Airbus SE (/ˈɛərbʌs/, French: [ɛʁbys] (About this sound listen), German: [ˈɛːɐ̯bʊs], Spanish: [ˈeirβus]) is a European multinational corporation that designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aeronautical products worldwide. In addition to its primary civil aeroplane business, the company has two divisions for other products and services: Defence and Space and Helicopters, the latter being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries.[6]

The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities mainly in France, Germany, Spain, China, United Kingdom and the United States. Final assembly production is based at Toulouse, France; Hamburg, Germany; Seville, Spain; Tianjin, China, and Mobile, United States.[7] The company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320,[8][9] and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 14 October 2016 ; the global Airbus fleet having performed more than 110 million flights over 215 billion kilometres, carrying 12 billion passengers.[10]

Today's company is the product of international consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as Airbus SAS, a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired BAE Systems's remaining 20% of Airbus.[11] EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, and 2015, respectively.[12][13][14] Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company. The company was given its present name in April 2017.[15] (For further details, see History)

Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden, Netherlands and the main office is located in Toulouse, France.[16] The company is led by CEO Thomas Enders and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.



Airbus Industrie began as a consortium of European aviation firms formed to compete with American companies such as Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Lockheed.[17]

While many European aircraft were innovative, even the most successful had small production runs.[18] Factors favouring American aircraft manufacturers included: the size of the United States which made air transport popular; a 1942 Anglo-American agreement entrusting transport aircraft production to the US; and the World War II legacy of "a profitable, vigorous, powerful and structured aeronautical industry" in America.[18]

"For the purpose of strengthening European co-operation in the field of aviation technology and thereby promoting economic and technological progress in Europe, to take appropriate measures for the joint development and production of an Airbus."

Airbus Mission Statement[19]

By the mid-1960s, several European aircraft manufacturers had drawn up competitive designs, but were aware of the risks of such a project. For example in 1959 Hawker Siddeley had advertised an "Airbus" version of the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy,[20] which would "be able to lift as many as 126 passengers on ultra short routes at a direct operating cost of 2d. per seat mile."[21]

The European industry began to accept, along with their governments, that collaboration was required to develop such an aircraft and to compete with the more powerful US manufacturers. Negotiations began over a European collaborative approach and at the 1965 Paris Air Show the major European airlines informally discussed their requirements for a new "Airbus" capable of transporting 100 or more passengers over short to medium distances at a low cost.[19] The same year Hawker Siddeley (at the urging of the UK government) teamed with Breguet and Nord to study Airbus designs. The Hawker Siddeley/Breguet/Nord group's HBN 100 became the basis for the continuation of the project. By 1966 the partners were Sud Aviation, later Aérospatiale (France), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Airbus, later Deutsche Airbus (West Germany) and Hawker Siddeley (UK).[19] A request for funding was made to the three governments in October 1966.[19] On 25 July 1967, the three governments agreed to proceed with the proposal.

In the two years following this agreement, both the British and French governments expressed doubts about the project. The memorandum of understanding had stated that 75 orders must be achieved by 31 July 1968. The French government threatened to withdraw from the project due to its concern over funding all of the Airbus A300, Concorde and the Dassault Mercure concurrently, but was persuaded to maintain its support.[22] With its own concerns at the A300B proposal in December 1968, and fearing it would not recoup its investment due to lack of sales, the British government withdrew on 10 April 1969.[19][23] West Germany took this opportunity to increase its share of the project to 50%.[22] Given the participation by Hawker Siddeley up to that point, France and West Germany were reluctant to take over its wing design. Thus the British company was allowed to continue as a privileged subcontractor.[18] Hawker Siddeley invested GB£35 million in tooling and, requiring more capital, received a GB£35 million loan from the West German government.[22]

Formation of Airbus Industrie GIE

Airbus Industrie was formally established as a Groupement d'Intérêt Économique (Economic Interest Group or GIE) on 18 December 1970.[22] It had been formed by a government initiative between France, West Germany and the UK that originated in 1967. Its initial shareholders were the French company Aérospatiale and the West German company Deutsche Airbus, each owning a 50% share. The name "Airbus" was taken from a non-proprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, for this term was acceptable to the French linguistically. Aérospatiale and Deutsche Airbus each took a 36.5% share of production work, Hawker Siddeley 20% and the Dutch company Fokker-VFW 7%.[19] Each company would deliver its sections as fully equipped, ready-to-fly items. In October 1971 the Spanish company CASA acquired a 4.2% share of Airbus Industrie, with Aérospatiale and Deutsche Airbus reducing their stakes to 47.9%.[19] In January 1979 British Aerospace, which had absorbed Hawker Siddeley in 1977, acquired a 20% share of Airbus Industrie.[24] The majority shareholders reduced their shares to 37.9%, while CASA retained its 4.2%.[25]

Development of the Airbus A300

Airbus A300, the first aircraft launched by Airbus, introduced in 1974.

The Airbus A300 was to be the first aircraft to be developed, manufactured and marketed by Airbus. By early 1967 the "A300" label began to be applied to a proposed 320 seat, twin engined airliner.[19] Following the 1967 tri-government agreement, Roger Béteille was appointed technical director of the A300 development project.[26] Béteille developed a division of labour that would be the basis of Airbus' production for years to come: France would manufacture the cockpit, flight control and the lower centre section of the fuselage; Hawker Siddeley, whose Trident technology had impressed him, was to manufacture the wings;[27] West Germany should make the forward and rear fuselage sections, as well as the upper centre section; the Dutch would make the flaps and spoilers; finally Spain (yet to become a full partner) would make the horizontal tailplane.[26] On 26 September 1967 the West German, French and British governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding in London which allowed continued development studies. This also confirmed Sud Aviation as the "lead company", that France and the UK would each have a 37.5% work share with West Germany taking 25%, and that Rolls-Royce would manufacture the engines.[18][26]

The first North American customer was Eastern Air Lines with this Airbus A300B4

In the face of lukewarm support from airlines for a 300+ seat Airbus A300, the partners submitted the A250 proposal, later becoming the A300B, a 250-seat airliner powered by pre-existing engines.[19] This dramatically reduced development costs, as the Rolls-Royce RB207 to be used in the A300 represented a large proportion of the costs. The RB207 had also suffered difficulties and delays, since Rolls-Royce was concentrating its efforts on the development of another jet engine, the RB211, for the Lockheed L-1011[22] and Rolls-Royce entering into administration due to bankruptcy in 1971.[28][29] The A300B was smaller but lighter and more economical than its three-engined American rivals.[30][31]

"We showed the world we were not sitting on a nine-day wonder, and that we wanted to realise a family of planes…we won over customers we wouldn’t otherwise have won...now we had two planes that had a great deal in common as far as systems and cockpits were concerned."

Jean Roeder, chief engineer of Deutsche Airbus, speaking of the A310[25]

In 1972, the A300 made its maiden flight; its first production model, the A300B2, entered service in 1974.[32] However, the launch of the A300 was largely overshadowed by the similarly timed supersonic aircraft Concorde.[33] Initially the success of the consortium was poor,[34] but orders for the aircraft picked up,[35][36] due in part to the marketing skills used by Airbus CEO Bernard Lathière, targeting airlines in America and Asia.[37] By 1979 the consortium had 256 orders for A300,[33] and Airbus had launched a more advanced aircraft, the A310, in the previous year.[25] It was the launch of the A320 in 1987 that guaranteed the status of Airbus as a major player in the aircraft market[38] – the aircraft had over 400 orders before it first flew, compared to 15 for the A300 in 1972.

Airbus A320, the first model in the A318, A319, A320 and A321 family, introduced in 1988

Formation of Eurocopter SA

The Eurocopter SA was formed in 1992, through the merger of the helicopter divisions of Aérospatiale and DASA. The company's heritage traces back to Blériot and Lioré et Olivier in France and to Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf in Germany.[39]

Formation of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV

Airbus SE
(Est. 2000, renamed 2017)
(Est. 1999)

(Formed 1970)

(Est. 1937)

DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG
(Est. 1989)

Daimler-Benz's aerospace interests

MTU München
(Est. 1934)

Dornier Flugzeugwerke
(Est. 1922)

(Est. 1968)

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
(Est. 1923)


In June 1997, British Aerospace Defence Managing Director John Weston commented "Europe... is supporting three times the number of contractors on less than half the budget of the U.S."[40] European governments wished to see the merger of their defence manufacturers into a single entity, a European Aerospace and Defence Company.[41]

As early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA) and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defence company.[42] The two companies envisaged including the French company Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, but only after its privatisation.[43] The first stage of this integration was seen as the transformation of Airbus from a consortium of British Aerospace, DASA, Aérospatiale and Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA into an integrated company; in this aim BAe and DASA were united against the various objections of Aérospatiale.[44] As well as Airbus, British Aerospace and DASA were partners in the Panavia Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft projects. Merger discussions began between British Aerospace and DASA in July 1998, just as French participation became more likely with the announcement that Aérospatiale was to merge with Matra and emerge with a diluted French government shareholding.[45] A merger was agreed between British Aerospace Chairman Richard Evans and DASA CEO Jürgen Schrempp in December 1998.[46] However, when the British General Electric Company put its defence electronics business Marconi Electronic Systems (MES) up for sale on 22 December 1998, British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival. The merger of British Aerospace and MES to form BAE Systems was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November.[47][48] Evans stated in 2004 that his fear was that an American defence contractor would acquire MES and challenge both British Aerospace and DASA.[46]

Formation of EADS and expansion (1999–2008)

DASA and the Spanish aircraft company Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA agreed to merge with the signature of a memorandum of understanding on 11 June 1999.[49] On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale-Matra to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company.[50] 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company, which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.[51]

In January 2001 Airbus Industrie was transformed from an inherently inefficient consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalised on 11 July.[52][53] Both EADS and BAE transferred ownership of their Airbus factories to the new Airbus SAS in return for 80 % and 20 % shares in the new company respectively. In April 2001 EADS agreed to merge its missile businesses with those of BAE Systems and Alenia Marconi Systems (BAE/Finmeccanica) to form MBDA. EADS took a 37.5 % share of the new company that was formally established in December 2001 and which thus became the world's second-largest missile manufacturer.[54]

The financial performance and number of employees of Airbus Group SE since 2003.[55]
  Sales (in € bn.)
  New orders (in € bn.)
  Employees (in thousands)

On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25 % share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the lossmaking status of the company BAE invested an equal amount for "restructuring".[56] It was subsequently renamed EADS Astrium, and had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium Space Transportation and Astrium Services.

In November 2003, EADS announced that it was considering working with Japanese companies, and the Japanese METI, to develop a hypersonic airliner intended to be a larger, faster, and quieter, replacement for the Concorde, which was retired in October the same year.

Despite repeated suggestions as early as 2000 that BAE Systems wished to sell its 20 % share of Airbus, the possibility was consistently denied by the company.[57] However, on 6 April 2006 BBC News reported that it was indeed to sell its stake, then "conservatively valued" at £2.4 billion.[58] Due to the slow pace of informal negotiations, BAE exercised its put option, which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation. Six days after this process began, Airbus announced delays to the A380 with significant effects on the value of Airbus shares. On 2 June 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's share at £1.87 billion, well below BAE's, analysts' and even EADS' expectations.[59] The BAE board recommended that the company proceed with the sale and on 4 October 2006 shareholders voted in favour; the sale was completed on 13 October making EADS the sole shareholder of Airbus.[60]

In March 2007 EADS Defence and Security Systems division was awarded an eight-year, £200m contract to provide the IT infrastructure for the FiReControl project in the UK.[61]

Transition from Airbus Industrie GIE to Airbus SAS

Airbus A340 300 introduced in 1993
Airbus A330 introduced in 1994

The retention of production and engineering assets by the partner companies in effect made Airbus Industrie a sales and marketing company.[62] This arrangement led to inefficiencies due to the inherent conflicts of interest that the four partner companies faced; they were both GIE shareholders of, and subcontractors to, the consortium. The companies collaborated on development of the Airbus range, but guarded the financial details of their own production activities and sought to maximise the transfer prices of their sub-assemblies.[53] It was becoming clear that Airbus was no longer a temporary collaboration to produce a single plane as per its original mission statement, it had become a long term brand for the development of further aircraft. By the late 1980s work had begun on a pair of new medium-sized aircraft, the biggest to be produced at this point under the Airbus name, the Airbus A330 and the Airbus A340.[63][64] In the early 1990s the then Airbus CEO Jean Pierson argued that the GIE should be abandoned and Airbus established as a conventional company.[65] However, the difficulties of integrating and valuing the assets of four companies, as well as legal issues, delayed the initiative. In December 1998, when it was reported that British Aerospace and DASA were close to merging,[66] Aérospatiale paralysed negotiations on the Airbus conversion; the French company feared the combined BAe/DASA, which would own 57.9% of Airbus, would dominate the company and it insisted on a 50/50 split.[67] However, the issue was resolved in January 1999 when BAe abandoned talks with DASA in favour of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems to become BAE Systems.[68][69][48] Then in 2000 three of the four partner companies (DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, successor to Deutsche Airbus; Aérospatiale-Matra, successor to Sud-Aviation; and CASA) merged to form EADS, simplifying the process. EADS now owned Airbus France, Airbus Deutschland and Airbus España, and thus 80% of Airbus Industrie.[53][70] BAE Systems and EADS transferred their production assets to the new company, Airbus SAS, in return for shareholdings in that company.[53][71]

Development of the A380

Airbus A380, the largest passenger jet in the world, introduced in 2007.

In mid-1988 a group of Airbus engineers led by Jean Roeder began working in secret on the development of an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA), both to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance that Boeing had enjoyed in this market segment since the early 1970s with its 747.[72] The project was announced at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400.[73] Airbus organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, British Aerospace, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. In June 1994 Airbus began developing its own very large airliner, then designated as A3XX.[33][74][75] Airbus considered several designs, including an odd side-by-side combination of two fuselages from the Airbus A340, which was Airbus's largest jet at the time.[76] Airbus refined its design, targeting a 15% to 20% reduction in operating costs over the existing Boeing 747–400. The A3XX design converged on a double-decker layout that provided more passenger volume than a traditional single-deck design.

Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes.[77] The first A380 was unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse on 18 January 2005, and its maiden flight took place on 27 April 2005. After successfully landing three hours and 54 minutes later, chief test pilot Jacques Rosay said flying the A380 had been "like handling a bicycle".[78] On 1 December 2005, the A380 achieved its maximum design speed of Mach 0.96.[77] On 10 January 2006, the A380 made its first transatlantic flight to Medellín in Colombia.[79]

The Airbus A380 was delayed in October 2006 due to the use of incompatible software used to design the aircraft. Primarily, the Toulouse assembly plant used the latest version 5 of CATIA (made by Dassault), while the design centre at the Hamburg factory were using the older and incompatible version 4.[80] The result was that the 530 km of cables wiring throughout the aircraft had to be completely redesigned.[81] Although no orders had been cancelled, Airbus still had to pay millions in late-delivery penalties.[80]

The first aircraft delivered was to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October 2007 with an inaugural flight between Singapore and Sydney.[82][83] Two months later Singapore Airlines CEO Chew Choong Seng said that the A380 was performing better than both the airline and Airbus had anticipated, burning 20% less fuel per passenger than the airline's existing 747-400 fleet.[84] Emirates was the second airline to take delivery of the A380 on 28 July 2008 and started flights between Dubai and New York[85] on 1 August 2008.[86] Qantas followed on 19 September 2008, starting flights between Melbourne and Los Angeles on 20 October 2008.[87]

Expansion and sale of BAE stake

In 2003, Airbus and the Kaskol Group created an Airbus Engineering centre in Russia, which started with 30 engineers and since has emerged as a model of success for Airbus’ globalisation strategy. It was the first engineering facility to open in Europe outside the company’s home countries. Equipped with state-of-the-art communications equipment and linked with Airbus engineering sites in France and Germany, the facility performs extensive work in disciplines such as fuselage structure, stress, system installation and design. In 2011, the centre employs some 200 engineers who have completed over 30 large-scale projects for the A320, the A330/A340 and the A380 programmes. Russian engineers also performed more than half of all design work on the A330-200F freighter, with its activity related to fuselage structure design, floor grids installation and junctions design. The centre currently is involved in the A320neo Sharklets design development and numerous design works for the A350 XWB programme.[88]

On 6 April 2006 BAE Systems planned to sell its 20% share in Airbus, then "conservatively valued" at €3.5 billion (US$4.17 billion).[89] Analysts suggested the move to make partnerships with U.S. firms more feasible, in both financial and political terms.[90] BAE originally sought to agree on a price with EADS through an informal process. Due to lengthy negotiations and disagreements over price, BAE exercised its put option, which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation.

In June 2006 Airbus was embroiled in significant international controversy over an announcement of further delays in the delivery of its A380. Following the announcement the value of associated stock plunged by up to 25% in a matter of days, although it soon recovered afterwards. Allegations of insider trading on the part of Noël Forgeard, CEO of EADS, its majority corporate parent, promptly followed. The loss of associated value was of grave concern to BAE, press described a "furious row" between BAE and EADS, with BAE believing the announcement was designed to depress the value of its share.[91] A French shareholder group filed a class action lawsuit against EADS for failing to inform investors of the financial implications of the A380 delays while airlines awaiting deliveries demanded compensation.[92] As a result, EADS chief Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned on 2 July 2006.[93]

On 2 July 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's stake at £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion), well below the expectation of BAE, analysts, and even EADS.[94] On 5 July BAE appointed independent auditors to investigate how the value of its share of Airbus had fallen from the original estimates to the Rothschild valuation; however in September 2006 BAE agreed to the sale of its stake in Airbus to EADS for £1.87 billion (€2.75 billion, $3.53 billion), pending BAE shareholder approval.[95] On 4 October shareholders voted in favour of the sale,[96] leaving Airbus entirely owned by EADS.


On 29 February 2008, the United States Air Force awarded a $35 billion contract for aerial refueling tankers (the KC-45) to Northrop Grumman, with EADS as a major subcontractor. The contract, one of the largest created by the Department of Defence, is initially valued at $35 billion but has the potential to grow to $100 billion.

Under the contract, Northrop Grumman and EADS would build a fleet of 179 planes, based on the existing Airbus 330, to provide in-air refueling to military aircraft, from fighter jets to cargo planes. While final assembly of the craft would take place at an Airbus plant near Mobile, Alabama, parts would come from suppliers across the globe.[97]

However, the award was protested by Boeing, the other bidder on the project, which was upheld by the GAO. In response to the new contest, on 8 March 2010, Northrop Grumman announced it was abandoning its bid for the new contract, with its CEO stating that the revised bid requirement favored Boeing.[98] On 20 April 2010, EADS announced it was re-entering the competition and intended to enter a bid with the KC-45.[99]

EADS reported a 763 million euros loss for 2009 as a result of a 1.8 billion euros charge on the troubled Airbus A400M project and a 240 million euros charge related to the A380.[100]

On 12 September 2012 it was reported[101] that BAE and EADS were in discussions regarding a possible merger. In the event of the merger, BAE shareholders would own 40 % and EADS 60 % of the new enlarged organisation.[102][103] A key French EADS shareholder Lagardere asked EADS to rethink the proposed merger plan as the conditions were unsatisfactory.[104] The bosses of BAE Systems and EADS issued a joint statement seeking political support for their proposed 35 billion euro (US$45 billion) merger from the British, French and German governments; and reiterated that the combination is borne out of opportunity, not necessity and the new company would be greater than the sum of its parts.[105][106][107] It was reported on 10 October 2012, that the merger between BAE Systems and EADS had been called off.[108]

From EADS NV to Airbus SE

In January 2014, EADS was reorganised as Airbus Group NV, with three divisions (Airbus, Airbus Defence and Space, and Airbus Helicopters.[12][109][110] On 27 May 2015 the company became a Societas Europaea (SE) (Latin: European Company), having been a Naamloze vennootschap (public limited company).[13] In September 2016, Airbus Group announced that it would merge with its largest division, Airbus SAS, into a new entity and introduce a single Airbus brand,[111] the merge to take effect on 1 January 2017.[112] The group reorganized under the brand name of "Airbus" in January 2017. The subsidiaries Airbus Helicopters and Airbus Defence and Space became operating divisions of the same company.[113] Airbus Group SE changed its legal name to Airbus SE at its 2017 annual meeting on 12 April 2017.[15]

2007 restructuring of Airbus SAS

On 9 October 2006 Christian Streiff, Humbert's successor, resigned due to differences with parent company EADS over the amount of independence he would be granted in implementing his reorganisation plan for Airbus.[114] He was succeeded by EADS co-CEO Louis Gallois, bringing Airbus under more direct control of its parent company.

On 28 February 2007, CEO Louis Gallois announced the company's restructuring plans. Entitled Power8, the plan would see 10,000 jobs cut over four years; 4,300 in France, 3,700 in Germany, 1,600 in the UK and 400 in Spain. 5,000 of the 10,000 would be at subcontractors. Plants at Saint Nazaire, Varel and Laupheim face sell off or closure, while Meaulte, Nordenham and Filton are "open to investors".[115] As of 16 September 2008 the Laupheim plant has been sold to a Thales-Diehl consortium to form Diehl Aerospace and while the design activities at Filton have been retained, the manufacturing operations have been sold to British company GKN.[116] The announcements resulted in Airbus unions in France and Germany threatening strike action.[117]

2011 A320neo record orders

At the 2011 Paris Air Show, Airbus received total orders valued at about $72.2 billion for 730 aircraft, representing a new record in the civil aviation industry. The A320neo ("new engine option") model, announced in December 2010, received 667 orders; this, together with previous orders, resulted in a total of 1029 orders within six months of launch date, creating another industry record.[118]

2016 deal with Iran

In January 2016 Airbus announced it has signed a tentative agreement with Iran to sell 118 Airbus aircraft along with a comprehensive civil aviation cooperation package as a part of the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).[119] Boeing has also announced its will to sell 80 jets directly to Iran Air as part of a proposed deal worth up to $17.6bn.[120]

However, In early July 2016, US House of Representatives passed amendments that would block US Department of Treasury funds from granting export licences or reexport of passenger commercial aircraft. Boeing reacted that if its deal with Iran is blocked by the US Congress, all other companies that supply to its rivals should be prohibited as well. Airbus, too, has said that it requires US's approval to export airliners to Iran, because parts of its aircraft are made in the US.[121]

The deal between Iran Air and Airbus was finally implemented, and the first new purchased Airbus aircraft, an A321, landed in Tehran's International Mehr Abad Airport on January 12, 2017; Airbus stated that the delivery has been in full compliance with the JCPOA and US government Office of Foreign Assets Control licenses.[122]


On 30 June, Airbus said its airliner sales team would now report directly to Tom Enders and by-pass Fabrice Bregier, which will lead programs, support and services, engineering, manufacturing, procurement and quality while Enders will lead sales and marketing.[123]

On 16 October, Airbus and Bombardier Aerospace announced a partnership on the CSeries program, with Airbus acquiring a 50.01% majority stake, Bombardier keeping 31% and Investissement Québec 19%, to expand in an estimated market of more than 6,000 new 100-150 seat aircraft over 20 years; Airbus’ supply chain expertise should save production costs but headquarters and assembly remain in Québec while U.S. customers would benefit from a second Final Assembly Line in Mobile, Alabama.[124]

In the fall, Der Spiegel investigated systematic corruption and improper intermediates usage in past sales and questioned whether Enders can survive the scandal as he did not react quickly enough, then Handelsblatt reported the French government wants to control Airbus again and Bregier wants to get Enders fired to gain his position.[125]

Sales chief John Leahy was supposed to retire at the end of 2017 to be replaced by his deputy Kiran Rao.[126] A few weeks before the switch, Rao told Airbus CEO Tom Enders that he was no longer available. After investigations into alleged bribery, Enders is taking personal responsibility for the sales organization compliance. Leahy should stay till a successor is found, maybe Frenchmen Eric Schulz, aerospace engineer and president of Rolls-Royce plc Civil Aerospace or Christian Scherer, CEO of ATR Aircraft, strategist and salesman.[127] Schulz should replace Leahy on 25 January.[128]

In November, Paul Eremenko, Airbus’s CTO, quit after two years. French unions held him for responsible for the job cuts made at a French research facility nearby Paris. Tom Enders, Airbus chief executive, was counting on Paul Eremenko to create a radically different approach to R&D.[129]

On 28 November 2017, Airbus announced a partnership with Rolls-Royce plc and Siemens to develop the E-Fan X hybrid-electric aircraft demonstrator, to fly in 2020.[130]

Enders CEO mandate runs until April 2019 and his reconduction is decided by Airbus' board, but in December he said would not seek a third mandate while he was in April as he is pressured over corruption investigations.[131] On 15 December, the Board confirmed Enders will not stay beyond April 2019 and announced that in February 2018 Brégier will be replaced by Guillaume Faury, currently Airbus Helicopters CEO.[132] The renewal should have been disclosed in early 2018, the media hype accelerated its timing but not the decision. When told by the board that he would not succeed Enders as CEO, Bregier chose to leave. Besides Enders, Bregier, Leahy and Eremenko, engineering chief Charles Champion is retiring at the end of 2017, Airbus North America chairman Allan McArtor is leaving, as is the unit’s CEO Barry Eccleston to be replaced by Jeff Knittel, CEO of lessor CIT Aerospace. Head of military aircraft Fernando Alonso, civil aircraft division COO Tom Williams and head of programs Didier Evrard are also nearing retirement.[133]

For 2017, Airbus announced it received 1,109 net orders from 44 customers in 2017, and delivered 718 aircraft to 85 customers: 558 A320 Family (including 181 A320neo); 67 A330s; 78 A350 XWBs and 15 A380s.[134]


As UK leaves the EU, Airbus has been approached by at least seven governments (France, Germany, Spain, U.S., China, Mexico and South Korea) for wing production competitiveness. Currently produced in Broughton and designed in Filton since 1970, wing production employs 15,000, over 10% of Airbus staff. Composite wings will be needed to lower fuel burn by 30% for the A320 replacement.[135] Tom Enders later promised the U.K. government Business Secretary Greg Clark that Airbus would retain its British operations “long into the future’’ and see the U.K. as a “home country and a competitive place to invest.’’ [136] Airbus will designate a new CEO to succeed Enders by the end of 2018, which will be submitted to shareholders at the spring 2019 annual meeting, with planemaking boss and former Eurocopter head Guillaume Faury as the main internal candidate.[137]

Competition with Boeing

  Airbus orders
  Airbus deliveries
  Boeing orders
  Boeing deliveries
Annual net orders and aircraft deliveries by Airbus and Boeing Commercial Airplanes, respectively, since 1991.[138][139]

Airbus is in tight competition with Boeing every year for aircraft orders although Airbus has secured over 50% of aircraft orders in the decade since 2003.[140]

Airbus won a greater share of orders in 2003 and 2004. In 2005, Airbus achieved 1111 (1055 net) orders,[141] compared to 1029 (net of 1002) for the same year at rival Boeing[142] However, Boeing won 55% of 2005 orders proportioned by value; and in the following year Boeing won more orders by both measures. Airbus in 2006 achieved its second best year ever in its entire 35-year history in terms of the number of orders it received, 824, second only to the previous year.[143] Airbus plans to increase production of A320 airliners to reach 40 per month by 2012, at a time when Boeing is increasing monthly 737 production from 31.5 to 35 per month.[144]

Regarding operational aircraft, there were 7,264 Airbus aircraft operational at April 2013.[140] Although Airbus secured over 50% of aircraft orders in the decade since 2003, the number of Boeing aircraft still in operation at April 2013 still exceeded Airbus by 21% because Airbus made a late entry into the market, 1972 vs. 1958 for Boeing; this lead is diminishing as older aircraft are progressively retired.

Though both manufacturers have a broad product range in various segments from single-aisle to wide-body, their aircraft do not always compete head-to-head. Instead they respond with models slightly smaller or bigger than the other in order to plug any holes in demand and achieve a better edge. The A380, for example, is designed to be larger than the 747. The A350XWB competes with the high end of the 787 and the low end of the 777. The A320 is bigger than the 737-700 but smaller than the 737–800. The A321 is bigger than the 737–900 but smaller than the previous 757-200. Airlines see this as a benefit since they get a more complete product range, from 100 seats to 500 seats, than if both companies offered identical aircraft.[145]

The first Airbus A350 XWB on its maiden flight.

In recent years the Boeing 777 has outsold its Airbus counterparts, which include the A340 family as well as the A330-300. The smaller A330-200 competes with the 767, outselling its Boeing counterpart in recent years. The A380 is anticipated to further reduce sales of the Boeing 747, gaining Airbus a share of the market in very large aircraft, though frequent delays in the A380 programme have caused several customers to consider the refreshed 747–8.[146] Airbus has also proposed the A350 XWB to compete with the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, after being under great pressure from airlines to produce a competing model.[147][148]

In 2015, Airbus Group said it was establishing a R&D center and venture capital fund in Silicon Valley.[149][150] Airbus CEO Fabrice Bregier stated: "What is the weakness of a big group like Airbus when we talk about innovation? We believe that we have better ideas than the rest of the world. We believe that we know because we control the technologies and platforms. The world has shown us in the car industry, the space industry and the hi-tech industry that this is not true. And we need to be open to others' ideas and others' innovations,"[151]

Airbus Group CEO Tom Enders stated that "The only way to do it for big companies is really to create spaces outside of the main business where we allow and where we incentivize experimentation... That is what we have started to do but there is no manual... It is a little bit of trial and error. We all feel challenged by what the Internet companies are doing."[152]

Six months after launch, the Airbus Group Venture fund in Silicon Valley became fully operational in January 2016.[153]

Historical emblems

Emblems of Airbus Industrie GIE (1970–2000) and Airbus SAS (2001–2016), until the latter on 1 January 2017 merged with its parent company, Airbus Group SE:

Emblems of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV (2000–2014), Airbus Group NV (2014–2015) and Airbus Group SE (2015–2017):



The Airbus A380, the largest airliner

The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the Airbus A300A300 is known as the A310.

Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320, particularly notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system. The A320 has been, and continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets. A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family.[154]

The longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres (9,000 nmi), the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR (range of 17,446 km or 9,420 nautical miles).[155]

All Airbus aircraft developed since then have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777.[156]

Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft".[157][158] Those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements.[159] This "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.

On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like C919,[160] scheduled to operate by 2015–2020.[161]

In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, and A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.[162]

Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003.[163][164]

Product list and details (date information from Airbus)
Aircraft Description Seats Max 1st flight Production ceased
A300 2 engines, twin aisle 228–254 361 1972-10-28 2007-03-27 (561 built)
A310 2 engines, twin aisle, modified A300 187 279 1982-04-03 2007-03-27 (255 built)
A318 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 6.17 m from A320 107 132 2002-01-15
A319 2 engines, single aisle, shortened 3.77 m from A320 124 156 1995-08-25
A320 2 engines, single aisle 150 180 1987-02-22
A321 2 engines, single aisle, lengthened 6.94 m from A320 185 236 1993-03-11
A330 2 engines, twin aisle 246—300 406–440 1992-11-02
A340 4 engines, twin aisle 239–380 380-440 1991-10-25 2008-09 (A340-200)
2011-11-10 (all other variants, 377 built)[156]
A350 2 engines, twin aisle 270–350 550 2013-06-14
A380 4 engines, double deck, twin aisle 555 853 2005-04-27
VIP aircraft Airbus A330 of Qatar Amiri Flight taxiing on Zagreb airport

The Airbus Corporate Jets markets and modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997. Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was initially used only for the A319CJ, it is now often used for all models, including the VIP widebodies. As of December 2008, 121 corporate and private jets are operating, 164 aircraft have been ordered, including an A380 Prestige and 107 A320 family Corporate Jet.[165]

Consumer products

In June 2013, Airbus announced that it was developing a range of "smart suitcases" known as Bag2Go for air travellers, in conjunction with luggage-maker Rimowa and IT firm T-Systems.[166][167] The cases feature a collection of built-in electronic gadgets which communicate with a smartphone app and with the IT systems of the airline, to assist the traveller and improve reliability and security of baggage handling. Gadgets include a weighing scale and a location tracker, using GPS for location-tracking, RFID for identification, and a SIM card for messaging.[168][169] Since then, similar products, with more gadgets, have been announced by Delsey and Bluesmart.[citation needed]


In the late 1990s Airbus became increasingly interested in developing and selling to the military aviation market. It embarked on two main fields of development: aerial refuelling with the Airbus A310 MRTT (Multi-Role Tanker Transport) and the Airbus A330 MRTT, and tactical airlift with the A400M.

The first A400M in Seville on 26 June 2008

In January 1999 Airbus established a separate company, Airbus Military SAS, to undertake development and production of a turboprop-powered tactical transport aircraft, the Airbus Military A400M.[170][171] The A400M is being developed by several NATO members, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Turkey, and the UK, as an alternative to relying on foreign aircraft for tactical airlift capacity, such as the Ukrainian Antonov An-124 Ruslan[172] and the American C-130 Hercules.[173][174] The A400M project has suffered several delays;[175][176] Airbus has threatened to cancel the development unless it receives state subsidies.[177][178]

Pakistan placed an order for the Airbus A310 MRTT in 2008, which will be a conversion of an existing airframe as the base model A310 is no longer in production.[179] On 25 February 2008 Airbus won an order for three air refuelling MRTT aircraft, adapted from A330 passenger jets, from the United Arab Emirates.[180] On 1 March 2008 a consortium of Airbus and Northrop Grumman had won a $35 billion contract to build the new in-flight refuelling aircraft KC-45A, a US built version of the MRTT, for the USAF.[181] The decision drew a formal complaint from Boeing,[182][183] and the KC-X contract was cancelled to begin bidding afresh.[184][185]

New supersonic passenger plane

In September 2014, Aerion partnered with Airbus (mainly Airbus Defence)[186] to collaborate on designing the Aerion AS2, a supersonic 11-seater private business jet, hoping for a market entry in 2021.[187]

Airbus aircraft numbering system

The Airbus numbering system is an alpha numeric model number followed by a dash and a three digit number.[188]

The model number often takes the form of the letter "A" followed by a '3', a digit, then followed normally by a '0', for example A330. There are some exceptions such as: A318, A319, A321 and A400M. The succeeding three digit number represents the aircraft series, the engine manufacturer and engine version number respectively. To use an A320-200 with International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1 engines as an example; The code is 2 for series 200, 3 for IAE and engine version 1, thus the aircraft number is A320-231.

An additional letter is sometimes used. These include, 'C' for a combi version (passenger/freighter), 'F' for a freighter model, 'R' for the long range model, and 'X' for the enhanced model.

Engine codes

Code Manufacturing company
0 General Electric (GE)
1 CFM International (GE and SNECMA, now a subsidiary of Safran)
2 Pratt & Whitney (P&W)
3 International Aero Engines (P&W, R-R, MTU, Kawasaki, Mitsubishi, and IHI)
4 Rolls-Royce (R-R)
5 CFM International (GE and SNECMA/Safran) (CFM International LEAP-1A for A320 NEO Family)
6 Engine Alliance (GE and P&W)
7 Pratt & Whitney (P&W) (Pratt & Whitney PW1100G for A320 NEO)

Orders and deliveries

Aircraft Orders Deliveries In operation Unfilled

* All models included.

Data as of 31 December 2017.[189]



Revenues by division, as of 2014:[190]

  Commercial aircraft (69%)
  Defence and Space (21%)
  Helicopters (10%)

Commercial aircraft

Commercial aircraft generated 67% of total revenue for the group in 2013.[191] The product portfolio of such aircraft encompasses short range models such as the A320 family and the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380.

Defence and Space

The division Airbus Defence and Space was formed in January 2014 as part of the group restructuring from the former EADS divisions Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian (composed of Cassidian Electronics – develops and manufactures sensors, radars, avionics and electronic warfare systems for military and security applications, Cassidian Air Systems – develops manned and unmanned aerial systems (UAVs), mission avionics, electronic defence and warning systems and Cassidian Systems – provides global security solutions such as command & control, lead system integration, TETRA and TETRAPOL communication systems for public safety, industry, transportation and defence. This line of business was the first one in the world to begin field tests with TETRA Enhanced Data Service (TEDS).[192]).[193]

  • EADS 3 Sigma – a Hellenic company focused in the design, development, production and services provision of airborne and surface target drone systems.

The Airbus Military division, which manufactured tanker, transport and mission aircraft; Eurocopter, the world's largest helicopter supplier; Astrium, provided systems for aerial, land, naval and civilian security applications including Ariane, Galileo and Cassidian. Through Cassidian, EADS was a partner in the Eurofighter consortium as well as in the missile systems provider MBDA.


Airbus Helicopters, formerly known as Eurocopter, is a helicopter manufacturing and support company. See also: Airbus Helicopters, Inc.


Joint ventures

Name Holding Description
Dassault Aviation
manufacturer of Dassault Rafale and Dassault Mirage 2000
Eurofighter GmbH
manufacturer of Eurofighter Typhoon
develops and manufactures missiles
manufacturer of Ariane 5 and Ariane 6 launch vehicles
Launch service provider
regional aircraft manufacturer
general aviation aircraft manufacturer
CSeries Aircraft Limited Partnership (CSALP)
Bombardier CSeries aircraft

In September 2014 Airbus considered divesting Dassault and several other units to focus on aerospace.[196] They reduced their shareholding in Dassault Aviation to 10 % by the end of 2016.


Current CEO, Tom Enders

The corporate management of the Airbus Group as of March 2017:[197]

Chief Executive Officer: Thomas Enders

Executive Committee:

Member Title
Fernando Alonso Head of Military Aircraft, Airbus Defence and Space
Thierry Baril Chief Human Resources Officer of Airbus & Airbus Commercial Aircraft
Fabrice Brégier Chief Operating Officer of Airbus and President of Airbus Commercial Aircraft
Guillaume Faury Chief Executive Officer of Airbus Helicopters
John Harrison Group General Counsel Airbus
Dirk Hoke Chief Executive Officer of Airbus Defence and Space
John Leahy Chief Operating Officer - Customers - Airbus Commercial Aircraft
Allan McArtor Chief Executive Officer of Airbus North America
Klaus Richter Chief Procurement Officer of Airbus & Airbus Commercial Aircraft
Harald Wilhelm Chief Financial Officer of Airbus
Tom Williams Chief Operating Officer of Airbus Commercial Aircraft

The original Executive Committee is appointed by the board of directors, itself appointed by Daimler AG and SOGEADE. Both appoint four directors plus one independent director. As of July 2003 SEPI no longer nominates a board member, but a Spanish director is retained as the 11th member.[198] The board also appoints the company's chairpersons, one from the Daimler nominated directors and from the SOGEADE nominated directors. In late 2004 Noël Forgeard (then Airbus CEO) was nominated by Lagardère as the next French CEO of EADS. Forgeard had suggested that this system should be abolished in favour of a single CEO in a move that DaimlerChrysler saw as an attempt to engineer a French dominated management team. Following protracted arguments, which caused embarrassment to EADS at the Paris Air Show, the appointment was confirmed by the EADS Board of Directors on 25 June 2005. At the same meeting the Board, in consultation with partner BAE Systems, named Gustav Humbert as President and CEO of Airbus.[199]

Corporate affairs

The subsidiary Airbus Middle East is headquartered in the Dubai Airport Free Zone.[200] This subsidiary opened in 2006.[201]

The subsidiary Airbus Japan K.K. (エアバス・ジャパン株式会社) is headquartered in the Roppongi Hills Mori Tower in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo.[202]

International manufacturing presence

Main Airbus factory in Hamburg, Germany
Main Airbus factory in Getafe, Madrid, Spain

Airbus has several final assembly lines for different models and markets. These are:

Airbus, however, has a number of other plants in different European locations, reflecting its foundation as a consortium. An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of the Airbus Beluga, a modified cargo aircraft capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage. This solution has also been investigated by Boeing, which retrofitted 4 747-400s to transport the components of the 787. An exception to this scheme is the A380, whose fuselage and wings are too large[203] for sections to be carried by the Beluga. Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux, and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit, a specially enlarged waterway and road route.

Airbus opened an assembly plant in Tianjin, People's Republic of China for its A320 series airliners in 2009.[204][205][206] Airbus started constructing a $350 million component manufacturing plant in Harbin, China in July 2009, which will employ 1,000 people.[207][208][209] Scheduled to be operated by the end of 2010, the 30,000 square metre plant will manufacture composite parts and assemble composite work-packages for the A350 XWB, A320 families and future Airbus programmes. Harbin Aircraft Industry Group Corporation, Hafei Aviation Industry Company Ltd, AviChina Industry & Technology Company and other Chinese partners hold the 80% stake of the plant while Airbus control the remaining 20%.[210]

North America is an important region to Airbus in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers. 2,000 of the total of approximately 5,300 Airbus jetliners sold by Airbus around the world, representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107-seat A318 to the 565-passenger A380, are ordered by North American customers. According to Airbus, US contractors, supporting an estimated 120,000 jobs, earned an estimated $5.5 billion (2003) worth of business. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value.

Plans for a Mobile, Alabama aircraft assembly plant were unveiled by Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Centre on 2 July 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley for the assembly of the A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. It could employ up to 1,000 full-time workers when operational. Construction began on 8 April 2013, and became operable by 2015,[211] producing up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017.[212][213]

Financial information

Revenues by region, as of 2013:[190]

  Europe (36%)
  Asia-Pacific (33%)
  North America (15%)
  Middle East (9%)
  Africa and Latin America (7%)

In October 2005 the British Ministry of Defence warned European politicians to stop, as it sees it, interfering in the corporate governance of EADS. The former UK Defence Procurement Minister Lord Drayson hinted that the UK government, a major customer for EADS, may withhold future contracts. "As a key customer, we see it as important for EADS to move in a direction that is free from political interference."[214]

On 4 April 2006, DaimlerChrysler announced its intention to reduce its shareholding from 30 % to 22.5 %. The company places a value of the stake at "approximately €2.0 billion."[215] Lagardère will reduce its holding by an identical amount. However, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations, a unit of the French government, acquired 2.25 % of EADS. At issue as a result is the fact that the German and French shareholdings are now in imbalance.[216]

On 30 August 2006, shortly after the stock price decline caused by the A380 delivery delays, more than 5 % of EADS stock has been reportedly purchased by the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank.[217] Now its share is nearly 6 %. In December 2007, Vneshtorgbank sold EADS shares to another state-controlled bank Vneshekonombank. EADS sharers are to be delivered by Vneshekonombank to the charter capital of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" in 2008.[citation needed]

On 3 October 2006, shortly after EADS admitted further delays in the Airbus 380 programme would cost the company 4.8 billion euros in lost earnings in 2010, EADS shares, traded on the Paris arm of Euronext, were suspended after they surpassed the 10 % loss limit. Trading resumed later in the day with the one-day loss holding at 7 %.

In 2007, Dubai Holding acquired 3.12 % of EADS stock, making the Dubai buy-out fund one of the largest institutional shareholders.[218]

In 2008, EADS had arms sales equivalent of $17.9 billion, which constituted 28 % of total revenue.[219]

In April 2013, Daimler sold its shares in EADS.[220]

As of 30 September 2015, 74 % of Airbus Group stock is publicly traded on six European stock exchanges, while the remaining 25.9 % is owned by a "Contractual Partnership".[5] As at 31 December 2014, the partnership is owned by SOGEPA (10.94%), GZBV (10.92%) and SEPI (4.12%). SOGEPA is owned by the French State, GZBV is majority owned by KfW, while SEPI is a Spanish state holding company.[221]

Finances[222] 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Sales EUR billion 59.256 56.480 49.128 45.752 42.822 43.265 39.123 39.434 34.206 31.761
EBITDA in Mio. EUR 4.575 4.142 3.473 2.769 1.446 4.439 1.751 2.033 4.365 3.841
EBIT in Mio. EUR 2.661 2.186 1.696 1.231 (322) 2.830 52 399 2.852 2.432
Research and development costs EUR million 3.160 3.142 3.152 2.939 2.825 2.669 2.608 2.458 2.075 2.126
Consolidated net income EUR million 1.465 1.198 1.104 584 (722) 1.613 (433) 199 1.769 1.342
Earnings per share in EUR 1,85 1,46 1,27 0,68 (0,94) 1,95 (0,56) 0,12 2,11 1,50
Dividend per share in EUR 0,75 0,60 0,45 0,22 0,00 0,20 0,12 0,12 0,65 0,50
Free cash flow in EUR million (818) 3.472 958 2.707 585 2.559 3.354 2.029 2.413 1.614
New orders in EUR million 218.681 102.471 131.027 83.147 45.847 98.648 136.799 69.018 92.551 44.117
Order backlog at 31.12. in EUR million 686.734 566.463 540.978 448.493 389.067 400.248 339.532 262.810 253.235 184.288
Employees (number) 31.12. 144.061 140.405 133.115 121.691 119.506 118.349 116.493 116.805 113.210 110.662
accounted for under IFRS; The fiscal year ends on 31/12.

Sales of military equipment in 2012 amounted to 15.4 billion US dollars.[223]

Environmental record

Airbus has committed to the "Flightpath 2050", an aviation industry plan to reduce noise, CO2, and NOx emissions.[224]

Airbus was the first aerospace business to become ISO 14001 certified, in January 2007; this is a broader certification covering the whole organisation, not just the aircraft it produces.[225]


Airbus has joined Honeywell and JetBlue in an effort to reduce pollution and dependence on oil. They are trying to develop a biofuel that could be used by 2030. The companies propose supplying almost one third of the world's aeroplane fuel needs without affecting food resources. Algae is viewed as a possible alternative energy source because it absorbs carbon dioxide during its growth, and because its use will not affect food production. However, algae and other vegetation-based fuels are still just experiments, and fuel-bearing algae has been expensive to develop.[226] Airbus recently operated the first alternative fuel flight on a mixture of 60% kerosene and 40% gas to liquids (GTL) fuel in one engine. It did not cut carbon emissions, but it was free of sulphur emissions.[227] Alternative fuel was able to work properly in Airbus' aeroplane engine, demonstrating that alternative fuels should not require new aeroplane engines. This flight and the company's long term efforts are considered big strides towards environmentally friendly aeroplanes.[227]


Cluster bomb allegation

In 2005 the Government Pension Fund of Norway recommended the exclusion of several companies producing cluster bombs or components. EADS and its sister company EADS Finance BV were among them, arguing that EADS manufactures "key components for cluster bombs". The criticism was centred around TDA, a joint venture between EADS and Thales S.A. TDA produced the mortar ammunition PR Cargo, which can be considered cluster ammunition, however this definition has since been successfully battled by EADS. EADS and its subsidiaries are now regarded as fulfilling all the conditions of the Ottawa Treaty. According to the new point of view, no product of EADS or its subsidiaries falls into the category of antipersonnel mines as defined by the Ottawa Treaty ("landmines under the Ottawa Treaty"). In April 2006, the fund declared that the basis for excluding EADS from investments related to production of cluster munitions is no longer valid, however its shareholding of MBDA means the fund still excludes EADS due to its indirect involvement in nuclear weapons production.[228]

Allegations of bribery

Saudi Arabia

In August 2012 the UK Serious Fraud Office opened a criminal investigation into an EADS subsidiary, GPT Special Project Management Ltd, in connection with bribery allegations made by the subsidiary's former programme director, Ian Foxley. Foxley alleged that luxury cars were bought for senior Saudis, and that millions of pounds sterling was paid to mysterious Cayman Islands companies, and that this may have been done to secure a £2 billion contract to renew the Saudi Arabian National Guard's military telecommunications network.[229] Foxley's allegations were backed up by two other GPT employees.[230]

South Africa

In 2003 Tony Yengeni, former chief whip of South Africa's African National Congress, was convicted of fraud relating to an arms deal with South Africa, in which EADS were major players,[231] worth around $5 billion. BBC reported that EADS had admitted that it had "rendered assistance" to some 30 senior officials to obtain luxury vehicles, including defence force chief General Siphiwe Nyanda.[232] In March 2003 the South African State completely withdrew the charges of bribery against the former head of EADS South Africa.[233] In September 2004 the Munich prosecutor's office issued a formal order on dismissal regarding the bribery charges against him due to his innocence in relation to the said car sales (file no. 572 Js 39830/01).


According to the investigation conducted by the Guardian Newspaper, Airbus has launched an internal investigation into possible corruption after the Guardian uncovered a series of questionable financial transactions resulting in an unexplained payment.

Hundreds of pages of leaked bank records, internal memos and financial statements reveal that two companies secretly controlled by the aviation giant engaged in transactions involving €19m (£16.7m), a large part of which was then routed to a mysterious company via a tax haven.

The scheme hinges on an unexplained purchase of shares between two purportedly independent companies in 2007. Eolia Limited, a Maltese company in the business of retrofitting passenger jets to transport cargo, bought 26% of Avinco Holdings, a Dutch company that sells secondhand aircraft and helicopters. Both companies present themselves to the world as independent entities. Neither company’s website mentions any significant external support or backing from other firms. In reality, however, both companies were secretly under Airbus’s effective control.

This payment was allegedly the tip of the iceberg with a slush fund of around EUR 80 million created at the level of PSP Conversions LLP, Eolia Limited's subsidiary in Cyprus. [234]

Insider trading investigation

On 2 June 2006 co-CEO Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert resigned following the controversy caused by the June 2006 announcement that deliveries of the A380 would be delayed by a further six months. Forgeard was one of a number of executives who exercised stock options in November 2005 and March 2006. He and 21 other executives are under investigation as to whether they knew about the delays in the Airbus A380 project which caused a 26 % fall in EADS shares when publicised.[235]

The French government's actions were also under investigation; The state-owned bank Caisse des Dépots et Consignations (CDC) bought part of Lagardère's 7.5 % stake in EADS in April 2006, allowing that latter to partially escape the June 2006 losses.[235]

Subsidy conflicts

Boeing has continually protested over "launch aid" and other forms of government aid to Airbus, while Airbus has argued that Boeing receives illegal subsidies through military and research contracts and tax breaks.[236]

In July 2004 former Boeing CEO Harry Stonecipher accused Airbus of abusing a 1992 bilateral EU-US agreement providing for disciplines for large civil aircraft support from governments. Airbus is given reimbursable launch investment (RLI), called "launch aid" by the US, from European governments with the money being paid back with interest plus indefinite royalties, but only if the aircraft is a commercial success.[237] Airbus contends that this system is fully compliant with the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. The agreement allows up to 33 per cent of the programme cost to be met through government loans which are to be fully repaid within 17 years with interest and royalties. These loans are held at a minimum interest rate equal to the cost of government borrowing plus 0.25%, which would be below market rates available to Airbus without government support.[238] Airbus claims that since the signature of the EU-US agreement in 1992, it has repaid European governments more than U.S.$6.7 billion and that this is 40% more than it has received.

Airbus argues that the military contracts awarded to Boeing, the second largest U.S. defence contractor, are in effect a form of subsidy, such as the controversy surrounding the Boeing KC-767 military contracting arrangements. The significant U.S. government support of technology development via NASA also provides significant support to Boeing, as do the large tax breaks offered to Boeing, which some people claim are in violation of the 1992 agreement and WTO rules. In its recent products such as the 787, Boeing has also been offered direct financial support from local and state governments.[239]

In January 2005 the European Union and United States trade representatives, Peter Mandelson and Robert Zoellick respectively, agreed to talks aimed at resolving the increasing tensions.[240][241] These talks were not successful with the dispute becoming more acrimonious rather than approaching a settlement.[242]

WTO ruled in August 2010 and in May 2011 that Airbus had received improper government subsidies through loans with below market rates from several European countries.[243] In a separate ruling in February 2011, WTO found that Boeing had received local and federal aid in violation of WTO rules.[244]

See also


  1. ^ "Denis Ranque" (PDF). Airbus. 
  2. ^ "Thomas Enders" (PDF). Airbus. 
  3. ^ a b c Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2017 (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  4. ^ a b Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2016 (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Airbus Group - Share information". airbusgroup.com. 
  6. ^ "About Airbus". Airbus. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  7. ^ "First Airbus final assembly line outside Europe inaugurated in Tianjin, China". Airbus. 28 September 2008. 
  8. ^ Beatson, Jim (2 April 1989). "Air Safety: Is America Ready to `Fly by Wire'?". The Washington Post. 
  9. ^ "History – Imaginative advances". Airbus. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  10. ^ "A journey of 10,000 aircraft and counting: Airbus' pioneering spirit and commitment to shaping the future" (Press release). Airbus. 14 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "BAE Systems says completed sale of Airbus stake to EADS". Forbes. 13 October 2006. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2006. 
  12. ^ a b "EADS changes name to Airbus" (subscription required). Financial Times, 2014.
  13. ^ a b "Airbus Group Shareholders Approve All Resolutions At 2015 AGM" (Press release). Airbus Group. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  14. ^ Frankfurt Stock Exchange Archived 19 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ a b "Airbus shareholders approve all resolutions at 2017 AGM" (Press release). Airbus. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 
  16. ^ "[1]." Airbus. 15 March 2018. Updated 15 March 2018. Retrieved on 15 March 2018.
  17. ^ T. A. Heppenheimer. "Airbus Industrie". US Centennial of Flight Commission. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2009. 
  18. ^ a b c d Mark Nicholls, ed. (2001). Airbus Jetliners: The European Solution. Classic Aircraft Series No.6. Stamford: Key Publishing. ISBN 0-946219-53-2. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Airbus history". Flight International. Reed Business Publishing. 29 October 1997. 
  20. ^ "British plan big 'Air-Bus'". The New York Times. 17 October 1959. 
  21. ^ "Flying Without Frills", Hawker Siddeley Aviation, The Times, Friday, 13 Feb 1959; pg. 5
  22. ^ a b c d e "History – Trouble and strife". Airbus. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  23. ^ Lee, John (11 April 1969). "Britain abandons the European Airbus project; believes building the plane is a losing proposition". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Rinearson, Peter (19 June 1983). "A special report on the conception, design, manufacture, marketing and delivery of a new jetliner—the Boeing 757". Seattle Times. 
  25. ^ a b c "History – Technology leaders". Airbus. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  26. ^ a b c "History – Early days". Airbus. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  27. ^ Dispatch, London (25 October 1969). "Hawker-Siddeley starts wing work for Europe Airbus". The New York Times. 
  28. ^ "German Aircraft-makers eye Aust with new jet". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 April 1971. 
  29. ^ Lee, John (5 February 1971). "Rolls-Royce Is Bankrupt; Blames Lockheed Project". The New York Times. 
  30. ^ "History – First order, first flight". Airbus. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  31. ^ Morris, Joe (19 December 1971). "A300B Airbus ahead of its time?". Los Angeles Times. 
  32. ^ Watkins, Harold (26 August 1974). "Selling Airbus to U.S. carriers a tough task". Los Angeles Times. 
  33. ^ a b c "The Airbus fight to stay ahead". BBC News. 23 June 2000. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  34. ^ "Now, the Poor Man's Jumbo Jet". TIME Magazine. 17 October 1977. 
  35. ^ Witkin, Richard (7 April 1978). "Eastern accepts $778 million deal to get 23 Airbuses". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ Carman, Gerry (11 December 1979). "Airbus funds flow on". The Age. Australia. [dead link]
  37. ^ "History – A market breakthrough". Airbus. Archived from the original on 27 December 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009. 
  38. ^ Belden, Tom (22 August 1982). "Airbus takes flight with big-jet sales". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  39. ^ Airbus Helicopters history Archived 14 January 2014 at Archive.is
  40. ^ Rothman, Andrea; Landberg, Reed (1997-06-15). "Europe Defense Firms Feel Pressure to Unite". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  41. ^ "Business: The Company File: Defense merger on the radar". BBC News. 10 July 1998. Retrieved 2007-09-15. 
  42. ^ Jones, Adam (1999-01-20). "Europe cries foul as New BAe emerges". The Times. 
  43. ^ Sparaco, Pierre; Morrocco, John D. (1997-06-30). "French Government Grapples With Aerospace Strategy". Aviation Week and Space Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 
  44. ^ Gray, Bernard; Michael Skapinker (1997-06-24). "Giant waiting in the wings: Bernard Gray and Michael Skapinker ask if Europe's defence industry can consolidate in time to challenge US dominance". Financial Times. 
  45. ^ "BAe and Dasa discuss proposals for merger: Aerospace groups still have 'important issues to resolve'". Financial Times. 24 July 1998. p. 1. 
  46. ^ a b Spiegel, Peter (17 July 2004). "The largest aerospace companies gather next week for the Farnborough air show but the event will be without its long-time unofficial host". Financial Times. p. 11. 
  47. ^ BAE Systems Annual Report 1999 22. BAE Systems plc (2000). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  48. ^ a b Turpin, Andrew (4 March 2000). "BAE eyes US targets after profit rockets". The Scotsman. The Scotsman Publications. p. 26. 
  49. ^ White, David; Nicoll, Alexander (1999-06-12). "DaimlerChrysler wins fight for Spain's Casa: Deal boosts aerospace industry consolidation in Europe". Financial Times. 
  50. ^ Nicoll, Alexander; Skapiner, Michael (1999-10-15). "Flying in formation: The merger of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and Aérospatiale-Matra may pave the way for a larger European grouping or the first transatlantic defence tie-up, argue Alexander Nicoll and Michael Skapinker". Financial Times. 
  51. ^ "History of EADS". EADS. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  52. ^ "EADS and BAE SYSTEMS complete Airbus integration – Airbus SAS formally established" (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 12 July 2001. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  53. ^ a b c d Sparaco, Pierre (19 March 2001). "Climate Conducive For Airbus Consolidation". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  54. ^ "EADS, BAE and Finmeccanica Complete MBDA Merger". Defense Daily International. 2001-12-21. the new MBDA, the world's second largest missile manufacturer behind Raytheon 
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-10. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  56. ^ Odell, Mark (2003-02-01). "BAE agrees new deal for Astrium". Financial Times. p. 15. 
  57. ^ Spiegel, Peter (2005-09-07). "BAE denies Airbus sale plans". Financial Times. 
  58. ^ "BAE confirms possible Airbus sale". BBC News. 2006-04-07. Retrieved 2006-08-12. 
  59. ^ Gow, David (3 July 2006). "BAE under pressure to hold Airbus stake". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 3 July 2006. 
  60. ^ "BAE Systems says completed sale of Airbus stake to EADS". Forbes. 2006-10-13. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 2006-10-13. 
  61. ^ Dept for Communities & Local Govt: Award of state of the art IT contract to improve fire service delivery 7 March 2007, (accessed 9 March 2007)[dead link]
  62. ^ Done, Kevin (2 February 2001). "Survey – Europe Reinvented: Airbus has come of age". Financial Times. 
  63. ^ Frawley, Gerald. "Airbus A330-200". "Airbus A330-300". The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004. Aerospace Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-875671-58-7.
  64. ^ "Airbus faces critical decision in coming months". Reuters. 26 December 2001. 
  65. ^ Tagliabue, John (2 May 1996). "Airbus Tries to Fly in a New Formation;Consortium's Chief Hopes a Revamping Could Aid Its Challenge to Boeing". The New York Times (Press release). Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  66. ^ Spiegel, Peter (17 July 2004). "End of an era at BAE: how Sir Richard Evans changed the UK defence industry". Financial Times. 
  67. ^ "Platform envy". The Economist. 12 December 1998. 
  68. ^ "GEC spoils DASA / BAe party". BBC News. 20 December 1998. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  69. ^ "British Aerospace and Marconi Electronic Systems form the third largest defence unit in the world". Jane's International. 19 January 1999. 
  70. ^ "History of EADS". EADS. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  71. ^ "EADS and BAE SYSTEMS complete Airbus integration – Airbus SAS formally established" (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 12 July 2001. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007. 
  72. ^ Norris, 2005. p. 7.
  73. ^ Norris, 2005. p. 16-17.
  74. ^ Bowen, David (4 June 1994). "Airbus will reveal plan for super-jumbo: Aircraft would seat at least 600 people and cost dollars 8bn to develop". The Independent. UK. 
  75. ^ "Airbus unveils plans for 854-passenger airliner". The Baltimore Sun. 8 September 1994. 
  76. ^ Norris, Guy; Mark Wagner (2005). Airbus A380: Superjumbo of the 21st Century. Zenith Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2218-5. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. 
  77. ^ a b Kingsley-Jones, Max (20 December 2005). "A380 powers on through flight-test". Flight International. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007. 
  78. ^ "A380 Successfully completes its first flight". Flug Revue. 27 April 2005. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  79. ^ "Airbus tests A380 jet in extreme cold of Canada". MSNBC. 8 February 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  80. ^ a b Matlack, Carol (5 October 2006). "Airbus: First, blame the Software". Businessweek. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  81. ^ Wong, Kenneth (6 December 2006). "What Grounded the Airbus A380?". Cadalyst. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  82. ^ "First A380 Flight on 25–26 October ". Singapore Airlines. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007. 
  83. ^ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney". BBC. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  84. ^ "SIA's Chew: A380 pleases, Virgin Atlantic disappoints". ATW Online. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  85. ^ "Emirates A380 arrives in New York!". 3 August 2008. Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  86. ^ "Emirates A380 Lands At New York's JFK". 1 August 2008. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  87. ^ "Qantas A380 arrives in LA after maiden flight". The Age. Australia. 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  88. ^ "Airbus in Russia Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Airbus.com. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  89. ^ "BAE Systems to sell Airbus stake". BBC News. 6 April 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  90. ^ Michaels, D. (7 April 2006). "BAE in Talks With EADS to Sell its 20% Airbus Stake; British Firm is Focusing Increasingly on Defense Market, Especially in U.S." The Wall Street Journal. 
  91. ^ Harrison, Michael (15 June 2006). "BAE launches attack on EADS over Airbus superjumbo warning". The Independent. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  92. ^ Hollinger, Peggy; Done, Kevin (11 July 2006). "Sharp drop in orders at Airbus". Financial Times Daily. pp. 1, 14. 
  93. ^ Dougherty, Carter (3 July 2006). "Top Officials of Airbus and EADS Step Down". The New York Times. 
  94. ^ Gow, David (3 July 2006). "BAE under pressure to hold Airbus stake". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  95. ^ "BAE agrees to £1.87bn Airbus sale". BBC News. 6 September 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  96. ^ Hotten, Russell (4 October 2006). "BAE vote clears sale of Airbus stake". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 
  97. ^ "Northrop-EADS beats Boeing to build U.S. tanker". Reuters. 2008-03-01. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  98. ^ "Northrop drops out of bid to make Air Force aerial tankers", MarketWatch, 8 March 2010.
  99. ^ "EADS North America intends to submit proposal for U.S. Air Force tanker " Archived 31 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine., EADS North America press release, 20 April 2010
  100. ^ 'Airbus delays propel EADS to £691m loss' Daily Telegraph, 10 March 2010
  101. ^ "La fusion EADS-BAE Systems sous la pression du code boursier britannique". Lemonde.fr. 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  102. ^ "BAE Systems shares shed gains after EADS merger talk". BBC. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  103. ^ "Boeing Says EADS Seeking U.S. Growth With BAE Merger". Bloomberg. 13 September 2012. 
  104. ^ "Lagardere asks EADS to rethink BAE merger plan". Reuters. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  105. ^ "BAE and EADS chiefs: 'Time to create something stronger". Telegraph. 30 September 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  106. ^ "BAE and EADS bosses plead for support for merger". Guardian. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  107. ^ "EADS and BAE: Bosses urge political support for merger". BBC. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  108. ^ "BAE-EADS merger cancelled amid political impasse". BBC. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  109. ^ EADS changes name to Airbus, subscription required
  110. ^ BBC News - EADS to be renamed Airbus Group. Bbc.co.uk (2013-07-31). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  111. ^ "Ad-hoc release, 30 September 2016: Airbus Steps Up Integration" (Press release). Airbus Group. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016. 
  112. ^ "Airbus Becomes One: Next Steps in the Social Dialogue" (Press release). Airbus Group. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016. 
  113. ^ "Airbus Plans Internal Merger in Latest Corporate Shake-Up". Fortune. Reuters. Sep 30, 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017. 
  114. ^ "Streiff resigns as CEO of Airbus". BBC News. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  115. ^ "Airbus confirms 10,000 job cuts". BBC News. 28 February 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  116. ^ Chuter, Andrew (15 September 2008). "GKN buys Airbus operation in the U.K." Defence News. 
  117. ^ Frost, Laurence (2 March 2007). "Airbus unions call for a strike on Tuesday over job cuts". SignOnSanDiego. 
  118. ^ "I. The Paris Air Show, Airbus 730 orders worth $ 72 billion". Auairs.com. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  119. ^ "Iran selects Airbus for its civil aviation renewal" (Press release). Airbus. 28 January 2016. 
  120. ^ "Proposed Boeing-Iran Air Deal Involves 80 Jets". The Wall Street Journal. June 23, 2016. 
  121. ^ "Boeing Says If Congress Blocks Its Iran Jet Deal, Rivals' Should Be Halted Too". The Wall Street Journal. July 10, 2016. 
  122. ^ "Iran Air takes delivery of its first of 100 Airbus aircraft" (Press release). Airbus. 11 January 2017. 
  123. ^ Tim Hepher and Sudip Kar-Gupta (Jul 3, 2017). "Airbus unveils leaner structure and sales shake-up". Reuters. 
  124. ^ "Airbus and Bombardier Announce C Series Partnership" (Press release). Airbus. 16 October 2017. 
  125. ^ Jens Flottau (Nov 9, 2017). "Intrigue Of Shakespearean Proportions Unfolds In Airbus' Top Echelon". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  126. ^ Tim Hepher (Oct 11, 2017). "Leahy to bow out from Airbus at year-end after final sales push". Reuters. 
  127. ^ Jens Flottau (Nov 23, 2017). "Rolls-Royce's Schulz, ATR's Scherer Contenders For Airbus Sales Chief". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  128. ^ Tim Hepher (Nov 26, 2017). "Airbus set to poach Rolls exec to head jetliner sales - sources". Reuters. 
  129. ^ Tim Hepher (Nov 30, 2017). "Airbus technology head Eremenko leaves to join rival UTC". Reuters. 
  130. ^ "Airbus, Rolls-Royce, and Siemens team up for electric future" (PDF) (Press release). Airbus, Rolls-Royce, Siemens. 28 Nov 2017.  (Airbus, Rolls-Royce, Siemens)
  131. ^ Dominique Vidalon and Tim Hepher (Dec 12, 2017). "Airbus CEO Enders declines comment on role beyond 2019". Reuters. 
  132. ^ "Airbus Board of Directors Announces Top Management Succession Plan" (Press release). Airbus. 15 December 2017. 
  133. ^ Jens Flottau and Tony Osborne (Dec 18, 2017). "Airbus Facing Leadership Changes Amid Turmoil, Corruption Probes". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  134. ^ "Airbus Commercial Aircraft delivers record performance" (Press release). Airbus. 
  135. ^ Benjamin D Katz (30 Jan 2018). "Brexit Exposes U.K. to Worldwide Raid on Airbus Wing Production". Bloomberg. 
  136. ^ Alex Morales and Benjamin D Katz (22 Feb 2018). "Airbus CEO Vows to Stay in Post-Brexit U.K. Long Into Future". Bloomberg. 
  137. ^ Tim Hepher, Cyril Altmeyer (March 20, 2018). "Airbus to name new CEO at the end of the year". Reuters. 
  138. ^ Airbus.com
  139. ^ Boeing.com
  140. ^ a b "Airbus April 2013 orders and deliveries". Airbus. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  141. ^ "Airbus Orders and Deliveries". Airbus. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  142. ^ "Orders and Deliveries". Boeing. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  143. ^ "Airbus Annual Review 2006" (PDF). Airbus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  144. ^ "Airbus ups stakes in single-aisle production war". Archived from the original on 17 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  145. ^ Reed, Ted. "At American Airlines, Airbus A321 Is Forcing Out the A320". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-10-09. 
  146. ^ Robertson, David (4 October 2006). "Airbus will lose €4.8bn because of A380 delays". The Times. UK. 
  147. ^ "Aircraft Profile: Airbus A350". Flight International. Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  148. ^ Hamilton, Scott (4 April 2006). "Redesigning the A350: Airbus' tough choice" (PDF). Leeham Company. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. 
  149. ^ "Airbus Group Establishes Venture Capital Fund and Innovation Center in Silicon Valley" (Press release). Airbus Group. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  150. ^ "Airbus Group starts $150 mln venture fund, Silicon Valley base". Reuters. 29 May 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  151. ^ "In a first, Bengaluru startups on Airbus radar for mentoring business ideas under BizLabs". The Economic Times. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  152. ^ Ahles, Andrea (June 22, 2015). "A Q&A with Airbus CEO Tom Enders". Star-Telegram. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 
  153. ^ "Airbus Group Becomes Fully Operational in Silicon Valley" (Press release). Airbus Group. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016. 
  154. ^ Stevenson, Richard (21 March 1993). "A321 set for takeoff at Airbus Question of subsidies, threat to U.S. companies rise". Chicago Tribune. 
  155. ^ "Simon Calder: The man who pays his way". The Independent. UK. 18 October 2003. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  156. ^ a b Ostrower, John (10 November 2011). "EADS indicates "termination" of Airbus A340 programme". Flightglobal. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  157. ^ "Airbus may not do A320 replacement alone". Aviation Week. 2 July 2007. 
  158. ^ "The 737 Story: Smoke and mirrors obscure 737 and Airbus A320 replacement studies". Flight International. 7 February 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  159. ^ "Airbus aims to thwart Boeing's narrowbody plans with upgraded 'A320 Enhanced'". Flight International. 20 June 2006. 
  160. ^ "China names first jumbo jet C919, to take off in 8 years". Xinhua News Agency. 6 March 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  161. ^ "Airbus needs extra cash for new planes". Reuters. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  162. ^ "Airbus to base A320 production in Hamburg, 350s and 380s in Toulouse". Forbes. 15 January 2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. 
  163. ^ Webster, Ben (1 May 2003). "BA chief blames French for killing off Concorde". The Times. UK. 
  164. ^ Woodman, Peter (10 April 2003). "End of an era – Concorde is retired". The Independent. UK. 
  165. ^ "Airbus Executive and Private Aviation". airbus.com. Retrieved 6 June 2015. 
  166. ^ David Flynn (2013-06-07). "Airbus reveals iPhone-enabled 'smart bag' with RFID, GPS tracking". Australian Business Traveller. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  167. ^ "Applying innovation to improve the airline luggage experience". Airbus. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  168. ^ "Airbus Bag2Go Uses GPS And RFID To Get Your Bags Where They Belong". GadgetReview.com. 2013-06-10. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  169. ^ Shawn Knighe (2013-06-07). "Airbus Bag2Go smart luggage packs mobile radio, GPS and RFID". TechSpot. Retrieved 2015-03-30. 
  170. ^ "A400M (Future Large Aircraft) Tactical Transport Aircraft, Europe". airforce-technology.com. Retrieved 1 October 2009. [unreliable source?]
  171. ^ "A400M Programme: A Brief History". Airbus. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  172. ^ "Strategic airlift agreement enters into force". NATO. 3 March 2006. 
  173. ^ O’Connell, Dominic (11 January 2009). "RAF transport aircraft delay". The Times. UK. 
  174. ^ Hoyle, Craig (28 April 2008). "Hercules support deal transforms RAF operations". Flight International. 
  175. ^ "Why wait for the Airbus?". Defence Management. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011. 
  176. ^ "Airbus A400M delay does not foster confidence". Forbes. 30 October 2007. 
  177. ^ "A400M Partners to Renegotiate Contract with EADS". Defense News. 27 July 2009. 
  178. ^ Hollinger, Peggy; Clark, Pilita; Lemer, Jeremy (5 January 2010). "Airbus threatens to scrap A400M aircraft". Financial Times. 
  179. ^ Ansari, Usman (3 November 2008). "Pakistan eyes boost in Transport, Lift". Defense News. [permanent dead link]
  180. ^ Hepher, Tim (25 February 2008). "Airbus EAE tanker order". Reuters. 
  181. ^ "Air tanker deal provokes US row". BBC News. 1 March 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  182. ^ "Boeing Protests U.S. Air Force Tanker Contract Award". Boeing. 11 March 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. 
  183. ^ "Statement regarding the bid protest decision resolving the Aerial Refueling Tanker protest by the Boeing Company" (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. 18 June 2008. 
  184. ^ "SecDEF announces return of KC-X program". Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs. 16 September 2009. 
  185. ^ Wolf, Jim; Shalal-Esa, Andrea (24 September 2009). "Pentagon's new tanker rules exclude trade fight". Reuters. 
  186. ^ "Airbus Group teams up with Aerion" Leeham Co, 27 October 2014. Accessed: 26 September 2014.
  187. ^ Van Wagenen, Juliet. "Airbus and Aerion Collaborate to Develop Supersonic Business Jet, High-Performance Flight" Aviation Today, 22 September 2014. Accessed: 27 October 2014.
  188. ^ "Airbus Numbering System". aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  189. ^ "Airbus official O&D". www.airbus.com. Airbus. 31 December 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  190. ^ a b "Investors & Shareholders". airbusgroup.com. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  191. ^ Airbus Group, We Make It Fly - Annual review 2013
  192. ^ "EADS demonstrates world's first high speed data solution over TETRA". Bapco Journal. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  193. ^ EADS changes name to Airbus, subscription required.
  194. ^ "EADS Registration Document 2013 (Page 48)" (PDF). EADS. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  195. ^ "Airbus APWorks". Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  196. ^ Jens Flottau, Tony Osborne and Amy Svitak. "Airbus Group To Focus On Military Aircraft, Space And Missiles" Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 September 2014. Accessed: 24 September 2014. Archived on 24 September 2014
  197. ^ "Current Members Of The Executive Committee". Airbus. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017. 
  198. ^ "EADS N.V. – Board of Directors – Role and Composition". EADS. Archived from the original on 16 February 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  199. ^ "EADS Finds Way Out of Crisis". Business. Deutsche Welle. Agence France-Presse. 25 June 2005. 
  200. ^ "Airbus Middle East - Airbus, Commercial Aircraft". 
  201. ^ "People & Organization - Airbus, Commercial Aircraft". 
  202. ^ "コンタクト - Airbus, 欧州の航空機メーカー". 
  203. ^ Bray, Rob (June 2007). "Supersize Wings". Ingenia. 
  204. ^ "Airbus to build A320 jet assembly line in Tianjin in 2006". AsiaInfo Services. 18 July 2006. 
  205. ^ "Airbus delivers first China-assembled A320 jet". Sify News. 23 June 2009. 
  206. ^ "Airbus signs framework agreement with Chinese consortium on A320 Final Assembly Line in China". Airbus official. 26 October 2006. Archived from the original on 14 December 2006. 
  207. ^ Jianguo, Jiang (16 July 2008). "Airbus, Harbin Aircraft form Chinese parts venture". Bloomberg. 
  208. ^ Kogan, Eugene (8 February 2008). "China's commercial aviation in take-off mode". Asia Times. 
  209. ^ "China needs 630 more regional jets in next 2 decades". China Daily. 2 September 2007. 
  210. ^ "Airbus starts $350 million Harbin plant construction". China Daily. 1 July 2009. 
  211. ^ "Airbus offers sneak-peek inside Alabama A320 factory". 14 September 2015. 
  212. ^ Melissa Nelson-Gabriel (2 July 2012). "Airbus to Build 1st US Assembly Plant in Alabama". Associated Press. Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  213. ^ "Airbus confirms its first US factory to build A320 jet". BBC News. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  214. ^ Roberston, David (2006-10-05). "MoD tells European leaders to stop meddling in EADS". The Times. UK. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  215. ^ "Daimler and Lagardère cut EADS stakes". Financial Times. Agence France-Presse. 4 April 2006. 
  216. ^ "Airbus plays catch-up with A350 jet." Phillips, D. International Herald Tribune. 11 April 2006.
  217. ^ "EADS shares up on Vneshtorgbank reports[dead link]." Yahoo News. 30 August 2006.
  218. ^ John, Isaac. "Dubai Int'l Capital buys 3.12pc stake in EADS" Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Khaleej Times, 6 July 2007.
  219. ^ The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing companies, 2008 Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 12 April 2010. Retrieved: 4 May 2010.
  220. ^ "Portfolio changes and strategic cooperations". Annual Report 2013. Daimler. February 21, 2014. Daimler sells remaining equity interest in EADS: On March 27, 2013, the extraordinary shareholders’ meeting of EADS approved a new management and shareholder structure. Subsequently, on April 2, 2013, the shareholders’ pact concluded in the year 2000 was dissolved and replaced with a new shareholders’ pact without the participation of Daimler. 
  221. ^ "2014 Registration Document" (PDF). Airbus Group. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  222. ^ "Airbus Group Figures". airbus-group.com. Retrieved 2014-05-08. 
  223. ^ Marcus Theurer (2014-01-31). "Militärausgaben: Die Rüstungsindustrie schrumpft". faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  224. ^ "Environment Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Airbus.com. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  225. ^ "Eco-efficiency Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Airbus.com. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  226. ^ Skillings, Jonathan (15 May 2008). "Biofuel gets lift from Honeywell, Airbus, JetBlue". CNET. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  227. ^ a b "Airbus tests new fuel on A380". USA Today. 1 February 2008. 
  228. ^ "The exclusion of EADS from the investment universe of the Government Pension Fund – Global has been reviewed". Regjeringen.no. Retrieved 12 July 2011. [permanent dead link]
  229. ^ "SFO launches criminal probe into deal with Saudi national guard". Exaronews.com. 10 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  230. ^ "Third insider blows whistle on 'corrupt' Saudi defence deal". Exaronews.com. 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  231. ^ Jailed Yengeni shows no remorse[dead link]
  232. ^ "Top ANC official resigns". BBC News. 4 October 2001. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  233. ^ "Court Diary". Armsdeal-vpo.co.za. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  234. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/sep/18/airbus-launches-internal-corruption-investigation-after-guardian-expose
  235. ^ a b "Inside story; Share scandals in France". The Economist. The Economist Newspapers. 13 October 2007. 
  236. ^ Anderson, Jack (8 May 1978). "New European Airbus could affect US jobs". Free-lance Star. 
  237. ^ Porter, Andrew (29 May 2005). "Trade war threatened over £379m subsidy for Airbus". The Times. UK. 
  238. ^ "Q&A: Boeing and Airbus". BBC News. 7 October 2004. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  239. ^ "See you in court; Boeing v Airbus: The Airbus-Boeing subsidy row". The Economist. 25 March 2005. 
  240. ^ Burgos, Annalisa (11 January 2005). "U.S., EU To Settle Airbus-Boeing Dispute". Forbes. 
  241. ^ "US, EU meet on Airbus-Boeing dispute". Journal of Commerce Online. 24 February 2005. 
  242. ^ "U.S.-EU Talks on Boeing, Airbus Subsidies Falter". Los Angeles Times. 19 March 2005. 
  243. ^ Schneider, Howard (19 May 2011). "U.S. claims victory in Airbus-Boeing case". The Washington Post, Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  244. ^ "WTO Rules Boeing Got Improper U.S. Subsidies". The Wall Street Journal. 1 February 2011. 

Further reading

  • Congressional Research Service (1992). Airbus Industrie: An Economic and Trade Perspective. U.S. Library of Congress. 
  • Heppenheimer, T.A. (1995). Turbulent Skies: The History of Commercial Aviation. John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-19694-0. 
  • Lynn, Matthew (1997). Birds of Prey: Boeing vs. Airbus, a Battle for the Skies. Four Walls Eight Windows. ISBN 1-56858-107-6. 
  • McGuire, Steven (1997). Airbus Industrie: Conflict and Cooperation in U.S.E.C. Trade Relations. St. Martin's Press. 
  • McIntyre, Ian (1982). Dogfight: The Transatlantic Battle Over Airbus. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94278-3. 
  • Thornton, David Weldon (1995). Airbus Industrie: The Politics of an International Industrial Collaboration. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12441-4. 

External links