ECAA agreements were signed on 5 May 2006 in Salzburg, Austria between the EU and some external countries. It built upon the EU's acquis communautaire and the European Economic Area. The ECAA liberalises the air transport industry by allowing any company from any ECAA member state to fly between any ECAA member states airports, thereby allowing a "foreign" airline to provide domestic flights.
On 9 June 2006 the ECAA agreement was signed by almost all of the 27 EU members, the European Union itself, Norway, Iceland, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo (UNMIK as Kosovo representative under Security Council resolution 1244). The last two EU member states to sign it were Slovakia and Latvia respectively on 13 June 2006 and 22 June 2006. In addition Serbia signed on 29 June 2006 and Montenegro on 5 July 2006.
The first round of negotiations on an EU-Azerbaijan Common Aviation Area started in Baku on 24 January 2013. Ukraine hopes to sign an agreement on a common aviation space in July 2016. Armenia began negotiations to join after a new Armenia-EU partnership agreement was signed in February 2017.
A similar system the agreements in the field of aviation is expected to be enacted with the Mediterranean partnership countries. The Euro-Mediterranean Aviation Agreement (EMAA) was signed on 12 December 2006 with the Kingdom of Morocco, on 15 December 2010 with the Kingdom of Jordan, on 10 June 2013 with Israel. These EMAA agreements are currently undergoing ratification.
The negotiations with Tunisia started on 27 June 2013. On 9 October 2008 the Council of the European Union adopted a decision authorising the European Commission to open negotiations with Lebanon, and on 9 December 2008 adopted a decision authorising the European Commission to open negotiations with Algeria. The negotiations with Algeria have not started yet.