The Info List - Euro Area

Total: €11.2(~US$14.0) trillion Per capita: €32,700(~US$41,000)[2]

Interest rate 0.00%[3]

Inflation 0.2%[4]

Unemployment 8.7%[5]

Trade balance €0.2 trillion trade surplus[6]

European Union

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of European Union


Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) Vice Presidents College Civil Service Secretary-General Selmayr

Legislature President Tajani (EPP)

Largest groups

EPP (Manfred Weber) S&D (Gianni Pittella)

8th session (2014–19)

751 MEPs


Vice Presidents Quaestor

Conference Legislative procedure

Council of the EU Presidency


General Foreign Justice and Home Economic


Legislative procedure Voting Secretariat


Uwe Corsepius

Directorates-general COREPER


Court of Justice

Members Rulings

General Court

Central Bank

President Draghi

ESCB Euro EMU Eurozone

Court of Auditors

Budget OLAF

Other bodies

Agencies Investment Bank CoR EESC Ombudsman National parliaments

Policies and issues

Foreign relations

High Representative

Federica Mogherini

Ext. Action Service Foreign Policy Defence Policy Customs Union Enlargement

Budget Four Freedoms

Economic Area Area of FS&J Schengen Area


Agricultural Energy Fisheries Regional


Identity Pro-Europeanism Euroscepticism


Supranationalism Federalism United States
United States
of Europe Multi-speed Opt-outs Enhanced co-op Withdrawal


1979, 1984, 1989 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009 2014 (last election) Political parties Constituencies



Treaty on European Union Acquis

Primacy Subsidiarity


Rome Single European Act Maastricht Amsterdam Nice Lisbon

Article 50

Fundamental Rights Membership Treaties of Accession

1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011

European Council

President Tusk (EPP)

Parties List of meetings

Other countries Atlas

v t e

The eurozone ( pronunciation (help·info)), officially called the euro area,[7] is a monetary union of 19 of the 28 European Union (EU) member states which have adopted the euro (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender. The monetary authority of the eurozone is the Eurosystem. The other nine members of the European Union continue to use their own national currencies, although most of them are obliged to adopt the euro in the future. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. Other EU states (except for Denmark
and the United Kingdom) are obliged to join once they meet the criteria to do so.[8] No state has left, and there are no provisions to do so or to be expelled.[9] Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City
Vatican City
have formal agreements with the EU to use the euro as their official currency and issue their own coins.[10][11][12] Kosovo
and Montenegro
have adopted the euro unilaterally,[13] but these countries do not officially form part of the eurozone and do not have representation in the European Central Bank (ECB) or in the Eurogroup.[14] The ECB, which is governed by a president and a board of the heads of national central banks, sets the monetary policy of the zone. The principal task of the ECB is to keep inflation under control. Though there is no common representation, governance or fiscal policy for the currency union, some co-operation does take place through the Eurogroup, which makes political decisions regarding the eurozone and the euro. The Eurogroup
is composed of the finance ministers of eurozone states, but in emergencies, national leaders also form the Eurogroup. Since the financial crisis of 2007–08, the eurozone has established and used provisions for granting emergency loans to member states in return for enacting economic reforms. The eurozone has also enacted some limited fiscal integration, for example in peer review of each other's national budgets. The issue is political and in a state of flux in terms of what further provisions will be agreed for eurozone change.


1 Territory

1.1 European Union
European Union
member states 1.2 Dependent territories of EU member states — outside EU 1.3 Non-member usage

1.3.1 With formal agreement 1.3.2 Other

1.4 Historical eurozone enlargements and exchange-rate regimes for EU members 1.5 Future enlargement 1.6 Expulsion and withdrawal

2 Administration and representation

2.1 Reform

3 Economy

3.1 Comparison table 3.2 Inflation 3.3 Interest rates 3.4 Public debt 3.5 Fiscal policies

4 Bailout
provisions 5 Peer review 6 Criticism

6.1 Economic policemen

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Territory[edit] European Union
European Union
member states[edit] In 1998 eleven member states of the European Union
European Union
had met the euro convergence criteria, and the eurozone came into existence with the official launch of the euro (alongside national currencies) on 1 January 1999. Greece
qualified in 2000 and was admitted on 1 January 2001 before physical notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002 replacing all national currencies. Between 2007 and 2015, seven new states acceded.

State Adopted Population[15] 2016 Nominal GNI 2014 (USD, millions)[16] Relative GNI of total, nominal GNI per capita nominal, 2014 (USD)[17] Pre-euro currency Exceptions ISO code

 Austria 1999-01-01[18] 8,712,137 7005423906000000000♠423,906 7000318000000000000♠3.18% 7004496700000000000♠49,670 Schilling


 Belgium 1999-01-01[18] 11,358,379 7005530558000000000♠530,558 7000418009999900000♠4.18% 7004472600000000000♠47,260 Franc


 Cyprus 2008-01-01[19] 1,170,125 7004225190000000000♠22,519 6999180000000000000♠0.18% 7004263700000000000♠26,370 Pound  Northern Cyprus[a] CY

 Estonia 2011-01-01[20] 1,312,442 7004249940000000000♠24,994 6999200000000000000♠0.20% 7004190300000000000♠19,030 Kroon


 Finland 1999-01-01[18] 5,503,132 7005264554000000000♠264,554 7000208000000000000♠2.08% 7004484200000000000♠48,420 Markka


 France 1999-01-01[18] 64,720,690 7006284428400000000♠2,844,284 7001223900000000000♠22.39% 7004429600000000000♠42,960 Franc  New Caledonia[b]  French Polynesia[b]  Wallis and Futuna[b] FR

 Germany 1999-01-01[18] 81,914,672 7006385362300000000♠3,853,623 7001303400000000000♠30.34% 7004476400000000000♠47,640 Mark


 Greece 2001-01-01[21] 11,183,716 7005250095000000000♠250,095 7000197000000000000♠1.97% 7004226800000000000♠22,680 Drachma


 Ireland 1999-01-01[18] 4,726,078 7005214711000000000♠214,711 7000169000000000000♠1.69% 7004465500000000000♠46,550 Pound


 Italy 1999-01-01[18] 59,429,938 7006214724700000000♠2,147,247 7001169100000000000♠16.91% 7004342700000000000♠34,270 Lira Campione d'Italia[c] IT

 Latvia 2014-01-01[22] 1,970,530 7004304130000000000♠30,413 6999240000000000000♠0.24% 7004152800000000000♠15,280 Lats


 Lithuania 2015-01-01[23] 2,908,249 7004451850000000000♠45,185 6999360000000000000♠0.36% 7004154300000000000♠15,430 Litas


 Luxembourg 1999-01-01[18] 575,747 7004422560000000000♠42,256 6999330000000000000♠0.33% 7004759900000000000♠75,990 Franc


 Malta 2008-01-01[24] 429,362 7003888900000000000♠8,889 6998700000000000000♠0.07% 7004210000000000000♠21,000 Lira


 Netherlands 1999-01-01[18] 16,987,330 7005874590000000000♠874,590 7000689000000000000♠6.89% 7004518900000000000♠51,890 Guilder  Aruba[d] Curaçao[e] Sint Maarten[e] Caribbean Netherlands[f] NL

 Portugal 1999-01-01[18] 10,371,627 7005222126000000000♠222,126 7000175000000000000♠1.75% 7004213600000000000♠21,360 Escudo


 Slovakia 2009-01-01[25] 5,444,218 7004962000000000000♠96,200 6999760000000000000♠0.76% 7004177500000000000♠17,750 Koruna


 Slovenia 2007-01-01[26] 2,077,862 7004486250000000000♠48,625 6999380000000000000♠0.38% 7004235800000000000♠23,580 Tolar


 Spain 1999-01-01[18] 46,347,576 7006136602700000000♠1,366,027 7001107500000000000♠10.75% 7004294400000000000♠29,440 Peseta


Eurozone 7008337143810000000♠337,143,810 7007132653780000000♠13,265,378 7002100000000000000♠100% 7004391620000000000♠39,162 N/A N/A EZ[g]

The 2012 data above of eurozone states were published by World Bank in May 2014. Latvia
and Lithuania
were not in the eurozone in 2012. Dependent territories of EU member states — outside EU[edit] Five of the dependent territories of EU member states not part of the EU, have adopted the euro:

Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(British territory, with Cyprus
ensuring eurozone laws are implemented, adopted 2008-01-01, replacing Cypriot Pound) Collectivity of Saint Martin
Collectivity of Saint Martin
(French territory, with France
ensuring eurozone laws are implemented) Territorial collectivity of Saint Barthélemy
Territorial collectivity of Saint Barthélemy
(French territory, with France
ensuring eurozone laws are implemented) Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
Overseas Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
(French territory, with France
ensuring eurozone laws are implemented) French Southern and Antarctic Lands
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(French territory, with France ensuring eurozone laws are implemented)

Non-member usage[edit] Further information: International status and usage of the euro


European Union
European Union
(EU) member states

  19 in the eurozone.   7 not in ERM II, but obliged to join the eurozone on meeting convergence criteria (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Sweden).   1 in ERM II, with an opt-out (Denmark).   1 not in ERM II with an opt-out (United Kingdom).

Non-EU member states

  4 using the euro with a monetary agreement (Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City).   2 using the euro unilaterally (Kosovo[h] and Montenegro).

v t e

With formal agreement[edit] The euro is also used in countries outside the EU. Four states – Andorra, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City
Vatican City
—[10][13] have signed formal agreements with the EU to use the euro and issue their own coins. Nevertheless, they are not considered part of the eurozone by the ECB and do not have a seat in the ECB or Euro
Group. Other[edit] Kosovo[i] and Montenegro
officially adopted the euro as their sole currency without an agreement and, therefore, have no issuing rights.[13] These states are not considered part of the eurozone by the ECB. However, sometimes the term eurozone is applied to all territories that have adopted the euro as their sole currency.[27][28][29] Further unilateral adoption of the euro (euroisation), by both non-euro EU and non-EU members, is opposed by the ECB and EU.[30]

Historical eurozone enlargements and exchange-rate regimes for EU members[edit] Further information: History of the euro The chart below provides a full summary of all applying exchange-rate regimes for EU members, since the European Monetary System with its Exchange Rate Mechanism
Exchange Rate Mechanism
and the related new common currency ECU was born on 13 March 1979. The euro replaced the ECU 1:1 at the exchange rate markets, on 1 January 1999. During 1979-1999, the D-Mark functioned as a de facto anchor for the ECU, meaning there was only a minor difference between pegging a currency against ECU and pegging it against the D-mark.

Sources: EC convergence reports 1996-2014, Italian lira[dead link], Spanish peseta, Portuguese escudo, Finish markka, Greek drachma, UK pound

The eurozone was born with its first 11 member states on 1 January 1999. The first enlargement of the eurozone, to Greece, took place on 1 January 2001, one year before the euro had physically entered into circulation. The next enlargements were to states which joined the EU in 2004, and then joined the eurozone on 1 January in the year noted: Slovenia
(2007), Cyprus
(2008), Malta
(2008), Slovakia
(2009), Estonia (2011), Latvia
(2014), and Lithuania
(2015). All new EU members joining the bloc after the signing of the Maastricht treaty
Maastricht treaty
in 1992 are obliged to adopt the euro under the terms of their accession treaties. However, the last of the five economic convergence criteria which need first to be complied with in order to qualify for euro adoption, is the exchange rate stability criterion, which requires having been an ERM-member for a minimum of two years without the presence of "severe tensions" for the currency exchange rate. In September 2011, a diplomatic source close to the euro adoption preparation talks with the seven remaining new member states who had yet to adopt the euro (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland
and Romania), claimed that the monetary union (eurozone) they had thought they were going to join upon their signing of the accession treaty may very well end up being a very different union entailing much closer fiscal, economic and political convergence. This changed legal status of the eurozone could potentially cause them to conclude that the conditions for their promise to join were no longer valid, which "could force them to stage new referendums" on euro adoption.[31] Future enlargement[edit] Main article: Enlargement of the eurozone

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.

v t e

Nine countries (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) are EU members but do not use the euro. Before joining the eurozone, a state must spend two years in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism
Exchange Rate Mechanism
(ERM II). As of January 2017, only the National Central Bank (NCB) of Denmark
participates in ERM II. Denmark
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
obtained special opt-outs in the original Maastricht Treaty. Both countries are legally exempt from joining the eurozone unless their governments decide otherwise, either by parliamentary vote or referendum. The other seven countries are obliged to adopt the euro in future, although the EU has so far not tried to enforce any time plan. They should join as soon as they fulfil the convergence criteria, which include being part of ERM II for two years. Sweden, which joined the EU in 1995 after the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
was signed, is required to join the eurozone. However, the Swedish people turned down euro adoption in a 2003 referendum and since then the country has intentionally avoided fulfilling the adoption requirements by not joining ERM II, which is voluntary.[32][33] Interest in joining the eurozone increased in Denmark, and initially in Poland, as a result of the 2008 financial crisis. In Iceland, there was an increase in interest in joining the European Union, a pre-condition for adopting the euro.[34] However, by 2010 the debt crisis in the eurozone caused interest from Poland, as well as the Czech Republic, to cool.[35] Latvia
adopted the Euro
in 2014, followed by Lithuania
in 2015.[36] Expulsion and withdrawal[edit] Main article: Withdrawal from the Eurozone See also: Greek withdrawal from the eurozone Although the eurozone is open to all EU member states to join once they meet the criteria, the treaty is silent on the matter of states leaving the eurozone, neither prohibiting nor permitting it. Likewise there is no provision for a state to be expelled from the euro.[37] Some, however, including the Dutch government, favour such a provision being created in the event that a heavily indebted state in the eurozone refuses to comply with an EU economic reform policy.[38] Jens Dammann has argued that even now EU law contains an implicit right for member states to leave the eurozone if they no longer meet the criteria that they had to meet in order to join the eurozone.[39] Furthermore, he has suggested that, under narrow circumstances, the European Union
European Union
can expel member states from the eurozone.[40] The outcome of leaving the euro would vary depending on the situation. If the country's own replacement currency was expected to devalue against the euro, the state might experience a large-scale exodus of money, whereas if the currency were expected to appreciate then more money would flow into the economy. A rapidly appreciating currency would be detrimental to the country's exports.[41] In 2015 Greece's case, one additional problem is that if Greece
were to replace the euro with a new currency, this cannot be achieved very quickly. Banknotes must be printed for example, which takes up to six months.[42] The changeover would likely require bank deposits be converted from euros to the new devalued currency. The prospect of this could lead to currency leaving the country and people withdrawing cash, causing a bank run and necessitating capital controls.[43] Administration and representation[edit] Further information: European Central Bank, Eurogroup, and Euro

President Mário Centeno

The European Central Bank
European Central Bank
(seat in Frankfurt depicted) is the supranational monetary authority of the eurozone.

The monetary policy of all countries in the eurozone is managed by the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
(ECB) and the Eurosystem
which comprises the ECB and the central banks of the EU states who have joined the eurozone. Countries outside the eurozone are not represented in these institutions. Whereas all EU member states are part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Non EU member states have no say in all three institutions, even those with monetary agreements such as Monaco. The ECB is entitled to authorise the design and printing of euro banknotes and the volume of euro coins minted, and its president is currently Mario Draghi. The eurozone is represented politically by its finance ministers, known collectively as the Eurogroup, and is presided over by a president, currently Mário Centeno. The finance ministers of the EU member states that use the euro meet a day before a meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council
Economic and Financial Affairs Council
(Ecofin) of the Council of the European Union. The Group is not an official Council formation but when the full EcoFin council votes on matters only affecting the eurozone, only Euro
Group members are permitted to vote on it.[44][45][46] Since the global financial crisis of 2007–08, the Euro
Group has met irregularly not as finance ministers, but as heads of state and government (like the European Council). It is in this forum, the Euro summit, that many eurozone reforms have been decided upon. In 2011, former French President
French President
Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
pushed for these summits to become regular and twice a year in order for it to be a 'true economic government'. Reform[edit] In April 2008 in Brussels, European Commission
European Commission
President Jean-Claude Juncker suggested that the eurozone should be represented at the IMF as a bloc, rather than each member state separately: "It is absurd for those 15 countries not to agree to have a single representation at the IMF. It makes us look absolutely ridiculous. We are regarded as buffoons on the international scene".[47] In 2017 Juncker stated that he aims to have this agreed by the end of his mandate in 2019.[48] However, Finance Commissioner Joaquín Almunia
Joaquín Almunia
stated that before there is common representation, a common political agenda should be agreed upon.[47] Leading EU figures including the Commission and national governments have proposed a variety of reforms to the eurozone's architecture; notably the creation of a Finance Minister, a larger eurozone budget, and reform of the current bailout mechanisms into either a "European Monetary Fund" or a eurozone Treasury. While many have similar themes, details vary greatly.[49][50][51][52] Economy[edit]

GNI per capita of Eurozone, PPP (current international $). World bank, 2016[53]

Comparison table[edit]

Comparison of eurozone with other economies [54][55] [56]

Population (billions) (2017) GDP PPPa (trillions USD) (2017) Proportion of world GDP at PPP (2016) Exports, % of GDP (2012) Imports, % of GDP (2012)

Eurozone 0.34 14 11% 27% 25%

 European Union 0.51 21 17% 18% 17%

 United States 0.33 19 16% 14% 17%

 China 1.40 23 18% 26% 24%

 India 1.32 9 7% 24% 31%

 Japan 0.13 5 4% 15% 17%

^a GDP in PPP, exports/imports of goods and services excluding intra-EU trade.

Comparison of Economies


Nominal GDP
Nominal GDP
(billions in USD) - 2017

(01)  United States


(02)  China


( -- ) Eurozone


(03)  Japan


(04)  United Kingdom


(05)  India


(06)  Brazil


(07)  Canada


(08)  South Korea


(09)  Russia


(10)  Australia


(11)  Mexico


(12)  Indonesia


(13)  Turkey


(14)  Saudi Arabia


(15)   Switzerland


(16)  Argentina


(17)  Sweden


(18)  Poland


(19)  Iran


(20)  Nigeria


(21)  United Arab Emirates


The 20 largest economies in the world including Eurozone
as a single entity, by Nominal GDP
Nominal GDP
(2017). The values for EU members that are not also eurozone members are listed both separately and as part of the EU.[57]

Inflation[edit] HICP figures from the ECB, taken from May of each year:

2000: 1.7% 2001: 3.1% 2002: 2.0% 2003: 1.8% 2004: 2.5%

2005: 2.0% 2006: 2.5% 2007: 1.9% 2008: 3.7% 2009: 0.0%

2010: 1.7% 2011: 2.7% 2012: 2.4% 2013: 0.9% 2014: -0,2%

2015: 0.3% 2016: -0.1% 2017: 1.4% 2018: N/A 2019: N/A

Interest rates[edit] Interest rates for the eurozone, set by the ECB since 1999. Levels are in percentages per annum. Between June 2000 and October 2008, the main refinancing operations were variable rate tenders, as opposed to fixed rate tenders. The figures indicated in the table from 2000 to 2008 refer to the minimum interest rate at which counterparties may place their bids.[3]

Date Deposit facility Main refinancing operations Marginal lending facility

1999-01-01 2.00 3.00 4.50

1999-01-04[j] 2.75 3.00 3.25

1999-01-22 2.00 3.00 4.50

1999-04-09 1.50 2.50 3.50

1999-11-05 2.00 3.00 4.00

2000-02-04 2.25 3.25 4.25

2000-03-17 2.50 3.50 4.50

2000-04-28 2.75 3.75 4.75

2000-06-09 3.25 4.25 5.25

2000-06-28 3.25 4.25 5.25

2000-09-01 3.50 4.50 5.50

2000-10-06 3.75 4.75 5.75

2001-05-11 3.50 4.50 5.50

2001-08-31 3.25 4.25 5.25

2001-09-18 2.75 3.75 4.75

2001-11-09 2.25 3.25 4.25

2002-12-06 1.75 2.75 3.75

2003-03-07 1.50 2.50 3.50

2003-06-06 1.00 2.00 3.00

2005-12-06 1.25 2.25 3.25

2006-03-08 1.50 2.50 3.50

2006-06-15 1.75 2.75 3.75

2006-08-09 2.00 3.00 4.00

2006-10-11 2.25 3.25 4.25

2006-12-13 2.50 3.50 4.50

2007-03-14 2.75 3.75 4.75

2007-06-13 3.00 4.00 5.00

2008-07-09 3.25 4.25 5.25

2008-10-08 2.75


2008-10-09 3.25


2008-10-15 3.25 3.75 4.25

2008-11-12 2.75 3.25 3.75

2008-12-10 2.00 2.50 3.00

2009-01-21 1.00 2.00 3.00

2009-03-11 0.50 1.50 2.50

2009-04-08 0.25 1.25 2.25

2009-05-13 0.25 1.00 1.75

2011-04-13 0.50 1.25 2.00

2011-07-13 0.75 1.50 2.25

2011-11-09 0.50 1.25 2.00

2011-12-14 0.25 1.00 1.75

2012-07-11 0.00 0.75 1.50

2013-05-08 0.00 0.50 1.00

2013-11-13 0.00 0.25 0.75

2014-06-11 -0.10 0.15 0.40

2014-09-10 -0.20 0.05 0.30

2015-12-09 -0.30 0.05 0.30

2016-03-16 -0.40 0.00 0.25

Public debt[edit] The following table states the ratio of public debt to GDP in percent for eurozone countries. The euro convergence criterion is 60%.

Country 2007 2009 2010 2011 2015

CIA[58] OECD[59][60] IMF[61] CIA[62] EuroStat[63] EuroStat[63] EuroStat[63] EuroStat[63]


78.5 84.0 86.0 90.7

 Austria 59.10 72.7 7001671009999900000♠67.10[64] 66.40 7001797000000000000♠79.7 82.4 82.2 86.2

 Belgium 84.60 100.4 7001937000000000000♠93.70[65] 101.00 7001996000000000000♠99.6 99.7 102.3 106.0

 Cyprus 59.60

7001562000000000000♠56.20[66] 56.20 7001539000000000000♠53.9 56.3 65.8 108.9

 Estonia 3.40

7.10 7000700000000000000♠7.0 6.6 5.9 9.7

 Finland 35.90 52.6 7001440000000000000♠44.00[67] 40.30 7001417000000000000♠41.7 47.1 48.5 63.1

 France 63.90 87.1 7001781009999900000♠78.10[68] 77.60 79.0 81.7 85.2 95.8

 Germany 64.90 76.5 7001725000000000000♠72.50[69] 77.20 7001724000000000000♠72.4 81.0 78.3 71.2

 Greece 89.50 120.2

113.40 7002126700000000000♠126.7 146.2 172.1 176.9

 Ireland 24.90 72.7 7001640000000000000♠64.00[70] 64.80 7001618000000000000♠61.8 86.8 109.1 93.8

 Italy 104.00 127.7 7002115800000000000♠115.8[71] 115.80 7002112500000000000♠112.5 115.4 116.5 132.7

 Latvia 7.40

32.50 36.6 47.5 42.8 36.4


31.30 29.0 36.2 37.2 42.7

 Luxembourg 6.40 18.0 7001164009999900000♠16.40[72] 14.60 7001160000000000000♠16.0 20.1 19.1 21.4


69.00 7001678000000000000♠67.8 67.6 69.9 63.9

 Netherlands 45.50 69.4 7001589000000000000♠58.90[73] 60.90 7001565000000000000♠56.5 59.0 61.7 65.1

 Portugal 63.60 86.3 7001758000000000000♠75.80[74] 76.80 7001836009999900000♠83.6 96.2 111.4 129.0

 Slovakia 35.90 39.8 7001357000000000000♠35.70[75] 35.70 7001410000000000000♠41.0 43.3 43.3 52.9

 Slovenia 23.60 44.1

31.30 7001360000000000000♠36.0 40.8 46.6 83.2

 Spain 36.20 62.4 7001532000000000000♠53.20[76] 53.20 7001527000000000000♠52.7 60.1 69.5 99.2

Convergence criterion 60.00 60.0 7001600000000000000♠60.00 60.00 7001600000000000000♠60.0 7001600000000000000♠60.0

Fiscal policies[edit] See also: European Fiscal Compact

Comparison of government surplus/deficit (2001-2012) of eurozone, United States
United States
and United Kingdom

The primary means for fiscal coordination within the EU lies in the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines
Broad Economic Policy Guidelines
which are written for every member state, but with particular reference to the 19 current members of the eurozone. These guidelines are not binding, but are intended to represent policy coordination among the EU member states, so as to take into account the linked structures of their economies. For their mutual assurance and stability of the currency, members of the eurozone have to respect the Stability and Growth Pact, which sets agreed limits on deficits and national debt, with associated sanctions for deviation. The Pact originally set a limit of 3% of GDP for the yearly deficit of all eurozone member states; with fines for any state which exceeded this amount. In 2005, Portugal, Germany, and France
had all exceeded this amount, but the Council of Ministers had not voted to fine those states. Subsequently, reforms were adopted to provide more flexibility and ensure that the deficit criteria took into account the economic conditions of the member states, and additional factors. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
downgraded its economic forecasts on 20 March 2008 for the eurozone for the first half of 2008. Europe
does not have room to ease fiscal or monetary policy, the 30-nation group warned. For the eurozone, the OECD
now forecasts first-quarter GDP growth of just 0.5%, with no improvement in the second quarter, which is expected to show just a 0.4% gain. The Fiscal Compact[77][78] (formally, the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union),[79] is an intergovernmental treaty introduced as a new stricter version of the Stability and Growth Pact, signed on 2 March 2012 by all member states of the European Union
European Union
(EU), except the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom,[80] and Croatia
(subsequently acceding the EU in July 2013). The treaty entered into force on 1 January 2013 for the 16 states which completed ratification prior of this date.[81] As of 1 April 2014, it had been ratified and entered into force for all 25 signatories. Olivier Blanchard
Olivier Blanchard
suggests that a fiscal union in the EZ can mitigate devastating effects of the single currency on the EZ peripheral countries. But he adds that the currency bloc will not work perfectly even if a fiscal transfer system is built, because, he argues, the fundamental issue about competitiveness adjustment is not tackled. The problem is, since the EZ peripheral countries do not have their own currencies, they are forced to adjust their economies by decreasing their wages instead of devaluation.[82] Bailout
provisions[edit] See also: History of the euro
History of the euro
§ Recession era The financial crisis of 2007–08 prompted a number of reforms in the eurozone. One was a u-turn on the eurozone's bailout policy that led to the creation of a specific fund to assist eurozone states in trouble. The European Financial Stability Facility
European Financial Stability Facility
(EFSF) and the European Financial Stability Mechanism
European Financial Stability Mechanism
(EFSM) were created in 2010 to provide, alongside the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF), a system and fund to bail out members. However the EFSF and EFSM were temporary, small and lacked a basis in the EU treaties. Therefore, it was agreed in 2011 to establish a European Stability Mechanism
European Stability Mechanism
(ESM) which would be much larger, funded only by eurozone states (not the EU as a whole as the EFSF/EFSM were) and would have a permanent treaty basis. As a result of that its creation involved agreeing an amendment to TEFU Article 136 allowing for the ESM and a new ESM treaty to detail how the ESM would operate. If both are successfully ratified according to schedule, the ESM would be operational by the time the EFSF/EFSM expire in mid-2013. In February 2016, the UK secured further confirmation that countries that do not use the Euro
would not be required to contribute to bailouts for Eurozone
countries.[83] Peer review[edit] See also: Euro
Plus Pact In June 2010, a broad agreement was finally reached on a controversial proposal for member states to peer review each other's budgets prior to their presentation to national parliaments. Although showing the entire budget to each other was opposed by Germany, Sweden
and the UK, each government would present to their peers and the Commission their estimates for growth, inflation, revenue and expenditure levels six months before they go to national parliaments. If a country was to run a deficit, they would have to justify it to the rest of the EU while countries with a debt more than 60% of GDP would face greater scrutiny.[84] The plans would apply to all EU members, not just the eurozone, and have to be approved by EU leaders along with proposals for states to face sanctions before they reach the 3% limit in the Stability and Growth Pact. Poland
has criticised the idea of withholding regional funding for those who break the deficit limits, as that would only impact the poorer states.[84] In June 2010 France
agreed to back Germany's plan for suspending the voting rights of members who breach the rules.[85] In March 2011 was initiated a new reform of the Stability and Growth Pact
Stability and Growth Pact
aiming at straightening the rules by adopting an automatic procedure for imposing of penalties in case of breaches of either the deficit or the debt rules.[86][87] Criticism[edit] Nobel prize-winning economist James Tobin
James Tobin
thought that the euro project would not succeed without making drastic changes to European institutions, pointing out the difference between the US and the eurozone.[88] Concerning monetary policies, the US central bank FRB aims at both growth and reducing unemployment, while the ECB tends to give its first priority to price stability under Bundesbank's supervision. As the price level of the currency bloc is kept low, the unemployment level of the region has become higher than that of US since 1982.[88] See also: Phillips curve
Phillips curve
and Nominal rigidity When it comes to fiscal policies, 12 percent of the US federal budget is used for transfers to states and local governments. Also, when a state has financial or economic difficulties, a fair amount of money is automatically transferred to the state. The US government does not impose restrictions on state budget policies. This is different from the fiscal policies of the eurozone, where Treaty of Maastricht requires each eurozone member country to run its budget deficit smaller than 3 percent of its GDP.[88] Economic policemen[edit] In 1997, Arnulf Baring
Arnulf Baring
expressed concern that the European Monetary Union would make Germans the most hated people in Europe. Baring was aware of the possibility that the people in Mediterranean countries would regard Germans as economic policemen, predicting that the currency bloc would end up with blackmailing its member countries.[89] See also[edit]

European Union
European Union

Greek withdrawal from the eurozone List of acronyms associated with the eurozone crisis List of people associated with the eurozone crisis Sixpack ( European Union
European Union
law) Special
member state territories and the European Union


^ The self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
is not recognised by the EU and uses the Turkish lira. However the euro does circulate widely. ^ a b c French Pacific territories use the CFP franc, which is pegged to the euro.(1 franc = 0.00838 euro) ^ Uses the Swiss franc. However the euro is also accepted and circulates widely. ^ Aruba
is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, but not the EU. It uses the Aruban florin, which is pegged to the US dollar.(1 dollar = 1.79 florins) ^ a b Currently uses the Netherlands
Antillean guilder and had planned to introduce the Caribbean guilder in 2014, although the change has been delayed. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2014.  both are pegged to the US dollar.(1 dollar = 1.79 guilder) ^ Uses the US Dollar. ^ EZ is not assigned, but is reserved for this purpose, in ISO-3166-1. ^ Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels
Agreement. Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states. ^ Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels
Agreement. Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states. ^ The ECB announced on 22 December 1998 that, between 4 and 21 January 1999, there would be a narrow corridor of 50 base points interest rates for the marginal lending facility and the deposit facility in order to help the transition to the ECB's interest regime.


^ "Total population as of 1 January. Euro
area (19 countries)". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu.  ^ " Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
at market prices". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu.  ^ a b Key ECB interest rates Archived 11 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., ECB ^ HICP – all items – annual average inflation rate Eurostat ^ Harmonised unemployment rate by gender – total – [teilm020,; Total % (SA) Eurostat ^ For the whole of 2017 ^ "Countries, languages, currencies". Interinstitutional style guide. the EU Publications Office. Retrieved 2 February 2009.  The euro area Archived 6 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., European Central Bank ^ "Who can join and when?". European Commission. Retrieved 10 September 2012.  ^ Fox, Benjamin (1 February 2013). "Dutch PM: Eurozone
needs exit clause". EUobserver.com. Retrieved 18 June 2013.  ^ a b "Agreements on monetary relations (Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican and Andorra)". European Communities. 30 September 2004. Retrieved 12 September 2006.  ^ "The government announces a contest for the design of the Andorran euros". Andorra
Mint. 19 March 2013. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ "Nouvelles d'Andorre" (in French). 1 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ a b c "The euro outside the euro area". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ A glossary Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. issued by the ECB defines "euro area", without mention of Monaco, San Marino, or the Vatican. ^ "World Population
Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population
Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "COUNCIL DECISION of 3 May 1998 in accordance with Article 109j(4) of the Treaty". Official Journal of the European Union. L (139/30). 11 May 1998. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 July 2007 in accordance with Article 122(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Cyprus
of the single currency on 1 January 2008". Official Journal of the European Union. L (186/29). 18 July 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 13 July 2010 in accordance with Article 140(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Estonia
of the euro on 1 January 2011". Official Journal of the European Union. L (196/24). 28 July 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 19 June 2000 in accordance with Article 122(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Greece
of the single currency on 1 January 2001". Official Journal of the European Union. L (167/19). 7 July 2000. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 9 July 2013 on the adoption by Latvia
of the euro on 1 January 2014". Official Journal of the European Union. L (195/24). 18 July 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 23 July 2014 on the adoption by Lithuania
of the euro on 1 January 2015". Official Journal of the European Union. L (228/29). 31 July 2014. Retrieved 31 December 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 July 2007 in accordance with Article 122(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Malta
of the single currency on 1 January 2008". Official Journal of the European Union. L (186/32). 18 July 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 8 July 2008 in accordance with Article 122(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Slovakia
of the single currency on 1 January 2009". Official Journal of the European Union. L (195/24). 24 July 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 11 July 2006 in accordance with Article 122(2) of the Treaty on the adoption by Slovenia
of the single currency on 1 January 2007". Official Journal of the European Union. L (195/25). 15 July 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "European Foundation Intelligence Digest". Europeanfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ " Euro
used as legal tender in non-EU nations". International Herald Tribune. 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2010.  ^ "Europe, The eurozone's 13th member". BBC News. 11 December 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2010.  ^ "Unilateral Euroization By Iceland
Comes With Real Costs And Serious Risks". Lawofemu.info. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2015.  ^ "New EU members to break free from euro duty". Euractiv.com. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013.  ^ "Sverige sa nej till euron" (in Swedish). Swedish Parliament. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2014.  ^ "Information on ERM II". European Commission. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2010.  ^ Dougherty, Carter (1 December 2008). "Buffeted by financial crisis, countries seek euro's shelter". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2 December 2008. [dead link] ^ "Czechs, Poles cooler to euro as they watch debt crisis". Reuters. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.  ^ "Eurozone's newest member: Lithuania". CNNMoney. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Athanassiou, Phoebus (December 2009) Withdrawal and Expulsion from the EU and EMU, Some Reflections (PDF), European Central Bank. Retrieved 8 September 2011 ^ Phillips, Leigh. "EUobserver / Netherlands: Indebted states must be made 'wards' of the commission or leave euro". Euobserver.com. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ Dammann, Jens (10 February 2012). "The Right to Leave the Eurozone". U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper. 2013. 48 (2). SSRN 2262873 .  ^ Dammann, Jens (26 August 2015). "Paradise Lost: Can the European Union Expel Countries from the Eurozone". Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. 2016. 49 (2). SSRN 2827699 .  ^ Eichengreen, Barry (23 July 2011) Can the Euro
Area Hit the Rewind Button? (PDF), University of California. Retrieved 8 September 2011 ^ Wallop, Harry (29 May 2012). "De La Rue silent on deal to print Drachma". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 February 2015.  ^ "Take the money and run". The Economist. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.  ^ Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
(Provisions specific to member states whose currency is the euro), EurLex Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "An economic government for the eurozone?" (PDF). Federal Union. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ Protocols, Official Journal of the European Union ^ a b Elitsa Vucheva (15 April 2008). " Eurozone
countries should speak with one voice, Juncker says". EU Observer. Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ "Commission wants single eurozone seat at IMF plan adopted by end of mandate", Euractiv, 7 December 2017 ^ "Macron is right — the eurozone needs a finance minister", Financial Times, 28 September 2017 ^ Europe
should have its own economy and finance minister, says EC, theguardian 6 December 2017 ^ "Large number of EU finance ministers want euro zone budget: Dijsselbloem", Reuters, 6 November 2017 ^ " Spain
urges sweeping reforms on eurozone to correct flaws", Financial Times, 14 June 2017 ^ http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD?start=2016 ^ "ECB: Structure of the euro area economy". Ecb.europa.eu. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ Data (4 April 1985). "GDP, PPP (current international $) Data Table". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=70&pr.y=20&sy=2017&ey=2021&scIsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=924%2C534%2C158%2C111&s=PPPGDP%2CLP&grp=0&a= ^ Figures from the October 2016 update of the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. [1] ^ "The World Factbook – (Rank Order – Public debt)". Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.  (all estimates 2007 data unless noted) ^ "Annex Table 33. General government net financial liabilities". 2 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015.  ^ ""Annex Table 32. General government gross financial liabilities" in OECD
Economic Outlook". OECD. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 11 December 2008.  (General government gross debt 2008 estimates rounded to one decimal place) ^ "The World Factbook – (Rank Order – Public debt)". Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2011. (all estimates 2009 data unless noted) ^ a b c d "General government gross debt - annual data (table code: teina225)". Eurostat. Retrieved 14 May 2016.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Austria". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2009 Article IV Consultation with Belgium". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Cyprus". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Finland". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with France". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Germany". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Ireland". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Italy". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Luxembourg". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Kingdom of the Netherlands—Netherlands: 2009 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Kingdom of the Netherlands—Netherlands; IMF Country Report 10/34; December 15, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2011.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2009 Article IV Consultation with Portugal". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with the Slovak Republic". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ "Public Information Notice: IMF Executive Board Concludes 2010 Article IV Consultation with Spain". Imf.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.  ^ Nicholas Watt (31 January 2012). "Lib Dems praise David Cameron for EU U-turn". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 February 2012.  ^ "The fiscal compact ready to be signed". European Commission. 31 January 2012. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.  ^ " Referendum
to be held on Fiscal Treaty". RTÉ News. 28 February 2012.  ^ "EU summit: All but two leaders sign fiscal treaty". BBC News. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.  ^ "Fiscal compact enters into force 21/12/2012 (Press: 551, Nr: 18019/12)" (PDF). European Council. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.  ^ Fiscal union
Fiscal union
will never fix a dysfunctional eurozone, warns ex-IMF chief Blanchard Mehreen Khan, The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
(London), 10 October 2015 ^ " European Council
European Council
meeting (18 and 19 February 2016) – Conclusions". European Commission. Retrieved 14 May 2016.  ^ a b EU agrees controversial peer review of national budgets, EU Observer ^ Willis, Andrew (15 June 2010) Merkel: Spain
can access aid if needed, EU Observer ^ "Council reaches agreement on measures to strengthen economic governance" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2011.  ^ Jan Strupczewski (15 March 2011). "EU finmins adopt tougher rules against debt, imbalance". Uk.finance.yahoo.com. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved 18 May 2011. [dead link] ^ a b c J. Tobin, Policy Opinions, 31 (2001) ^ This Prediction about the Euro
Deserves a ‘Nostradamus Award’ W. Richter, Wolf Street, 16 July 2015

External links[edit]

has original text related to this article: Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union/Title VIII: Economic and Monetary Policy

official portal[permanent dead link] European Central Bank European Commission
European Commission
– Economic and Financial Affairs – Eurozone Media related to Eurozone
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e



Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union Euro
sign Eurozone Linguistic issues


European Central Bank ECB President European System of Central Banks Eurosystem Ecofin Eurogroup Euro

Fiscal provisions

Stability and Growth Pact European Financial Stability Facility European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism European Stability Mechanism Euro
Plus Pact Six pack European Fiscal Compact


"Snake in the tunnel" European Monetary System


European Monetary Cooperation Fund European Monetary Institute Enlargement Black Wednesday


Economy of Europe Economy of the European Union Eonia Euro
calculator Euro
Interbank Offered Rate (Euribor) Single Euro
Payments Area (SEPA)

International status

Proposed eurobonds Reserve currency Petroeuro World currency



1c 2c 5c 10c 20c 50c €1 €2 €2 commemorative coins Other commemorative coins Identifying marks Starter kits Europa coin programme Euro


€5 €10 €20 €50 €100 €200 €500

Coins by issuing country


Austria Belgium Cyprus Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain


Andorra Monaco San Marino Vatican

Potential adoption by other countries


Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Hungary Poland Romania Sweden


Kosovo Montenegro

Currencies yielded

European Currency Unit Austrian schilling Belgian franc Cypriot pound Dutch guilder Estonian kroon Finnish markka French franc German mark Greek drachma Irish pound Italian lira Latvian lats Lithuanian litas Luxembourgish franc Maltese lira Monégasque franc Portuguese escudo Sammarinese lira Slovak koruna Slovenian tolar Spanish peseta Vatican lira

Currencies remaining


Danish krone

other (EU)

British pound sterling (incl. Gibraltar pound) Bulgarian lev Croatian kuna Czech koruna Hungarian forint Polish złoty Romanian leu Swedish krona

European Union
European Union
portal Numismatics portal

v t e

European Union articles



Pre-1945 1945–57 1958–72 1973–93 1993–2004 Since 2004


Timeline Founders European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
(1951–2002) European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(1958–1993/2009) Euratom (1958–present) European Communities
European Communities
(1967–1993/2009) Justice and Home Affairs (1993–2009)


Extreme points Geographic centre Largest municipalities Urban areas Larger urban zones Member states Regions (first-level NUTS) Special



European Council European Commission European Parliament Council of the European Union Court of Justice of the European Union European Central Bank European Court of Auditors


Banking Border and coast security (Frontex) Disease prevention and control Environment Foreign affairs (External Action Service) Judicial cooperation (Eurojust) Law enforcement cooperation (Europol) Maritime safety Reconstruction


Acquis Charter of Fundamental Rights Competition law Copyright law Directive

Citizens’ Rights Directive

Enhanced cooperation Environmental policy Four freedoms

labour mobility

Government procurement Journal Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification Legislative procedure Citizens' Initiative Regulation Rural Development Policy Schengen Area Treaties


LGBT rights



parliamentary constituencies


1973 1981 1986 1995 2004 2007 2013 Future

Euromyths Political parties (National parties by affiliation) Euroscepticism Foreign relations Integration Parliamentary groups Pro-Europeanism Withdrawal (Brexit) 2012 Nobel Peace Prize


Budget Central bank Agricultural policy Fisheries policy Currencies Energy policy Euro Eurozone Free trade agreements Investment bank Investment fund Regional development Single market Societas Europaea Solidarity Fund Transport

Galileo navigation system

minimum wage average wage unemployment rate health expense per person Healthcare Health Insurance Card Driving licence European Common Aviation Area



passports identity cards

Cultural policies Demographics Douzelage Driving licence Education House of European History Institute of Innovation and Technology Laissez-passer Languages Media freedom Public holidays Religion Sport Telephone numbers Statistics Symbols


Concepts, acronyms, & jargon Agencies Books Companies Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants Largest cities by population within city limits Directives Tallest buildings Terrorist incidents Vehicle registration plates


Eurosphere Intergovernmentalism Multi-speed Neofunctionalism Optimum currency area Supranational union


Book Category Portal

v t e

International reach and expansion of the European Union


Integration Eurosphere Pax Europaea Superpower status Federalisation


ACP (Economic Partnership Agreements) Association Agreement Free trade agreements Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) European Security and Defence Policy
European Security and Defence Policy
(ESDP) (missions) European Economic Area Stabilisation and Association Process Europeanisation High Representative (Bosnia) International Civilian Representative (Kosovo)


European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
(statistics) Eastern Partnership Northern Dimension Union for the Mediterranean


High Representative President of the European Council President of the European Commission Delegations of the European Parliament


Economy Euro
(International status and usage) ECHO Galileo Military

v t e

Europe articles



Prehistory Classical antiquity Late antiquity Middle Ages Early modernity World War I
World War I
& II Pax Europaea Crisis situations and unrest since 2000

By topic

Military Sovereignty

predecessor states


Areas and populations Countries by area

European microstates

Largest metropolitan areas Cities Extreme points Geology Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers Sovereign states and dependent territories

by population



Eurosphere International organisations Integration Law Politics Post-Soviet Europe Transatlantic relations


Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(CoE) Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) GUAM Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe


European Union


relations free trade agreements

Education European Economic Area
European Economic Area
(EEA) European Neighbourhood Policy
European Neighbourhood Policy
(ENP) European Union
European Union
Customs Union (EUCU) Eurozone Foreign relations Members


Politics Schengen Area Statistics Visa policy


History Financial (and social) rankings Free trade areas Energy Telecommunications Transport


Central European Free Trade Agreement
Central European Free Trade Agreement
(CEFTA) Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
(CUBKR) Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EAEC) European Free Trade Association
European Free Trade Association

Sovereign states by

Average wage Budget revenues

per capita

Corruption index GDP (nominal)

per capita


per capita

GNI (nominal) per capita GNI (PPP) per capita HDI Internet users (%) Minimum wage Press Freedom Index Unemployment rate (%) Health expense per capita Military spending (%) Childhood population (%) Urban population (%) Life expectancy Electricity use per capita


Etiquette Social (and financial) rankings Languages



Bologna Process Erasmus



painting sculpture

Architecture Capital of Culture Cinema

film festivals

Classical music Cuisine Dance Literature Philosophy Religion

Christianity Islam Judaism

Sport Symbols


Ageing Ethnic groups

genetic history

Immigration Life expectancy Retirement

Outline Index

Category Portal Maps

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168638621 ISNI: 0000 0001 2237 1847 GND: 7553526-9 SE