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The Info List - European American



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EUROPEAN AMERICANS (also known as EUROPEAN-AMERICANS) is a term used by some to refer to Americans with ancestry from Europe
Europe
.

The Spanish are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Florida
Florida
. Martín de Argüelles (born 1566) in St. Augustine , Spanish Florida
Florida
, and was the first known person of European descent born in the New World. Virginia Dare (born 1587) on Roanoke Colony
Roanoke Colony
, present-day North Carolina , United States was the first English child and girl, in a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
to establish a permanent English settlement in North America. In the 2014 American Community Survey , German Americans (14.4%), Irish Americans (10.4%), English Americans (7.6%), and Italian Americans (5.4%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States, forming 37.8% of the total population. However, the English- Americans and British- Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves simply as Americans .

CONTENTS

* 1 Terminology

* 1.1 Use * 1.2 Origin

* 2 History

* 2.1 Colonial * 2.2 Second wave * 2.3 Immigration since 1820

* 3 Demographics

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Cultural roots * 4.2 Law * 4.3 All-American icons and symbols * 4.4 American flag
American flag
* 4.5 Cuisine * 4.6 Thanksgiving * 4.7 Sports * 4.8 Music * 4.9 Industry

* 5 Ancestral origins

* 5.1 Notes

* 6 Notable people

* 6.1 Presidents of European descent

* 7 Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites * 8 See also * 9 References

TERMINOLOGY

NUMBER OF EUROPEAN AMERICANS: 1800-2010

YEAR POPULATION % OF THE UNITED STATES REF(S)

1800 4,306,446 81.1%

1850 19,553,068 84.3%

1900 66,809,196 87.9%

1950 134,942,028 89.5%

2010 223,553,265 72.4%

USE

In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget 's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 (Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting), a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the 'White' group, 'European American' came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees.

The term is used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, and Anglo
Anglo
American in many places around the United States.

Also, whereas the terms White American and Caucasian American carry somewhat ambiguous definitions, depending on the speaker, European American has a more specific definition and scope. According to linguist Janet Bing, the term "European American" has increased a little in use, especially among scholars.

ORIGIN

The term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans and Asian Americans . A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U.S. Census knew their European ancestry. Historically, the concept of an American originated in the United States as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding African Americans, Jews, and Native Americans.

As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else. Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures.

HISTORY

U.S. HISTORICAL POPULATIONS

COUNTRY IMMIGRANTS BEFORE 1790 Population (ancestry 1790)

England
England
* 230,000 1,900,000

Ulster
Ulster
Scot-Irish* 135,000 320,000

Germany
Germany
1 103,000 280,000

Scotland
Scotland
* 48,500 160,000

Ireland
Ireland
8,000 200,000

Netherlands
Netherlands
6,000 100,000

Wales
Wales
* 4,000 120,000

France
France
3,000 80,000

Sweden
Sweden
and Other 500 20,000

*BRITISH TOTAL 417,500 2,500,000+

TOTAL 950,000 3,929,214

African immigrants before 1790: 360,000, total ancestry in 1790: 757,208.

1It may include Poles. See: Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland

Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. Approximately 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. Prior to 1960, the overwhelming majority came from Europe
Europe
or European descent from Canada. In 1960 for example, 75.0% of foreign-born population in the United States
United States
came from the region of Europe.

Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants, almost 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe
Europe
, principally Great Britain
Great Britain
, Ireland
Ireland
, Germany
Germany
, and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
. The years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the sources of U.S. "New immigration". Between 1894 and 1914, immigrants from southern , central , and eastern Europe accounted for 69% of the total.

COLONIAL

Colonial stock (see Old Stock Americans ), which mostly consists of people of English , Scottish , Scots-Irish , Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is especially dominant in New England
England
and the South . Some people of colonial stock, especially in the Mid-Atlantic states
Mid-Atlantic states
, are also of Dutch , German and Flemish descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants . The Pennsylvania Dutch ( German American
German American
) population gave the state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
a high German cultural character. French descent, which can also be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana
Louisiana
, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida
Florida
. These are primarily Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
and Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
, respectively.

The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe
Europe
between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland
Ireland
, Germany
Germany
, Sweden
Sweden
, Denmark
Denmark
, and Britain, and with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans usually used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland
Poland
lost its independence in the period between 1772–1795. Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West , although German descent is extremely common in Pennsylvania, and Irish descent is also common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans
Germans
held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well of other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Northeast and the Midwest (see also White ethnic ).

SECOND WAVE

Population / Proportion born in Europe
Europe
1850-2015

YEAR POPULATION % OF FOREIGN-BORN

1850 2,031,867 92.2%

1860 3,807,062 92.1%

1870 4,941,049 88.8%

1880 5,751,823 86.2%

1890 8,030,347 86.9%

1900 8,881,548 86.0%

1910 11,810,115 87.4%

1920 11,916,048 85.7%

1930 11,784,010 83.0%

1960 7,256,311 75.0%

1970 5,740,891 61.7%

1980 5,149,572 39.0%

1990 4,350,403 22.9%

2000 4,915,557 15.8%

2010 4,817,437 12.1%

2015 4,789,662 11.1%

Source:

The second wave of European Americans arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s, mainly from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland. This wave included Irish , Italians , Greeks , Hungarians , Portuguese , Romanians , Ukrainians
Ukrainians
, Russians , Poles
Poles
and other Slavs
Slavs
. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain
Spain
, Mexico
Mexico
, Spanish Caribbean , and South and Central America , White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, and Texas
Texas
, California
California
, New York , and Florida
Florida
are important centers for them.

Ancestral origins Cultural regions of Europe
Europe
Albanian Aust. Belarusian Belgian Bos. Bulgarian Croat. Czech Danish Estonian Faroese (Dk) Finnish French Cor. (Fr) German Greek Hungarian Icelandic Irish Scots-Irish Italian Sicilian (It) Latvian Lithuanian Lux. Mac. Maltese Mont. Dutch Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Moldovan Serb. Slovak Slo. Spanish Basque (Sp) Canary Islander (Sp) Catalan (Sp) Swedish Swiss Armenian Georgian Azer. Turkish Cypriot Ukrainian English Scottish (British) Welsh Adr- iatic Sea Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
Baltic Sea Aegean Sea Azov Sea Barents Sea Bay of Biscay Black Sea Caspian Sea Celtic Sea Greenland Sea Baffin Bay Gulf of Cádiz Ligurian Sea Mediterranean Sea North Atlantic Ocean North Sea Norwegian Sea Strait of Gibraltar

Clickable map of Europe, showing one of the most commonly used continental boundaries KEY: BLACK: states which straddle the border between Europe
Europe
and Asia ; GREEN: states not geographically in Europe, but closely associated with the continent.

IMMIGRATION SINCE 1820

IMMIGRATION FROM EUROPE TO THE UNITED STATES, 1820–1970

YEARS ARRIVALS YEARS ARRIVALS YEARS ARRIVALS

1820-1830 98,816 1901-1910 8,136,016 1981-1990

1831-1840 495,688 1911-1920 4,376,564 1991-2000

1841-1850 1,597,502 1921-1930 2,477,853

1851-1860 2,452,657 1931-1940 348,289

1861-1870 2,064,407 1941-1950 621,704

1871-1880 2,261,904 1951-1960 1,328,293

1881-1890 4,731,607 1961-1970 1,129,670

1891-1900 3,558,793 1971-1980

ARRIVALS TOTAL (150 YRS) 35,679,763

EUROPEAN EMIGRATION, 1820–1978

COUNTRY ARRIVALS % OF TOTAL COUNTRY ARRIVALS % OF TOTAL

Germany
Germany
1 6,978,000 14.3% Norway
Norway
856,000 1.8%

Italy
Italy
5,294,000 10.9% France
France
751,000

Great Britain
Great Britain
4,898,000 10.01% Greece
Greece
655,000 1.3%

Ireland
Ireland
4,723,000 9.7% Portugal
Portugal
446,000 0.9%

Austria-Hungary 1, 2 4,315,000 8.9% Denmark
Denmark
364,000 0.7%

Russia
Russia
1, 2 3,374,000 6.9% Netherlands
Netherlands
359,000 0.7%

Sweden
Sweden
1,272,000 2.6% Finland 33,000 0.1%

TOTAL (158 YRS) 34,318,000

Note: Many returned to their country of origin1 It may include Poles. See: Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
.2 It may include Belarusians, Jews, Lithuanians, Ukrainians. See: Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
and Russian Empire
Russian Empire

DEMOGRAPHICS

BIRTHPLACE Population PERCENT

TOTALS, EUROPEAN-BORN 4,789,662 11.1%

NORTHERN EUROPE 928,644 2.1%

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
683,473 1.6%

Ireland
Ireland
120,144 0.3%

Other Northern Europe 125,027 0.3%

WESTERN EUROPE 964,714 2.2%

Germany
Germany
585,298 1.4%

France
France
173,561 0.4%

Other Western Europe 205,855 0.5%

SOUTHERN EUROPE 787,767 1.8%

Italy
Italy
352,492 0.8%

Portugal
Portugal
176,803 0.4%

Other Southern Europe 258,472 0.6%

EASTERN EUROPE 2,097,040 4.8%

Poland
Poland
419,332 1.0%

Russia
Russia
386,529 0.9%

Other Eastern Europe 1,291,179 3.0%

Other Europe
Europe
(no country specified) 11,497 0.0%

Source: 2015

At the 2010 Census there were 223,553,265 " White Americans ", which includes 26.7 million White Hispanic and Latino Americans . That is, there are 196.8 million " Non-Hispanic Whites " (63.7% of the total population) and 26,735,713 "Hispanic Whites " (8.7% of the population). The two groups collectively form the census category of "White Americans", a group consisting mostly of those of European ancestry, though people of Middle Eastern and North African ancestry are also classified as white by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The numbers below give numbers of European Americans as measured by the U.S. Census in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses. This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects the increased popularity of the 'American' option following its inclusion as an example in the 2000 census forms.

It is important to note that breakdowns of the European American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise. Farley (1991) argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents from their forebears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistent".

In particular, a large majority of European Americans have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single 'ancestry' gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the more distinctive parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity." He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey (1973) where for the main 'old' ancestry groups (e.g., German, Irish, English, and French), over 40% change their reported ancestry over the six-month period between survey waves (page 422). The New York City Metropolitan Area is home to the largest European population in the United States.

An important example to note is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English ancestry and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6 million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million.

The largest self-reported ancestries in 2000, reporting over 5 million members, were in order: German, Irish, English, American, Italian, French, and Polish. They have different distributions within the United States; in general, the northern half of the United States from Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
westward is dominated by German ancestry, and the southern half by English and American. Irish may be found throughout the entire country.

Italian ancestry is most common in the Northeast , Polish in the Great Lakes Region , and French in New England
England
and Louisiana
Louisiana
. U.S. Census Bureau statisticians estimate that approximately 62 percent of European Americans today are either wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish, or Scottish ancestry. Approximately 86% of European Americans today are of northwestern and central European ancestry, and 14% are of southeastern European and White Hispanic and Latino American descent. The figures above show that of the total population of specified birthplace in the United States. A total of 11.1% were born-overseas of the total population.

CULTURE

American cultural icons, apple pie , baseball , and the American flag . All have European influence primarily from the British.

CULTURAL ROOTS

The culture of the Americans of European descent, European-American culture, is the culture of the United States
United States
. As the largest component of the American population, the overall American culture deeply reflects the European-influenced culture that predates the United States
United States
of America as an independent state. Much of American culture shows influences from the diverse nations of the United Kingdom and Ireland
Ireland
, such as the English , Irish , Cornish , Manx , Scots Irish and Welsh . Colonial ties to Great Britain
Great Britain
spread the English language , legal system and other cultural attributes. Scholar David Hackett Fischer asserts in Albion\'s Seed: Four British Folkways in America that the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to the United States persisted and provide a substantial cultural basis for much of the modern United States
United States
. Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."

Much of the European-American cultural lineage can be traced back to Western and Northern Europe
Europe
, which is institutionalized in the government, traditions, and civic education in the United States. Since most later European Americans have assimilated into American culture, most European Americans now generally express their individual ethnic ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been revived since the 1960s. Southern Europeans, specifically Italian and Greeks (see Greek American ), have maintained high levels of ethnic identity. Same applied to Polish Americans . In the 1960s, Mexican Americans, Jewish Americans, and African Americans started exploring their cultural traditions as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold. European Americans followed suit by exploring their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural heritage.

The Solutrean hypothesis suggested that Europeans may have been among the first in the Americas. More recent research has argued this not to be the case and that the founding Native American population came from Siberia through Beringia. An article in the American Journal of Human Genetics states "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models."

LAW

The American legal system also has its roots in French philosophy with the separation of powers and the federal system along with English law in common law. For example, elements of the Magna Carta in it contain provisions on criminal law that were incorporated into the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. It as well as other documents had elements influencing and incorporated into the United States Constitution .

ALL-AMERICAN ICONS AND SYMBOLS

Mount Rushmore was sculpted by Danish-American Gutzon Borglum . Sculptures of the heads of former U.S. presidents Washington , Jefferson , Roosevelt and Lincoln . It has become an iconic symbol of the United States.

AMERICAN FLAG

* FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES – Based on the first flag of the United States
United States
of America the Grand Union Flag
Grand Union Flag
was first flown on December 2, 1775.

CUISINE

Main article: Cuisine of the United States
United States

* APPLE PIE – New England
England
was the first region to experience large-scale English colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans . Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes seen today as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the oven-roasted Thanksgiving turkey. "As American as apple pie" is a well-known phrase used to suggest that something is all-American. * HAMBURGER – Invented in the United States
United States
and known as "Hamburger" after German immigrants from Hamburg
Hamburg
who named the unnamed food, this cultural and widely known icon has trans international reach and has been internationally known for decades as a symbol of American fast food . * MAXWELL STREET POLISH consists of a grilled or fried length of Polish sausage topped with grilled onions and yellow mustard and optional pickled whole, green sport peppers , served on a bun. The sandwich traces its origins to Chicago
Chicago
's Maxwell Street
Maxwell Street
market, and has been called one of "the classic foods synonymous with Chicago". * TEX-MEX – Invented in Texas
Texas
and spread around Southwestern United States
United States
this fusion between traditional Mexican Cuisine and American Cuisine has become popular throughout the United States
United States
and in North America
North America
. * BUFFALO WINGS – Created in Buffalo , New York in the 1970s this dish is chicken wings glazed and dipped in vinegar hot sauce and butter with cayenne pepper and spices until hot and tasty. Now popular all over the country it has become a symbol of American cuisine.

THANKSGIVING

* THANKSGIVING – In the United States, it has become a national secular holiday (official since 1863 ) with religious origins. The first Thanksgiving was celebrated by English settlers to give thanks to God and the Native Americans for helping the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony survive the brutal winter. The modern Thanksgiving holiday traces its origins from a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast with the Native Americans after a successful growing season. William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim the American cultural event which is generally referred to as the "First Thanksgiving ".

SPORTS

Main article: Origins of baseball

* BASEBALL – English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford
Guildford
, Surrey
Surrey
; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008. This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America
North America
by English immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book " in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders which has been played in England
England
since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in England
England
pre-date use of the term "rounders". * AMERICAN FOOTBALL – can be traced to modified early versions of rugby football played in England
England
and Canadian football
Canadian football
mixed with and ultimately changed by American innovations which led over time to the finished version of the game from 1876 to now. The basic set of rules were first developed in American universities in the mid-19th century.

MUSIC

Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs :

* AMERICAN NATIONAL ANTHEM – takes its melody from the 18th-century English song " To Anacreon in Heaven " written by John Stafford Smith from England
England
for the Anacreontic Society , a men's social club in London and lyrics written by Francis Scott Key . This became a well-known and recognized patriotic song throughout the United States, which was officially designated as the American national anthem in 1931.

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

* AMAZING GRACE – written by English poet and clergyman John Newton . Popular among African Americans , it became an icon in American culture and has been used for a variety of secular purposes and marketing campaigns. * HAIL, COLUMBIA – initial presidential inauguration song up until early 20th century. Now used for the Vice President . * BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC – Patriotic song sung during the civil war time between 1861 and 1865.

INDUSTRY

* BUICK - David Dunbar Buick
Buick
was a Scottish -born American, a Detroit -based inventor, best known for founding the Buick
Buick
Motor Company. * CHEVROLET - Louis Chevrolet
Chevrolet
was a Swiss -born American race car driver who co-founded the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Motor Car Company in 1911. * HARLEY-DAVIDSON – The Davidson brothers were of Scottish descent (William. A., Walter and Arthur Davidson ) and William S. Harley
William S. Harley
of English descent. Along with Indian Motorcycle
Motorcycle
Manufacturing Company was the largest and most recognizable American motorcycle manufacturer.

ANCESTRAL ORIGINS

Further information: Maps of American ancestries and Race and ethnicity in the United States
United States

ANCESTRAL ORIGIN 1980 % 1990 % 2000 % 2014 % Change 1990–2000

Albanian 38,658 0.02% 47,710 0.02% 113,661 0.04% 186,030

+138.2%

American 1 notes - - 12,395,999 5.0% 20,188,305 7.2% 22,097,012 6.9% +62.9%

Austrian 948,558 0.42% 864,783 0.3% 730,336 0.3% 702,772

-15.5%

Basque 43,140 0.02% 47,956 0.02% 57,793 0.02%

+20.5%

Belarusian - - - - 25,639 0.2%

Belgian 360,277 0.16% 380,403 0.2% 348,531 0.1%

-08.4%

Bosnian - - - - 350,000 0.1%

British - - 1,119,140 0.4% 1,085,718 0.4% 1,326,960

-03.0%

Bulgarian 42,504 0.02% 29,595 0.01% 55,489 0.02%

+87.5%

Catalan - - - - 1,738 - -

Croatian 252,970 0.11% 544,270 0.2% 374,241 0.1%

-31.2%

Cypriot notes

4,897

7,643

Czech 1,892,456 0.84% 1,296,369 0.5% 1,258,452 0.4%

-02.9%

Danish 1,518,273 0.67% 1,634,648 0.7% 1,430,897 0.5%

-12.5%

Dutch 6,304,499 2.78% 6,226,339 2.5% 4,541,770 1.6% 4,243,067

-27.1%

English 49,598,035 21.89% 32,651,788 13.1% 24,509,692 8.7% 24,382,182 7.6% -24.9%

Estonian 25,994 0.01% 26,762 0.01% 25,034 0.01% 29,453

-06.5%

Finnish 615,872 0.27% 658,854 0.3% 623,559 0.2% 635,566

-05.4%

French : (incl: Cors.. ) (except Basque) 12,892,246 5.69% 10,320,656 4.1% 13,172,178 4.0% 8,153,515 2,099,430 2.6% 0.7% +27.6%

Georgian notes

6,298

German : (incl: Amish
Amish
, Tex. ) 49,224,146 21.73% 57,947,171 23.3% 42,841,569 15.2% 46,047,113 14.4% -26.1%

Greek 959,856 0.42% 1,110,292 0.4% 1,153,295 0.4%

+03.9%

Hungarian 1,776,902 0.78% 1,582,302 0.6% 1,398,702 0.5%

-11.6%

Icelandic 32,586 0.01% 40,529 0.02% 42,716 0.01% 49,518

+05.4%

Irish 40,165,702 17.73% 38,735,539 15.6% 30,524,799 10.8% 33,147,639 10.4% -21.2%

Italian : (incl: Sicilian ) 12,183,692 5.38% 14,664,189 5.9% 15,638,348 5.6% 17,220,604 5.4% +06.6%

Latvian 92,141 0.04% 100,331 0.04% 87,564 0.03%

-12.7%

Liechtensteiner - - - - 1,244 0.0004

Lithuanian 742,776 0.33% 811,865 0.3% 659,992 0.2%

-18.7%

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
- - - - 45,139 0.01%

-/+ 0%

Macedonia - - - - 57,200 0.02%

-/+ -6,927%

Maltese 31,645 0.01% 39,600 0.02% 40,159 0.01%

+01.4%

Moldovan - - - - 7,859 0.003

Monégasque - - - - 486

Montenegrin - - - - 2,528 0.03%

Norwegian 3,453,839 1.52% 3,869,395 1.6% 4,477,725 1.6%

+15.7%

Pennsylvania Dutch - - - - 255,807 0.1%

Polish 8,228,037 3.63% 9,366,051 3.8% 8,977,235 3.2%

-04.2%

Portuguese 1,024,351 0.45% 1,148,857 0.5% 1,173,691 0.4%

+02.2%

Romanian 315,258 0.14% 365,531 0.1% 367,278 0.1%

+0.5%

Russian 2,781,432 1.23% 2,951,373 1.2% 2,652,214 0.9%

-10.1%

Scots-Irish 16,418 0.007% 5,617,773 2.3% 4,319,232 1.5% 2,978,827

-23.1%

Scottish 10,048,816 4.44% 5,393,581 2.2% 4,890,581 1.7% 5,365,154

-09.3%

Serbian 100,941 0.04% 116,795 0.05% 51,679 0.05%

-50%

Slovak 776,806 0.3% 1,882,897 0.8% 797,764 0.3%

-57.6%

Slovene 126,463 0.06 124,437 0.1% 176,691 0.1%

+42%

Sammarinese - - - - 538

Spanish : (incl: Ast. , Can. , Hisp. ) 94,52 0.1% 360,935

299,948

760,151

-16.9%

Swedish 4,345,392 1.92% 4,680,863 1.9% 3,998,310 1.4% 4,325,000

-4.9%

Swiss 981,543 0.43% 1,045,492 0.4% 911,502 0.3%

-12.8%

Ukrainian 730,056 0.32% 740,723 0.3% 892,922 0.3%

+20.5%

Welsh 1,664,598 0.73% 2,033,893 0.82% 1,753,794 0.6% 1,757,657

-13.8%

Yugoslavian - - - - 328,547 0.1% 268,205

Other European - - - - 1,968,696 0.7% 3,679,468 - -

Scandinavian - - - - 425,099 0.2% 583,323 - -

UNITED STATES TOTAL 214,726,269 94.78% 223,371,445 89.81% 201,290,597 71.53%

-18,28%

SOURCE: Figures for the 1980, 1990 and the 2000 United States Census . 2014 American Community Survey . Number and (%) percentage of total United States
United States
population. ^1 American ethnicity – people who self-identify their ethnicity as "American", rather than the more common hyphenated American ancestry groups that make up the majority of the American people .

NOTES

* Jewish Americans , particularly those of Ashkenazi and Sephardi descent, are a diaspora population with origins in South Western Asia , but are often classified as White rather than Asian. In addition, all of the original peoples of the Middle East
Middle East
are classified as White by the US Census Bureau. * Gypsy Americans are a diaspora group with origins in the Indian Subcontinent, but are sometimes classified as European.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

PRESIDENTS OF EUROPEAN DESCENT

Most of the heritage that all forty-five US Presidents come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English , Scottish , Scotch-Irish or Welsh ) ancestry. Others include John F. Kennedy of Irish descent, Martin Van Buren of Dutch descent and two presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower (whose original family name was Eisenhauer) and Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(Huber). Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe
Europe
.

1st George Washington 1789-1797 (English through great-grandfather John Washington , German through maternal grandfather Joseph Matthäus Ball , French through great-great-great-grandfather Nicolas Martiau ) 2nd John Adams 1797-1801 (English) 3rd Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809 (Welsh, Scotch-English) 4th James Madison
James Madison
1809-1817 (English) 5th James Monroe 1817-1825 (Scottish) 6th John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829 (English) 7th Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
1829-1837 (Scotch-Irish) 8th Martin Van Buren 1837-1841 (Dutch) 9th William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
1841 (English) 10th John Tyler 1841-1845 (English) 11th James Knox Polk
James Knox Polk
1845-1849 (Scotch-Irish) 12th Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
1849-1850 (English) 13th Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
1850-1853 (Scottish, English) 14th Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
1853-1857 (English) 15th James Buchanan
James Buchanan
1857-1861 (Scotch-Irish) 16th Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865 (Welsh, English through ancestor Samuel Lincoln ) 17th Andrew Johnson 1865-1869 (Scotch-Irish, English) 18th Ulysses Simpson Grant
Ulysses Simpson Grant
1869-1877 (Scotch-Irish, English, Scottish, Walloon) 19th Rutherford Birchard Hayes 1877-1881 (English, Scottish) 20th James Abram Garfield
James Abram Garfield
1881 (Welsh, English, French) 21st Chester Alan Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur
1881-1885 (Scotch-Irish, English) 22nd Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
1885-1889 (English, Anglo-Irish, German) 23rd Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893 (Scotch-Irish, English) 24th Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
1893-1897 (English, Anglo-Irish, German) 25th William McKinley 1897-1901 (Scotch-Irish, English) 26th Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1909 (Dutch, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, English, Walloon) 27th William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
1909-1913 (Scotch-Irish, English) 28th Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921 (Scotch-Irish, Scottish) 29th Warren Gamaliel Harding 1921-1923 (Scotch-Irish, English) 30th Calvin Coolidge 1923-1929 (English) 31st Herbert Clark Hoover
Herbert Clark Hoover
1929-1933 (German, Swiss, English) 32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-1945 (Dutch, Walloon, English) 33rd Harry S. Truman 1945-1953 (English, German, Scotch-Irish) 34th Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 (German, Swiss) 35th John F. Kennedy 1961-1963 (Irish) 36th Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-1969 (English) 37th Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
1969-1974 (English, Scotch-Irish, Irish, German) 38th Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
1974-1977 (English) 39th Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 (English, Scotch-Irish) 40th Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989 (Irish, Scottish, English) 41st George H. W. Bush 1989-1993 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish) 42nd Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
1993-2001 (Scotch-Irish, English) 43rd George W. Bush 2001-2009 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh) 44th Barack Obama 2009-2017 (English, Irish, German through his mother Ann Dunham
Ann Dunham
) 45th Donald Trump 2017-present (German, Scottish)

ADMIXTURE IN NON-HISPANIC WHITES

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans). Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European- Americans

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture. The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture. Later, Shriver retracted his statement, saying that actually around 5% of White Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry.

From the 23andMe database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry. Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry. White Americans (European Americans) on average are: “98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American.” Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas.

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
portal * Europe
Europe
portal

* American Chamber of Commerce to the European Union * American ethnicity * Anglo
Anglo
* Ethnic groups in Europe
Europe
* European Canadians
European Canadians
* Europhobia * Immigration to the United States
United States
* Melting pot * Non-Hispanic Whites * Stereotypes of European Americans * White Americans * White Anglo-Saxon Protestant * White ethnic * White Hispanic and Latino Americans * White Southerners

REFERENCES

* ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES: 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2017. * ^ "Euro-American". Merriam Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved March 13, 2014. * ^ A B Ethnic Groups of the Americas: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia: By James B. Minahan - Americans of European descent (Page: 17-18) * ^ "A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida". Library of Congress . Retrieved 2009-03-27. * ^ "Latino Chronology". google.co.uk. Retrieved February 4, 2015. * ^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States
United States
(DP02): 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 31, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015. * ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera. * ^ Reynolds Farley, "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421. * ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6. * ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86. * ^ A B C D "Official census statistics of the United States
United States
race and Hispanic origin population" (PDF). US Statistics Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-25. * ^ Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 March 2016. * ^ "A Test of Methods For Collecting Racial and Ethnic Information: May 1995" (Press release). CPS Publications. October 26, 1995. Archived from the original on December 12, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Sandra Soo-Jin Lee; Joanna Mountain; Barbara A. Koenig (May 24, 2001). "The Meanings of Race in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research" (PDF). Yale University. p. 54. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016. * ^ Bing, Janet (2001). "Wordmaster: September 2, 2001 - Race Terms". voanews.com. Retrieved 2013-12-22. * ^ A B C D E Randolph, Gayle (2007). "Why Study European Immigrants". Iowa State University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2005. Retrieved June 14, 2007. * ^ Crevecoeur, Hector St. John. Letters from an American Farmer. "What is an American." 1782. * ^ Bhopal, Raj. (1998). "White, European, Western, Caucasian or What? Inappropriate Labeling in Research on Race, Ethnicity and Health" . Am J Public Health. 88 (9): 1303–7. doi :10.2105/ajph.88.9.1303 . PMC 1509085  . PMID 9736867 . * ^ Adair, Margo (1990). "Challenging White Supremacy Workshop" (PDF). cwsworkshop.org. Retrieved November 5, 2006. * ^ The source: a guidebook to American genealogy. By Loretto Dennis Szucs, Sandra Hargreaves Luebking * ^ Data From Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPS). * ^ Germany
Germany
in this time period consisted of a large number of separate countries, the largest of which was Prussia. * ^ The Other category probably contains mostly English ancestry settlers; but the loss of several states' census records in makes closer estimates difficult. The summaries of the 1790 and 1800 census from all states survived. * ^ Total represents total immigration over the approximately 130 year span of colonial existence of the U.S. colonies as found in the 1790 census. At the time of the American Revolution the foreign born population was estimated to be from 300,000 to 400,000. * ^ Several West African regions were the home to most African immigrants. Population from U.S. 1790 Census. * ^ "The New Americans". google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ Raymond L. Cohn (August 15, 2001). "Immigration to the United States". EH.Net Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ "MPI Data Hub Graph". migrationinformation.org. Archived from the original on April 22, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Loretto Dennis Szucs; Sandra Hargreaves Luebking (2006). The Source: A Guidebook to American Genealogy. Ancestry Publishing. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-59331-277-0 . Retrieved March 11, 2016. * ^ Campbell Gibson; Kay Jung (February 2006). "Population Division: Historical census statistics on the foreign-born population of the United States: 1850 to 2000 (Working Paper No. 81)" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 March 2016. * ^ Elizabeth M. Grieco; Yesenia D. Acosta; G. Patricia de la Cruz; Christine Gambino; Thomas Gryn; Luke J. Larsen; Edward N. Trevelyan; Nathan P. Walters (May 2012). "The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2010" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 March 2016.

* ^ "Foreign-Born Population by Country of Birth: 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 plus 2000, 2006-2011" (XLSX). Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 11 March 2016. * ^ United States
United States
Demographics Wagner-Jones, Christina (1985). Nation-building in the United States. ISBN 9780912404127 . * ^ "European emigration statistics". Archived from the original on 2000-08-24. * ^ "European Immigrants in the United States". migrationpolicy.org. Retrieved 11 May 2017. * ^ "State & County QuickFacts: Race". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. * ^ Farley, Reyonlds (1991). "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?". Demography. 28 (3): 411–429. JSTOR 2061465 . * ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-02-23. * ^ World Culture Encyclopedia EveryCulture.com * ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed (Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 6 * ^ Hackett Fischer, David. Albion's Seed Oxford University Press, 1989. * ^ Kirk, Russell. The Heritage Lecture Series. "America Should Strengthen its European Cultural Roots." Washington D.C:1949 * ^ Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006). "First Americans may have been European". Life Science. Retrieved August 10, 2007. * ^ Conner, Steve, Science Editor (3 December 2002). "Does skull prove that the first Americans came from Europe?". utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 2004-03-02. Retrieved August 14, 2007. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Earliest humans in the Americas: new evidence from Mexico, Journal of Human Evolution 44, 379-387. * ^ Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.S.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L. (2008). "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (3): 583–592. doi :10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.11.013 . ISSN 0002-9297 . PMC 2427228  . PMID 18313026 . Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. * ^ Separation of powers#Checks and balances * ^ "Features - Sources of United States
United States
of America Legal Information in Languages Other than English - LLRX.com". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ "Magna Charta - Magna Charta". Retrieved 17 March 2015. * ^ Mount Rushmore National Memorial. December 6, 2005.60 SD Web Traveler, Inc. Retrieved April 7, 2006. * ^ Fischer, pp. 74, 114, 134–39. * ^ according to a theory; see Hamburger
Hamburger
* ^ Clark, Sandy Thorne. (2006-6-26), "Getting a taste of Chicago: City's signature flavors have tourists and locals lining up for more, more, more", Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times, S1. * ^ William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation 1620–1647, 85 * ^ " BBC
BBC
NEWS - UK - England
England
- Baseball
Baseball
\'origin\' uncovered". bbc.co.uk. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ " BBC
BBC
- South Today - Features - Baseball
Baseball
history". bbc.co.uk. * ^ Telegraph staff and agencies (11 September 2008). "Major League Baseball
Baseball
told: Your sport is British, not American". Telegraph.co.uk. London. * ^ "The New American Sport History". google.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ "John Stafford Smith: Composer of the Star Spangled Banner". visit-gloucestershire.co.uk. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. * ^ "Fort McHenry: Birthplace of Our National Anthem". bcpl.net. Archived from the original on July 21, 2007. * ^ Lesley Nelson. "Star Spangled Banner". contemplator.com. Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ "\'Amazing Grace\'". NPR.org. 29 December 2002. Retrieved 24 March 2015. * ^ "Harley: The Littleport Connection "Without Littleport, there\'d be no Harley-Davidson"". clutchandchrome.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ "www.census.gov Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for the United States: 1980" (PDF). * ^ "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,00 or more persons: 1980" (PDF). United States
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Census Bureau . Retrieved 30 November 2012. * ^ "1990 Census of Population Detailed Ancestry Groups for States" (PDF). United States
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Census Bureau . 18 September 1992. Retrieved 30 November 2012. * ^ "Ancestry: 2000". United States
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Census Bureau . Retrieved 30 November 2012. * ^ American FactFinder Archived August 31, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . Ancestry: 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates * ^ Ancestry: Archived August 31, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates * ^ HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN. Universe: Total population more information: 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates * ^ "No Evidence from Genome-Wide Data of a Khazar Origin for the Ashkenazi Jews" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ "The Presidents". americanheritage.com. Archived from the original on 2006-02-10. * ^ Sample of 1387 American Caucasian individuals catalogued in the FBI mtDNA population database, Gonçalves et al. 2007, Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians * ^ Manfred Kayser et al. 2003, Y Chromosome STR Haplotypes and the Genetic Structure of U.S. Populations of African, European, and Hispanic Ancestry * ^ Shriver, et al., "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping, Hum Genet (2003) 112 : 387–39. * ^ Sailer, Steve (May 8, 2002). "Analysis: White prof finds he\'s not". UPI . * ^ Wootan, Jim (December 2003). "Race Reversal Man Lives as \'Black\' for 50 Years — Then Finds Out He\'s Probably Not". ABC News . Archived from the original on August 3, 2004. * ^ A B Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; MacPherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna (2014). "The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans across the United States". bioRxiv 009340  . doi :10.1101/009340 . * ^ A B Scott Hadly, "Hidden African Ancestry Redux", DNA USA*, 23andMe , March 4, 2014.

* v * t * e

European Americans

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Austrian 1, * Czech

* German 1,

* Amish
Amish
* German Texan * Pennsylvania Dutch * German Mennonites from Russia
Russia

* Hungarian

* Hungarian Ohioans

* Kashubian * Liechtensteiner * Luxembourgian * Polish 1, * Slovak * Slovene * Sorbian * Swiss

EASTERN EUROPE

* Azerbaijani 5 * Belarusian * Chechen * Georgian 5 * Kazakh 6

* Russian 1, 2

* Cossack * Kalmyk

* Ukrainian

* Cossack * Rusyn

NORTHERN EUROPE

* Danish * Estonian * Faroese * Finnish * Icelandic * Latvian * Lithuanian

* Norwegian

* Norwegian Dakotan * Norwegian Minnesotan

* Sami * Swedish

SOUTHEAST EUROPE3

* Albanian * Bosnian * Bulgarian * Cypriot * Croatian * Greek * Macedonian * Moldovan * Montenegrin * Romanian

* Serbian

* Alaskan Serbs

* Turkish 4

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Italian

* Sicilian

* Maltese * Monacan * Portuguese * Sanmarinese

* Spanish

* Asturian * Basque * Canarian * Catalan * Galician * Hispano

WESTERN EUROPE

* Belgian

* Flemish

* British

* Cornish * English * Manx * Scots-Irish/ Ulster
Ulster
Scots * Scottish * Welsh

* Dutch

* French

* Basque * Breton * Cajun
Cajun
* Corsican

* Frisian * Irish

OTHER EUROPEANS

* Non-Hispanic whites * Métis

* Roma

* Hungarian Slovak Romanies 7

* Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole

* Cajun * Isleños

BY REGION

* California
California
* Hawaii
Hawaii
* White Southerners

1 Poles
Poles
came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia
Russia
until Poland
Poland
regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I.

2 Russia
Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia
Russia
, therefore Russia
Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here.

3 Yugoslav Americans are the American people
American people
from the former Yugoslavia .

4 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
Europe
called Turkish Thrace
Turkish Thrace
.

5 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus
Caucasus
.

6 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

* v * t * e

Demographics of the United States
United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

* Affluence * Educational attainment * Emigration * Home-ownership * Household income * Immigration * Income inequality * Language * LGBT * Middle classes * Personal income * Poverty * Social class * Unemployment by state * Wealth

BY RELIGION

* Buddhists

* Christians

* Catholics * Coptics * Protestants

* Hindus * Jains * Jews

* Muslims

* Ahmadiyyas

* Neopagans * Non-religious * Rastafaris * Scientologists * Sikhs

By continent and ethnicity

AFRICA

* African diaspora in the Americas

* Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans

* Bahamian Americans * Belizean Americans * Guyanese Americans * Haitian Americans * Jamaican Americans * Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

* Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

* African immigrants to the United States
United States

* Central Africans in the United States
United States
* Horn Africans in the United States
United States
* North Africans in the United States
United States
* Southeast Africans in the United States
United States
* Southern Africans in the United States
United States
* West Africans in the United States
United States

ASIA

* Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

* East Asia

* Chinese Americans

* Hong Kong Americans * Tibetan Americans

* Japanese Americans * Korean Americans * Mongolian Americans * Taiwanese Americans

* South Asia

* Bangladeshi Americans * Bhutanese Americans * Indian Americans * Nepalese Americans * Pakistani Americans * Romani Americans * Sri Lankan Americans

* Southeast Asia

* Burmese Americans * Cambodian Americans * Filipino Americans * Hmong Americans * Indonesian Americans * Laotian Americans * Malaysian Americans * Singaporean Americans * Thai Americans * Vietnamese Americans

* West Asia

* Arab Americans * Assyrian Americans * Iranian Americans * Israeli Americans * Jewish Americans

EUROPE

* White Americans

* English Americans * French Americans * German Americans * Irish Americans * Italian Americans * Spanish Americans

* Non-Hispanic whites * White Hispanic and Latino Americans

OCEANIA

* Pacific Islands Americans

* Chamorro Americans * Native Hawaiians * Samoan Americans * Tongan Americans

* Euro Oceanic Americans

* Australian Americans * New Zealand Americans

NORTH AMERICA

* Native Americans and Alaska
Alaska
Natives * Canadian Americans * Cuban Americans * Mexican Americans * Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

SOUTH AMERICA

* Hispanic and Latino Americans * Colombian Americans

MULTIETHNIC

* Melungeon

* People of the United States
United States
/ Americans * American ancestry * Maps of American ancestries * 2010 Census * Race and ethnicity in the Census * Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission * Racism

* v * t * e

European diasporas

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Czechs * Germans
Germans
* Hungarians

* Poles
Poles

* Kashubians

* Slovaks * Slovenes * Swiss

EASTERN EUROPE

* Armenians 5 * Azerbaijanis 3 * Belarusians * Georgians 3 * Kazakhs 4 * Russians 1

* Ukrainians
Ukrainians

* Crimean Tatars

NORTHERN EUROPE

* British

* English * Scottish * Welsh * Cornish

* Danes * Estonians * Finns * Icelanders * Irish * Latvian * Lithuanians * Norwegians * Swedes

SOUTHEAST EUROPE

* Albanians

* Kosovar

* Bosnians * Bulgarians * Croats

* Cypriots

* Greek Cypriots 5 * Turkish Cypriots 5

* Greeks * Macedonians

* Romanians

* Moldovans

* Serbian * Turkish 2

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Italians

* Calabrians

* Maltese * Portuguese

* Spaniards

* Basques * Isleños

WESTERN EUROPE

* Belgians
Belgians

* Flanders
Flanders

* Dutch

* French

* Basques

1 Russia
Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia
Russia
, therefore Russia
Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here.

2 Turkey
Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe. It has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
Europe
called Turkish Thrace
Turkish Thrace
.

3 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus
Caucasus
.

4 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is a transcontinental country. It has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.

5 Armenia
Armenia
and Cyprus
Cyprus
are entirely in Southwest Asia, but have socio-political and historical connections with Europe.

* v * t * e

White people

* Caucasian race * European peoples * West Asian peoples * Central Asian peoples * North African peoples

* BOLD refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

WORLDWIDE DIASPORA

* Africa

* Algeria * Angola * Botswana * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Kenya * Morocco * Namibia * Saint Helena * South Africa * Tunisia * Zambia * Zimbabwe

* Asia

* Pakistan

* UNITED STATES * CANADA * Bermuda * Bahamas * Barbados * Cayman Islands * Israel * Jamaica * Suriname * Trinidad and Tobago

* Latin America

* ARGENTINA * Bolivia * Brazil * Colombia * COSTA RICA * CUBA * Dominican Republic * Ecuador * El Salvador * Guatemala * Haiti * Honduras * Mexico
Mexico
* Nicaragua * Peru * PUERTO RICO * URUGUAY * Venezuela

* Oceania

* AUSTRALIA * New Caledonia * NEW ZEALAND

HISTORICAL CONCEPTS

* Apartheid * Aryan * First white child * Honorary whites * Play the white man

* Racial whitening

* Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento
Blanqueamiento

* White Australia policy * The White Man\'s Burden * White gods

Identity politics in the U.S.

* Poor Whites

* Redlegs * Rednecks * Mountain whites

SCIENTIFIC RACISM

* US definitions of whiteness

* One-drop rule

* Alt-right * Christian Identity * Non-Hispanic whites * White Anglo-Saxon Protestant * Old Stock Americans * White ethnic * White Hispanic * White nationalism * White pride
White pride
* White separatism * White supremacy

* Human skin color * Color terminology for race * Alpine * Armenoid * Dinaric * East Baltic * Irano-Afghan * Mediterranean

* COMMONS

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