The Info List - European American

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European Americans
(also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.[3][4] This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America and as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. White and European Americans
constitute the largest racial and ethnic group in the United States, composing 73.1% of the total U.S. population.[5] The Spaniards
are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles
Martín de Argüelles
(b. 1566) in St. Augustine, Spanish Florida, New Spain.[6][7] Virginia Dare
Virginia Dare
(b. August 18, 1587) on Roanoke Colony, present-day North Carolina, United States
United States
was the first English child and girl, in a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
to establish a permanent English settlement in North America. In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans
(13.9%), Irish Americans (10.0%), English Americans
(7.4%), Italian Americans
(5.2%), and Polish Americans
(3%) were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States
United States
forming over a third of the total population.[2] However, the English Americans
and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves simply as Americans (20,151,829 or 6.2%).[8][9][10][11] The term European American is sometimes used interchangeably and synonymously with the broader terms white and Caucasian.


1 Terminology

1.1 Use 1.2 Origin

2 History

2.1 Colonial 2.2 Second wave 2.3 Immigration since 1820

3 Demographics 4 Culture

4.1 Cultural roots 4.2 Law 4.3 All-American icons and symbols 4.4 American flag 4.5 Cuisine 4.6 Thanksgiving 4.7 Sports 4.8 Music 4.9 Industry

5 Ancestral origins

5.1 Notes

6 Notable people

6.1 Presidents of European descent

7 Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites 8 See also 9 References 10 External links


Number of European Americans: 1800-2010

Year Population % of the United States Ref(s)

1800 4,306,446 81.1% [12]

1850 19,553,068 84.3% [12]

1900 66,809,196 87.9% [12]

1950 134,942,028 89.5% [12]

2010 223,553,265 72.4% [13]

Use[edit] In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 (Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting), a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the White group, European American came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees.[14] The term is used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, and Anglo
American in many places around the United States.[15] However, the latter terms are often also used to refer to persons with ancestry anywhere in the Mediterranean region, including North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East. Whereas the terms White American and Caucasian American carry somewhat ambiguous definitions, depending on the speaker, European American when used properly has a more specific definition and scope. Origin[edit] The term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans
and Asian Americans. A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U.S. Census knew[clarification needed] their European ancestry.[16] Historically, the concept of an American originated in the United States
United States
as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding African Americans, Jews, and Native Americans.[17] As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else.[18] Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans
to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures.[19] History[edit]

U.S. historical populations[20]

Country Immigrants before 1790 Population (ancestry 1790)[21]

England* 230,000 1,900,000

Scot-Irish* 135,000 320,000

Germany[22]1 103,000 280,000

Scotland* 48,500 160,000

Ireland 8,000 200,000

Netherlands 6,000 100,000

Wales* 4,000 120,000

France 3,000 80,000

and Other[23] 500 20,000

*British total 417,500 2,500,000+

Total[24] 950,000 3,929,214

African[25] immigrants before 1790: 360,000, total ancestry in 1790: 757,208. 1It may include Poles. See: Partitions of Poland

Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. Approximately 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. Prior to 1960, the overwhelming majority came from Europe
or European descent from Canada. In 1960 for example, 75.0% of foreign-born population in the United States
United States
came from the region of Europe.[26] Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants, almost 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia. The years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the sources of U.S. "New immigration". Between 1894 and 1914, immigrants from southern, central, and eastern Europe
accounted for 69% of the total.[27][28][29] Colonial[edit] Colonial stock (see Old Stock Americans), which mostly consists of people of English, Scottish, Scots-Irish, Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is especially dominant in New England
and the South. Some people of colonial stock, especially in the Mid-Atlantic states, are also of Dutch, German and Flemish descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants. The Pennsylvania Dutch (German American) population gave the state of Pennsylvania
a high German cultural character. French descent, which can also be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida. These are primarily Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively. The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe
between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and Britain, and with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans
usually used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland
lost its independence in the period between 1772–1795. Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West, although German descent is extremely common in Pennsylvania, and Irish descent is also common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans
held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well of other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Northeast and the Midwest (see also White ethnic). Second wave[edit]

Population / Proportion born in Europe

Year Population % of foreign-born

1850 2,031,867 92.2%

1860 3,807,062 92.1%

1870 4,941,049 88.8%

1880 5,751,823 86.2%

1890 8,030,347 86.9%

1900 8,881,548 86.0%

1910 11,810,115 87.4%

1920 11,916,048 85.7%

1930 11,784,010 83.0%

1960 7,256,311 75.0%

1970 5,740,891 61.7%

1980 5,149,572 39.0%

1990 4,350,403 22.9%

2000 4,915,557 15.8%

2010 4,817,437 12.1%

2015 4,789,662 11.1%


The second wave of European Americans
arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s, mainly from Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland.[16] This wave included Irish, Italians, Greeks, Hungarians, Portuguese, Romanians, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles
and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Mexico, Spanish Caribbean, and South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, and Texas, California, New York, and Florida
are important centers for them.

Ancestral origins Cultural regions of Europe

Albanian Aust. Belarusian Belgian Bos. Bulgarian Croat. Czech Danish Estonian Faroese (Dk) Finnish French Cor. (Fr) German Greek Hungarian Icelandic Irish Scots-Irish Italian Sicilian (It) Latvian Lithuanian Lux. Mac. Maltese Mont. Dutch Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Moldovan Serb. Slovak Slo. Spanish Basque (Sp) Canary Islander (Sp) Catalan (Sp) Swedish Swiss Armenian Georgian Azer. Turkish Cypriot Ukrainian English Scottish (British) Welsh Adr- iatic Sea Arctic Ocean Baltic Sea Aegean Sea Azov Sea Barents Sea Bay of Biscay Black Sea Caspian Sea Celtic Sea Greenland Sea Baffin Bay Gulf of Cádiz Ligurian Sea Mediterranean Sea North Atlantic Ocean North Sea Norwegian Sea Strait of Gibraltar

Clickable map of Europe, showing one of the most commonly used continental boundaries[34] Key: black: states which straddle the border between Europe
and Asia; green: states not geographically in Europe, but closely associated with the continent. Immigration since 1820[edit]

Immigration from Europe
to the United States, 1820–1970[35][36][37][38][39][40]

Years Arrivals Years Arrivals Years Arrivals

1820-1830 98,816 1901-1910 8,136,016 1981-1990

1831-1840 495,688 1911-1920 4,376,564 1991-2000

1841-1850 1,597,502 1921-1930 2,477,853

1851-1860 2,452,657 1931-1940 348,289

1861-1870 2,064,407 1941-1950 621,704

1871-1880 2,261,904 1951-1960 1,328,293

1881-1890 4,731,607 1961-1970 1,129,670

1891-1900 3,558,793 1971-1980

Arrivals Total (150 yrs) 35,679,763

European emigration, 1820–1978[41][42][43]

Country Arrivals % of total Country Arrivals % of total

Germany1 6,978,000 14.3% Norway 856,000 1.8%

Italy 5,294,000 10.9% France 751,000

Great Britain 4,898,000 10.01% Greece 655,000 1.3%

Ireland 4,723,000 9.7% Portugal 446,000 0.9%

Austria-Hungary1, 2 4,315,000 8.9% Denmark 364,000 0.7%

Russia1, 2 3,374,000 6.9% Netherlands 359,000 0.7%

Sweden 1,272,000 2.6% Finland 33,000 0.1%

Total (158 yrs) 34,318,000

Note: Many returned to their country of origin1 It may include Poles. See: Partitions of Poland.2 It may include Belarusians, Jews, Lithuanians, Ukrainians. See: Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
and Russian Empire


Birthplace Population Percent

Totals, European-born 4,789,662 11.1%

Northern Europe 928,644 2.1%

United Kingdom 683,473 1.6%

Ireland 120,144 0.3%

Other Northern Europe 125,027 0.3%

Western Europe 964,714 2.2%

Germany 585,298 1.4%

France 173,561 0.4%

Other Western Europe 205,855 0.5%

Southern Europe 787,767 1.8%

Italy 352,492 0.8%

Portugal 176,803 0.4%

Other Southern Europe 258,472 0.6%

Eastern Europe 2,097,040 4.8%

Poland 419,332 1.0%

Russia 386,529 0.9%

Other Eastern Europe 1,291,179 3.0%

Other Europe
(no country specified) 11,497 0.0%

Source: 2015[44]

At the 2010 Census there were 223,553,265 "White Americans", which includes 26.7 million White Hispanic and Latino Americans. That is, there are 196.8 million "Non-Hispanic Whites" (63.7% of the total population) and 26,735,713 "Hispanic Whites" (8.7% of the population). The two groups collectively form the census category of "White Americans", a group consisting mostly of those of European ancestry, though people of Middle Eastern and North African ancestry are also classified as white by the U.S. Census Bureau.[45] The numbers below give numbers of European Americans
as measured by the U.S. Census in 1980, 1990, and 2000. The numbers are measured according to declarations in census responses. This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the European American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact this is a reflection of changing census responses. In particular, it reflects the increased popularity of the 'American' option following its inclusion as an example in the 2000 census forms. It is important to note that breakdowns of the European American population into sub-components is a difficult and rather arbitrary exercise. Farley (1991) argues that "because of ethnic intermarriage, the numerous generations that separate respondents from their forebears and the apparent unimportance to many whites of European origin, responses appear quite inconsistent".[46] In particular, a large majority of European Americans
have ancestry from a number of different countries and the response to a single 'ancestry' gives little indication of the backgrounds of Americans today. When only prompted for a single response, the examples given on the census forms and a pride in identifying the more distinctive parts of one's heritage are important factors; these will likely adversely affect the numbers reporting ancestries from the British Isles. Multiple response ancestry data often greatly increase the numbers reporting for the main ancestry groups, although Farley goes as far to conclude that "no simple question will distinguish those who identify strongly with a specific European group from those who report symbolic or imagined ethnicity." He highlights responses in the Current Population Survey (1973) where for the main 'old' ancestry groups (e.g., German, Irish, English, and French), over 40% change their reported ancestry over the six-month period between survey waves (page 422).

The New York City Metropolitan Area
New York City Metropolitan Area
is home to the largest European population in the United States.[47]

An important example to note is that in 1980 23.75 million Americans claimed English ancestry and 25.85 claimed English ancestry together with one or more other. This represents 49.6 million people. The table below shows that in 1990 when only single and primary responses were allowed this fell to 32 million and in 2000 to 24 million.[48] The largest self-reported ancestries in 2000, reporting over 5 million members, were in order: German, Irish, English, American, Italian, French, and Polish. They have different distributions within the United States; in general, the northern half of the United States
United States
from Pennsylvania
westward is dominated by German ancestry, and the southern half by English and American. Irish may be found throughout the entire country. Italian ancestry is most common in the Northeast, Polish in the Great Lakes Region, and French in New England
and Louisiana. U.S. Census Bureau statisticians estimate that approximately 62 percent of European Americans
today are either wholly or partly of English, Welsh, Irish, or Scottish ancestry. Approximately 86% of European Americans
today are of northwestern and central European ancestry, and 14% are of southeastern European and White Hispanic and Latino American descent. The figures above show that of the total population of specified birthplace in the United States. A total of 11.1% were born-overseas of the total population. Culture[edit]

American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. All have European influence primarily from the British.

Cultural roots[edit] The culture of the Americans
of European descent, European-American culture, is the culture of the United States. As the largest component of the American population, the overall American culture deeply reflects the European-influenced culture that predates the United States of America as an independent state. Much of American culture shows influences from the diverse nations of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland, such as the English, Irish, Cornish, Manx, Scots Irish and Welsh. Colonial ties to Great Britain
Great Britain
spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[4] Scholar David Hackett Fischer asserts in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America that the folkways of four groups of people who moved from distinct regions of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to the United States
United States
persisted and provide a substantial cultural basis for much of the modern United States.[49] Fischer explains "the origins and stability of a social system which for two centuries has remained stubbornly democratic in its politics, capitalist in its economy, libertarian in its laws and individualist in its society and pluralistic in its culture."[50] Much of the European-American cultural lineage can be traced back to Western and Northern Europe, which is institutionalized in the government, traditions, and civic education in the United States.[51] Since most later European Americans
have assimilated into American culture, most European Americans
now generally express their individual ethnic ties sporadically and symbolically and do not consider their specific ethnic origins to be essential to their identity; however, European American ethnic expression has been revived since the 1960s.[16] Southern Europeans, specifically Italian and Greeks
(see Greek American), have maintained high levels of ethnic identity. Same applied to Polish Americans. In the 1960s, Mexican Americans, Jewish Americans, and African Americans
started exploring their cultural traditions as the ideal of cultural pluralism took hold.[16] European Americans
followed suit by exploring their individual cultural origins and having less shame of expressing their unique cultural heritage.[16] The Solutrean hypothesis
Solutrean hypothesis
suggested that Europeans may have been among the first in the Americas.[52][53][54] More recent research has argued this not to be the case and that the founding Native American population came from Siberia through Beringia. An article in the American Journal of Human Genetics states "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models."[55] Law[edit] The American legal system also has its roots in French philosophy with the separation of powers and the federal system[56] along with English law in common law.[57] For example, elements of the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
in it contain provisions on criminal law that were incorporated into the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution. It as well as other documents had elements influencing and incorporated into the United States Constitution.[58] All-American icons and symbols[edit]

Mount Rushmore
Mount Rushmore
was sculpted by Danish-American
Gutzon Borglum. Sculptures of the heads of former U.S. presidents Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt and Lincoln. It has become an iconic symbol of the United States.[59]

American flag[edit]

Flag of the United States
United States
– Based on the first flag of the United States of America the Grand Union Flag
Grand Union Flag
was first flown on December 2, 1775.

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Cuisine of the United States

Apple pie
Apple pie
– New England
was the first region to experience large-scale English colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes seen today as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the oven-roasted Thanksgiving turkey.[60] "As American as apple pie" is a well-known phrase used to suggest that something is all-American. Hamburger
– Invented in the United States
United States
and known as "Hamburger" after German immigrants from Hamburg
who named the unnamed food,[61] this cultural and widely known icon has trans international reach and has been internationally known for decades as a symbol of American fast food. Maxwell Street Polish
Maxwell Street Polish
consists of a grilled or fried length of Polish sausage topped with grilled onions and yellow mustard and optional pickled whole, green sport peppers, served on a bun. The sandwich traces its origins to Chicago's Maxwell Street
Maxwell Street
market, and has been called one of "the classic foods synonymous with Chicago".[62] Tex-Mex
– Invented in Texas
and spread around Southwestern United States this fusion between traditional Mexican Cuisine and American Cuisine has become popular throughout the United States
United States
and in North America. Buffalo wings
Buffalo wings
– Created in Buffalo, New York
Buffalo, New York
in the 1970s this dish is chicken wings glazed and dipped in vinegar hot sauce and butter with cayenne pepper and spices until hot and tasty. Now popular all over the country it has become a symbol of American cuisine.


Thanksgiving – In the United States, it has become a national secular holiday (official since 1863) with religious origins. The first Thanksgiving was celebrated by English settlers to give thanks to God and the Native Americans
for helping the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony survive the brutal winter.[63] The modern Thanksgiving holiday traces its origins from a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast with the Native Americans
after a successful growing season. William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim the American cultural event which is generally referred to as the "First Thanksgiving".

Sports[edit] Main article: Origins of baseball

– English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday
Easter Monday
1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[64][65] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America
North America
by English immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders
which has been played in England
since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in England
pre-date use of the term "rounders".[66] American football
American football
– can be traced to modified early versions of rugby football played in England
and Canadian football
Canadian football
mixed with and ultimately changed by American innovations which led over time to the finished version of the game from 1876 to now. The basic set of rules were first developed in American universities in the mid-19th century.[67]

Music[edit] Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

American National Anthem – takes its melody from the 18th-century English song "To Anacreon in Heaven" written by John Stafford Smith from England
for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London and lyrics written by Francis Scott Key. This became a well-known and recognized patriotic song throughout the United States, which was officially designated as the American national anthem in 1931.[68][69][70]

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

Amazing Grace
Amazing Grace
– written by English poet and clergyman John Newton. Popular among African Americans, it became an icon in American culture and has been used for a variety of secular purposes and marketing campaigns.[71] Hail, Columbia
Hail, Columbia
– initial presidential inauguration song up until early 20th century. Now used for the Vice President. Battle Hymn of the Republic
Battle Hymn of the Republic
– Patriotic song sung during the civil war time between 1861 and 1865.


– David Dunbar Buick
was a Scottish-born American, a Detroit-based inventor, best known for founding the Buick
Motor Company. Chevrolet
– Louis Chevrolet
was a Swiss-born American race car driver who co-founded the Chevrolet
Motor Car Company in 1911. Harley-Davidson
– The Davidson brothers were of Scottish descent (William. A., Walter and Arthur Davidson) and William S. Harley
William S. Harley
of English descent. Along with Indian Motorcycle
Manufacturing Company was the largest and most recognizable American motorcycle manufacturer.[72]

Ancestral origins[edit] Further information: Maps of American ancestries
Maps of American ancestries
and Race and ethnicity in the United States

Ancestral origin 1980 % 1990 % 2000 % 2014 % Change 1990–2000

Albanian 38,658 0.02% 47,710 0.02% 113,661 0.04% 186,030


American1notes - - 12,395,999 5.0% 20,188,305 7.2% 22,097,012 6.9% +62.9%

Austrian 948,558 0.42% 864,783 0.3% 730,336 0.3% 702,772


Basque 43,140 0.02% 47,956 0.02% 57,793 0.02%


Belarusian - - - - 25,639 0.2%

Belgian 360,277 0.16% 380,403 0.2% 348,531 0.1%


Bosnian - - - - 350,000 0.1%

British - - 1,119,140 0.4% 1,085,718 0.4% 1,326,960


Bulgarian 42,504 0.02% 29,595 0.01% 55,489 0.02%


Catalan - - - - 1,738 - -

Croatian 252,970 0.11% 544,270 0.2% 374,241 0.1%





Czech 1,892,456 0.84% 1,296,369 0.5% 1,258,452 0.4%


Danish 1,518,273 0.67% 1,634,648 0.7% 1,430,897 0.5%


Dutch 6,304,499 2.78% 6,226,339 2.5% 4,541,770 1.6% 4,243,067


English 49,598,035 21.89% 32,651,788 13.1% 24,509,692 8.7% 24,382,182 7.6% -24.9%

Estonian 25,994 0.01% 26,762 0.01% 25,034 0.01% 29,453


Finnish 615,872 0.27% 658,854 0.3% 623,559 0.2% 635,566


French: (incl: Cors..) (except Basque) 12,892,246 5.69% 10,320,656 4.1% 13,172,178 4.0% 8,153,515 2,099,430 2.6% 0.7% +27.6%



German: (incl: Amish, Tex.) 49,224,146 21.73% 57,947,171 23.3% 42,841,569 15.2% 46,047,113 14.4% -26.1%

Greek 959,856 0.42% 1,110,292 0.4% 1,153,295 0.4%


Hungarian 1,776,902 0.78% 1,582,302 0.6% 1,398,702 0.5%


Icelandic 32,586 0.01% 40,529 0.02% 42,716 0.01% 49,518


Irish 40,165,702 17.73% 38,735,539 15.6% 30,524,799 10.8% 33,147,639 10.4% -21.2%

Italian: (incl: Sicilian) 12,183,692 5.38% 14,664,189 5.9% 15,638,348 5.6% 17,220,604 5.4% +06.6%

Latvian 92,141 0.04% 100,331 0.04% 87,564 0.03%


Liechtensteiner - - - - 1,244 0.0004

Lithuanian 742,776 0.33% 811,865 0.3% 659,992 0.2%


Luxembourg - - - - 45,139 0.01%

-/+ 0%

Macedonia - - - - 57,200 0.02%

-/+ -6,927%

Maltese 31,645 0.01% 39,600 0.02% 40,159 0.01%


Moldovan - - - - 7,859 0.003

Monégasque - - - - 486

Montenegrin - - - - 2,528 0.03%

Norwegian 3,453,839 1.52% 3,869,395 1.6% 4,477,725 1.6%


Dutch - - - - 255,807 0.1%

Polish 8,228,037 3.63% 9,366,051 3.8% 8,977,235 3.2%


Portuguese 1,024,351 0.45% 1,148,857 0.5% 1,173,691 0.4%


Romanian 315,258 0.14% 365,531 0.1% 367,278 0.1%


Russian 2,781,432 1.23% 2,951,373 1.2% 2,652,214 0.9%


Scots-Irish 16,418 0.007% 5,617,773 2.3% 4,319,232 1.5% 2,978,827


Scottish 10,048,816 4.44% 5,393,581 2.2% 4,890,581 1.7% 5,365,154


Serbian 100,941 0.04% 116,795 0.05% 51,679 0.05%


Slovak 776,806 0.3% 1,882,897 0.8% 797,764 0.3%


Slovene 126,463 0.06 124,437 0.1% 176,691 0.1%


Sammarinese - - - - 538

Spanish: (incl: Ast., Can., Hisp.) 94,52 0.1% 360,935




Swedish 4,345,392 1.92% 4,680,863 1.9% 3,998,310 1.4% 4,325,000


Swiss 981,543 0.43% 1,045,492 0.4% 911,502 0.3%


Ukrainian 730,056 0.32% 740,723 0.3% 892,922 0.3%


Welsh 1,664,598 0.73% 2,033,893 0.82% 1,753,794 0.6% 1,757,657


Yugoslavian - - - - 328,547 0.1% 268,205

Other European - - - - 1,968,696 0.7% 3,679,468 - -

Scandinavian - - - - 425,099 0.2% 583,323 - -

United States
United States
total 214,726,269 94.78% 223,371,445 89.81% 201,290,597 71.53%


Source: Figures for the 1980,[73][74] 1990[75] and the 2000[76] United States Census. 2014 American Community Survey.[77][78][79] Number and (%) percentage of total United States
United States
population. ^1 American ethnicity
American ethnicity
– people who self-identify their ethnicity as "American", rather than the more common hyphenated American ancestry
American ancestry
groups that make up the majority of the American people.


Jewish Americans, particularly those of Ashkenazi
and Sephardi descent, are a diaspora population with origins in South Western Asia, but are often classified as White rather than Asian. In addition, all of the original peoples of the Middle East
Middle East
are classified as White by the US Census Bureau.[80][81] Gypsy Americans
are a diaspora group with origins in the Indian Subcontinent, but are sometimes classified as European.

Notable people[edit] Presidents of European descent[edit] Most of the heritage that all forty-five US Presidents come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Scotch-Irish or Welsh) ancestry. Others include John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
of Irish descent, Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
of Dutch descent and two presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(whose original family name was Eisenhauer) and Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(Huber). Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.[82]

1st George Washington
George Washington
1789-1797 (English through great-grandfather John Washington, German through maternal grandfather Joseph Matthäus Ball, French through great-great-great-grandfather Nicolas Martiau) 2nd John Adams
John Adams
1797-1801 (English) 3rd Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809 (Welsh, Scotch-English) 4th James Madison
James Madison
1809-1817 (English) 5th James Monroe
James Monroe
1817-1825 (Scottish) 6th John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
1825-1829 (English) 7th Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
1829-1837 (Scotch-Irish) 8th Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
1837-1841 (Dutch) 9th William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
1841 (English) 10th John Tyler
John Tyler
1841-1845 (English) 11th James Knox Polk
James Knox Polk
1845-1849 (Scotch-Irish) 12th Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
1849-1850 (English) 13th Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
1850-1853 (Scottish, English) 14th Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
1853-1857 (English) 15th James Buchanan
James Buchanan
1857-1861 (Scotch-Irish) 16th Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865 (Welsh, English through ancestor Samuel Lincoln) 17th Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
1865-1869 (Scotch-Irish, English) 18th Ulysses Simpson Grant
Ulysses Simpson Grant
1869-1877 (Scotch-Irish, English, Scottish, Walloon) 19th Rutherford Birchard Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes
1877-1881 (English, Scottish) 20th James Abram Garfield
James Abram Garfield
1881 (Welsh, English, French) 21st Chester Alan Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur
1881-1885 (Scotch-Irish, English) 22nd Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
1885-1889 (English, Anglo-Irish, German) 23rd Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
1889-1893 (Scotch-Irish, English) 24th Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
1893-1897 (English, Anglo-Irish, German)

25th William McKinley
William McKinley
1897-1901 (Scotch-Irish, English) 26th Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1909 (Dutch, Scotch-Irish, Scottish, English, Walloon) 27th William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
1909-1913 (Scotch-Irish, English) 28th Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921 (Scotch-Irish, Scottish) 29th Warren Gamaliel Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding
1921-1923 (Scotch-Irish, English) 30th Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
1923-1929 (English) 31st Herbert Clark Hoover
Herbert Clark Hoover
1929-1933 (German, Swiss, English) 32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
1933-1945 (Dutch, Walloon, English) 33rd Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
1945-1953 (English, German, Scotch-Irish) 34th Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1953-1961 (German, Swiss) 35th John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
1961-1963 (Irish) 36th Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
1963-1969 (English) 37th Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
1969-1974 (English, Scotch-Irish, Irish, German) 38th Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
1974-1977 (English) 39th Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
1977-1981 (English, Scotch-Irish) 40th Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989 (Irish, Scottish, English) 41st George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
1989-1993 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish) 42nd Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
1993-2001 (Scotch-Irish, English) 43rd George W. Bush
George W. Bush
2001-2009 (English, German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh) 44th Barack Obama
Barack Obama
2009-2017 (English, Irish, German through his mother Ann Dunham) 45th Donald Trump
Donald Trump
2017-present (German, Scottish)

Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites[edit] Some White Americans
have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans).[83] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans[84] DNA analysis on White Americans
by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture.[85] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture.[86] Later, Shriver retracted his statement, saying that actually around 5% of White Americans
exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry.[87] From the 23andMe
database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry.[88] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of hidden African ancestry.[89] White Americans
(European Americans) on average are: “98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American.” Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans
from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans
is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans
from Minnesota and the Dakotas.[88][89] See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Europe

American Chamber of Commerce to the European Union American ethnicity Anglo Ethnic groups in Europe European Canadians Europhobia Immigration to the United States Melting pot Non-Hispanic Whites Stereotypes of European Americans White Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestant White ethnic White Hispanic and Latino Americans White Southerners


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United States
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CIA World Factbook
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External links[edit]

European Americans
Ancestry Maps

v t e

European Americans

Central Europe

Austrian1, Czech German1,

Amish German Texan Pennsylvania
Dutch German Mennonites from Russia


Hungarian Ohioans

Kashubian Liechtensteiner Luxembourgian Polish1, Slovak Slovene Sorbian Swiss

Eastern Europe

Azerbaijani5 Belarusian Chechen Georgian5 Kazakh6 Russian1, 2

Cossack Kalmyk


Cossack Rusyn

Northern Europe

Danish Estonian Faroese Finnish Icelandic Latvian Lithuanian Norwegian

Norwegian Dakotan Norwegian Minnesotan

Sami Swedish

Southeast Europe3

Albanian Bosnian Bulgarian Cypriot Croatian Greek Macedonian Moldovan Montenegrin Romanian Serbian

Alaskan Serbs


Southern Europe



Maltese Monacan Portuguese Sanmarinese Spanish

Asturian Basque Canarian Catalan Galician Hispano

Western Europe




Cornish English Manx Scots-Irish/ Ulster
Scots Scottish Welsh

Dutch French

Basque Breton Cajun Corsican

Frisian Irish

Other Europeans

Non-Hispanic whites Métis Roma

Hungarian Slovak Romanies7


Cajun Isleños

By region

California Hawaii White Southerners

1 Poles
came to the United States
United States
legally as Austrians, Germans, Prussians or Russians
throughout the 19th century, because from 1772–1795 till 1918, all Polish lands had been partitioned between imperial Austria, Prussia (a protoplast of Germany) and Russia
until Poland
regained its sovereignty in the wake of World War I. 2 Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here. 3 Yugoslav Americans
are the American people
American people
from the former Yugoslavia. 4 Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe. Has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
called Turkish Thrace. 5 Azerbaijan
and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
is technically a bicontinental country, having a small portion in European hands. 7 Disputed; Roma have recognized origins and historic ties to Asia (specifically to Northern India), but they experienced at least some distinctive identity development while in diaspora among Europeans.

v t e

Demographics of the United States

Demographic history

By economic and social

Affluence Educational attainment Emigration Home-ownership Household income Immigration Income inequality Language LGBT Middle classes Personal income Poverty Social class Unemployment by state Wealth

By religion

Baha'is Buddhists Christians

Catholics Coptics Protestants

Hindus Jains Jews Muslims


Neopagans Non-religious Rastafaris Scientologists Sikhs Zoroastrians

By continent and ethnicity


African diaspora in the Americas

Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans

Bahamian Americans Belizean Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Jamaican Americans Trinidadian and Tobagonian Americans

Black Hispanic and Latino Americans

African immigrants to the United States

Central Africans in the United States Horn Africans in the United States North Africans in the United States Southeast Africans in the United States Southern Africans in the United States West Africans in the United States


Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans

East Asia

Chinese Americans

Hong Kong Americans Tibetan Americans

Japanese Americans Korean Americans Mongolian Americans Taiwanese Americans

South Asia

Bangladeshi Americans Bhutanese Americans Indian Americans Nepalese Americans Pakistani Americans Romani Americans Sri Lankan Americans

Southeast Asia

Burmese Americans Cambodian Americans Filipino Americans Hmong Americans Indonesian Americans Laotian Americans Malaysian Americans Singaporean Americans Thai Americans Vietnamese Americans

West Asia

Arab Americans Assyrian Americans Iranian Americans Israeli Americans Jewish Americans


White Americans

English Americans French Americans German Americans Irish Americans Italian Americans Scandinavian Americans Slavic Americans Spanish Americans

Non-Hispanic whites White Hispanic and Latino Americans


Pacific Islands Americans

Chamorro Americans Native Hawaiians Samoan Americans Tongan Americans

of Euro Oceanic origin

Australian Americans New Zealand Americans

North America

Native Americans
and Alaska
Natives Canadian Americans Cuban Americans Mexican Americans Puerto Ricans (Stateside)

South America

Hispanic and Latino Americans Brazilian Americans Colombian Americans Ecuadorian Americans



People of the United States
United States
/ Americans American ancestry Maps of American ancestries 2010 Census Race and ethnicity in the Census Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Racism

v t e

European diasporas

Central Europe

Czechs Germans Hungarians Poles


Slovaks Slovenes Swiss

Eastern Europe

Armenians3 Azerbaijanis3 Belarusians Georgians3 Kazakhs4 Russians1



Crimean Tatars

Northern Europe


English Scottish Welsh Cornish

Danes Estonians Finns Icelanders Irish Latvian Lithuanians Norwegians Swedes

Southeast Europe



Bosnians Bulgarians Croats Cypriots

Greek Cypriots5 Turkish Cypriots5

Greeks Macedonians Romanians


Serbian Turkish2

Southern Europe



Maltese Portuguese Spaniards

Basques Isleños

Western Europe



Dutch French


1 Russia
is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe
and Northern Asia. The vast majority of its population (80%) lives in European Russia, therefore Russia
as a whole is included as a European country here. 2 Turkey
is a transcontinental country in the Middle East
Middle East
and Southeast Europe. It has a small part of its territory (3%) in Southeast Europe
called Turkish Thrace. 3 Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are transcontinental countries. Both have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 4 Kazakhstan
is a transcontinental country. It has a small part of its territories located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe. 5 Cyprus
is entirely in Southwest Asia, but has socio-political and historical connections with Europe.

v t e

White people

Caucasian race European peoples West Asian peoples Central Asian peoples North African peoples

Bold refers to countries and territories in which White/European people are the majority group

Worldwide diaspora


Algeria Angola Botswana Democratic Republic of the Congo Kenya Morocco Namibia Saint Helena South Africa Tunisia Zambia Zimbabwe



United States Canada Bermuda Bahamas Barbados Cayman Islands Jamaica Suriname Trinidad and Tobago Latin America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Peru Puerto Rico Uruguay Venezuela


Australia New Caledonia New Zealand

Historical concepts

Apartheid Aryan First white child Honorary whites Play the white man Racial whitening

Branqueamento / Blanqueamiento

White Australia policy The White Man's Burden White gods

Sociological phenomena and theories

Acting white
Acting white
(Passing as white) Angry white male Missing white woman syndrome Skin whitening White flight

South African farm attacks

White fragility White guilt White privilege Whiteness studies Whitewashed film roles White savior

White American caricatures and stereotypes

Poor Whites

Redlegs Rednecks Mountain whites

Identity politics in the United States

US definitions of whiteness

One-drop rule

Alt-right Christian Identity Non-Hispanic whites White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Old Stock Americans White ethnic White Hispanic White nationalism White pride White separatism White supremacy

Scientific racism

Human skin color Color terminology for race Alpine Armenoid Dinaric East Baltic Irano-Afghan Mediterran