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The Info List - European Capital Of Culture



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The EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension.

Preparing a European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
can be an opportunity for the city to generate considerable cultural, social and economic benefits and it can help foster urban regeneration , change the city's image and raise its visibility and profile on an international scale.

In 1985, former actress Melina Mercouri
Melina Mercouri
, then Greece
Greece
’s minister of culture, and her French counterpart Jack Lang came up with the idea of designating an annual Capital of Culture to bring Europeans closer together by highlighting the richness and diversity of European cultures and raising awareness of their common history and values.

The Commission of the European Union
European Union
manages the title and each year the Council of Ministers of the European Union
European Union
formally designates European Capitals of Culture: more than 40 cities have been designated so far.

An international panel of cultural experts is in charge of assessing the proposals of cities for the title according to criteria specified by the European Union.

A 2004 study conducted for the European Commission , known as the "Palmer report", demonstrated that the choice of European Capital of Culture served as a catalyst for the cultural development and the transformation of the city. Consequently, the beneficial socio-economic development and impact for the chosen city are now also considered in determining the chosen cities.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 List of European Capitals of Culture * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

HISTORY

Aarhus
Aarhus
(Denmark), the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2017 Paphos
Paphos
(Cyprus) is the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
for 2017 along with Aarhus.

The European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
programme was initially called the European City of Culture and was conceived in 1983, by Melina Mercouri , then serving as minister of culture in Greece
Greece
. Mercouri believed that at the time, culture was not given the same attention as politics and economics and a project for promoting European cultures within the member states should be pursued. The European City of Culture programme was launched in the summer of 1985 with Athens
Athens
being the first title-holder. During the German presidency of 1999, the European City of Culture programme was renamed the European Capital of Culture.

LIST OF EUROPEAN CAPITALS OF CULTURE

European Capitals of Culture YEAR # CITY COUNTRY NOTES/LINKS

1985

Athens
Athens
Greece
Greece

1986

Florence
Florence
Italy
Italy

1987

Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Netherlands
Netherlands

1988

Berlin
Berlin
Germany
Germany

1989

Paris
Paris
France
France

1990

Glasgow
Glasgow
United Kingdom
United Kingdom

1991

Dublin
Dublin
Ireland

1992

Madrid
Madrid
Spain
Spain

1993

Antwerp
Antwerp
Belgium
Belgium

1994

Lisbon
Lisbon
Portugal
Portugal

1995

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg

1996

Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Denmark
Denmark

1997

Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Greece
Greece

1998

Stockholm
Stockholm
Sweden
Sweden

1999

Weimar
Weimar
Germany
Germany

2000

Avignon
Avignon
France
France
The year 2000, called the millennium year, was treated by the European Union
European Union
in a special way, in order to emphasize the enduring heritage and contribution of European cities to the achievements of world culture and civilization. Because of that, as many as nine locations were chosen, including two cities of states that were to join the EU on 1 May 2004.

Bergen
Bergen
Norway
Norway

Bologna
Bologna
Italy
Italy

Brussels
Brussels
Belgium
Belgium

Helsinki
Helsinki
Finland
Finland

Kraków Poland
Poland

Prague
Prague
Czech Republic
Czech Republic

Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Iceland
Iceland

Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
Spain
Spain

2001

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Netherlands
Netherlands

Porto
Porto
Portugal
Portugal

2002

Bruges
Bruges
Belgium
Belgium

Salamanca
Salamanca
Spain
Spain

2003

Graz
Graz
Austria
Austria

2004

Genoa
Genoa
Italy
Italy

Lille
Lille
France
France

2005

Cork Ireland

2006

Patras
Patras
Greece
Greece

2007

Sibiu
Sibiu
Romania
Romania
Sibiu
Sibiu
2007

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg

2008

Liverpool
Liverpool
United Kingdom
United Kingdom

Stavanger
Stavanger
Norway
Norway

2009

Vilnius
Vilnius
Lithuania
Lithuania

Linz Austria
Austria

2010

Essen
Essen
Germany
Germany
representing the Ruhr
Ruhr
as Ruhr.2010

Istanbul
Istanbul
Turkey
Turkey

Pécs Hungary
Hungary

2011

Turku
Turku
Finland
Finland

Tallinn
Tallinn
Estonia
Estonia

2012

Guimarães
Guimarães
Portugal
Portugal

Maribor
Maribor
Slovenia
Slovenia
Maribor
Maribor
2012

2013

Marseille
Marseille
France
France
Marseille-Provence 2013

Košice Slovakia
Slovakia

2014

Riga
Riga
Latvia
Latvia

Umeå
Umeå
Sweden
Sweden
Umeå
Umeå
2014

2015

Mons
Mons
Belgium
Belgium
Mons
Mons
2015

Plzeň Czech Republic
Czech Republic
Plzeň 2015

2016

San Sebastián
San Sebastián
Spain
Spain
San Sebastián
San Sebastián
2016

Wrocław Poland
Poland
Wrocław 2016

2017

Aarhus
Aarhus
Denmark
Denmark
Aarhus
Aarhus
2017

Paphos
Paphos
Cyprus
Cyprus
Pafos 2017

2018

Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
Netherlands
Netherlands
Leeuwarden-Fryslân 2018

Valletta
Valletta
Malta
Malta
Valletta
Valletta
2018

2019

Matera Italy
Italy
Matera 2019

Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Plovdiv
Plovdiv
2019

2020

Rijeka
Rijeka
Croatia
Croatia
Rijeka
Rijeka
2020

Galway
Galway
Ireland Galway
Galway
2020

2021 1 Timișoara
Timișoara
Romania
Romania
Timișoara
Timișoara
2021

2 Elefsina Greece
Greece
Elefsina 2021

31 Novi Sad
Novi Sad
Serbia
Serbia
Novi Sad
Novi Sad
2021

2022

Kaunas
Kaunas
Lithuania
Lithuania
Kaunas
Kaunas
2022

TBA September 2017 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
candidate city: Esch-sur-Alzette / eliminated: Differdange
Differdange
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City

2023

TBA Hungary
Hungary
potential candidate cities: Győr , Debrecen , Eger , Miskolc
Miskolc
, Tokaj , Veszprem ,

TBA United Kingdom
United Kingdom
status unclear due to Brexit - potential candidate cities: Bristol , Dundee
Dundee
, Leeds, Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
, Truro
Truro
, Belfast
Belfast
/ Derry
Derry
/ Strabane , Nottingham
Nottingham

2024 1 TBA Estonia
Estonia

2 TBA Austria
Austria
kulturhauptstadt2024.at tender to be opened in 2018, announcement in 2020 at latest

31 TBA TBA

2025

TBA Slovenia
Slovenia

TBA Germany
Germany
potential candidate cities: Bremen
Bremen
, Chemnitz , Dresden
Dresden
, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
, Halle/Saale , Hildesheim
Hildesheim
, Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, Nürnberg , Würzburg
Würzburg

2026

TBA Slovakia
Slovakia

TBA Finland
Finland
potential candidate cities: Mänttä-Vilppula

2027 1 TBA Latvia
Latvia

2 TBA Portugal
Portugal
potential candidate cities: Aveiro , Leiria , Braga
Braga
, Faro , Évora
Évora
, Ponta Delgada
Ponta Delgada

31 TBA TBA

2028

TBA Czech Republic
Czech Republic

TBA France
France

2029

TBA Poland
Poland

TBA Sweden
Sweden

2030 1 TBA Cyprus
Cyprus

2 TBA Belgium
Belgium
potential candidate : Liège

31 TBA TBA

2031

TBA Malta
Malta
potential candidate : Birgu
Birgu

TBA Spain
Spain
potential candidate cities: Cáceres , Granada
Granada

2032

TBA Bulgaria
Bulgaria

TBA Denmark
Denmark

2033 1 TBA Netherlands
Netherlands

2 TBA Italy
Italy

31 TBA TBA

1 A new framework makes it possible for a city in a candidate country or potential candidate for EU membership to hold the title every third year as of 2021. This will be selected through an open competition, meaning that cities from various countries may compete with each other. Athens
Athens
Florence
Florence
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Berlin
Berlin
Paris
Paris
Glasgow
Glasgow
Dublin
Dublin
Madrid
Madrid
Antwerp
Antwerp
Lisbon
Lisbon
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Stockholm
Stockholm
Weimar
Weimar
Avignon
Avignon
Bergen
Bergen
Bologna
Bologna
Brussels
Brussels
Helsinki
Helsinki
Kraków Prague
Prague
Reykjavík
Reykjavík
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Porto
Porto
Bruges
Bruges
Salamanca
Salamanca
Graz
Graz
Genoa
Genoa
Lille
Lille
Cork Patras
Patras
Sibiu
Sibiu
Liverpool
Liverpool
Stavanger
Stavanger
Vilnius
Vilnius
Linz Ruhr
Ruhr
Istanbul
Istanbul
Pécs Turku
Turku
Tallinn
Tallinn
Guimarães
Guimarães
Maribor
Maribor
Košice Marseille
Marseille
Riga
Riga
Umeå
Umeå
Mons
Mons
Plzeň San Sebastián Wrocław Aarhus
Aarhus
Paphos
Paphos
Valletta
Valletta
Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Matera Rijeka
Rijeka
Galway
Galway
Novi Sad
Novi Sad
Timișoara
Timișoara
Kaunas
Kaunas
Eleusis
Eleusis
Locations of European Capitals of Culture. Green designates current cities; red is for past cities; and blue for future cities.

SEE ALSO

* American Capital of Culture * Arab Capital of Culture * European Green Capital Award * European Capital of Sport * European Youth Capital

REFERENCES

* ^ Palmer, Robert (2004) "European Cities and Capitals of Culture" Part I. Part II. Study prepared for the European Commission * ^ Kiran Klaus Patel, ed., The Cultural Politics of Europe: European Capitals of Culture and European Union
European Union
since the 1980s (London: Routledge, 2013) * ^ Association of European Cities of Culture of the Year 2000 * ^ Selection of the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2021 in Romania, The Selection Panel’s report Pre-Selection Stage * ^ Elefsina to be the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in Greece
Greece
in 2021 * ^ Appel à candidatures pour la Capitale européenne de la Culture 2022 * ^ Cultural offer in the Grand Duchy - international, and much appreciated * ^ Quelle ville sera capitale européenne de la culture en 2022? * ^ "Európa Kulturális Fővárosa 2023: Számítanak a győriek javaslataira - Győr Megyei Jogú Város Honlapja". Onkormanyzat.gyor.hu. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ "2023-ban Európa Kulturális Fővárosa lehet Debrecen". haon.hu. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ "Európa Kulturális Fővárosa 2023: Eger biztosan pályázik heol.hu Közélet Heves megyei hírek". heol.hu. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ "Európa kulturális fővárosa: A jövőre vonatkozó elképzelések kellenek - Észak-Magyarország". Eszak.hu. 11 November 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ " Tokaj kandidál az Európa Kulturális Fővárosa címre". Tokaj.hu. 20 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2017. * ^ "Európa Kulturális Fővárosa 2023 Archívum - Veszprém Kuka