of the EEC responsibility over ECSC and EAEC affairs, abolishing the Councils of the ECSC and EAEC, the Commission of the EAEC and the High Authority of the ECSC
. These governed the three Communities till the establishment of the European Union in 1993.
The three Communities shared the same membership, the six states that signed the Treaty of Paris and subsequent treaties were known as the "Inner Six
" (the "outer seven" were those countries who formed the European Free Trade Association
). The six founding countries were France
, West Germany
and the three Benelux
, the Netherlands
. The first enlargement was in 1973, with the accession of Denmark
and the United Kingdom
joined in the 1980s. Following the creation of the EU in November 1993, it has enlarged to include a further sixteen countries by July 2013.
thumb|300px|Founding members are shown in green, later members in blue. In 1957 the states that at the time formed East_Germany
_were_not_part_of_the_Communities,_but_they_became_so_on_[[German_reunification_in_1990..html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="German reunification">East Germany were not part of the Communities, but they became so on German_reunification">East_Germany
Member_states_are_represented_in_some_form_in_each_institution._The_[[Council_of_the_European_Union.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="German reunification in 1990.">German reunification">East Germany were not part of the Communities, but they became so on [[German reunification in 1990.
Member states are represented in some form in each institution. The [[Council of the European Union">Council is also composed of one national minister who represents their national government. Each state also has a right to one [[European Commissioner]] each, although in the [[European Commission]] they are not supposed to represent their national interest but that of the Community. Prior to 2004, the larger members (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom) had two Commissioners. In the European Parliament
, members are allocated a set number seats
related to their population, however these (since 1979
) have been directly elected and they sit according to political allegiance, not national origin. Most other institutions, including the European Court of Justice
, have some form of national division of its members.
At the time of its abolition, the Community pillar covered the following areas;
[What are the three pillars of the EU?](_blank)
Privileges and immunities
The Protocol on the privileges and immunities of the European Communities grants the European Communities and their institutions certain privileges and immunities such as to allow them to perform their tasks. The International Organizations Immunities Act
(22 USC § 288h) of the United States has also been extended to the European Communities.
The working conditions of staff are governed by the Communities' staff regulationsRegulation No. 31 (EEC), 11 (EAEC), laying down the Staff Regulations of Officials and the Conditions of Employment of Other Servants of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community
/ref> and not directly by the labour laws of the countries of employment. Their salaries, wages and emoluments are subject to a tax for the benefit of the European Communities and are, in turn, exempt from national taxes.
* Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities
* Brussels and the European Union
* Delors Commission
* European institutions in Strasbourg
* Energy Community
* Location of European Union institutions
* Jean Monnet, ''Prospect for a New Europe'' (1959)
* Bela Balassa, ''The Theory of Economic Integration'' (1962)
* Walter Hallstein, ''A New Path to Peaceful Union'' (1962)
* Paul-Henri Spaak, ''The Continuing Battle: Memories of a European'' (1971)
European Union website
CVCE (Centre for European Studies)
History of the Rome Treaties
CVCE collection (Centre for European Studies)
Category:History of the European Union
Category:1950s in Europe
Category:1960s in Europe
Category:1970s in Europe
Category:1980s in Europe
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