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The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It has been listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN
IUCN
Red List since 2008 as it is widely distributed, and most populations are considered stable. Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
have been re-introduced to several forested mountainous areas in Central and Southeastern Europe; these re-introduced subpopulations are small, less than 200 animals.[2]

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Physical characteristics 3 Behaviour 4 Life cycle 5 Range and status

5.1 Russia 5.2 Asia 5.3 Europe

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit]

Scandinavian lynx ( Lynx
Lynx
lynx lynx), mounted

In 1758, Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
described the lynx in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis
Felis
lynx.[3] In the 19th and 20th centuries, the following Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
subspecies were proposed:[4][5]

European lynx
European lynx
(L. l. lynx) Linnaeus, 1758: Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, Western Siberia Turkestan lynx
Turkestan lynx
(L. l. isabellinus) Blyth, 1847: Central Asia Caucasian lynx (L. l. dinniki) Satunin, 1915: Caucasus Siberian lynx
Siberian lynx
(L. l. wrangeli) Ognew, 1928: Eastern Siberia Balkan lynx
Balkan lynx
(L. l. balcanicus) Bures, 1941: Balkans Carpathian lynx (L. l. carpathicus) Kratochvil & Stollmann, 1963: Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe

The following subspecies were described but are not considered valid:[5]

Altai lynx (L. l. wardi) Lydekker, 1904: Altai Mountains Baikal lynx (L. l. kozlovi) Fetisov, 1950: Central Siberia Amur lynx (L. l. stroganovi) Heptner, 1969: Amur region Sardinian lynx
Sardinian lynx
(L. l. sardiniae) Mola, 1908: Sardinia
Sardinia

Physical characteristics[edit]

Skull, as illustrated by N. N. Kondakov.

The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is the largest lynx species, ranging in length from 80 to 130 cm (31 to 51 in) and standing 60–75 cm (24–30 in) at the shoulder. The tail measures 11 to 24.5 cm (4.3 to 9.6 in) in length.[6][7] Males usually weigh from 18 to 30 kg (40 to 66 lb) and females weigh 8 to 21 kg (18 to 46 lb).[8][9][10][11] Male lynxes from Siberia, where the species reaches the largest body size, can weigh up to 38 kg (84 lb) or reportedly even 45 kg (99 lb).[12][13] The race from the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
can also grow quite large and rival those from Siberian in body mass in some cases.[14][15] It has powerful, relatively long legs, with large webbed and furred paws that act like snowshoes. It also possesses a short "bobbed" tail with an all-black tip, black tufts of hair on its ears, and a long grey-and-white ruff. During the summer, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
has a relatively short, reddish or brown coat, which tends to be more brightly coloured in animals living at the southern end of its range. In winter, however, this is replaced by a much thicker coat of silky fur that varies from silver-grey to greyish brown. The underparts of the animal, including the neck and chin, are white at all times of the year. The fur is almost always marked with black spots, although the number and pattern of these are highly variable. Some animals also possess dark brown stripes on the forehead and back. Although spots tend to be more numerous in animals from southern populations, Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
with heavily spotted fur may exist close to others with plain fur.[16] Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
make a range of vocalizations, but are generally silent outside of the breeding season. They have been observed to mew, hiss, growl, and purr, and, like domestic cats, will "chatter" at prey that is just out of reach. Mating calls are much louder, consisting of deep growls in the male, and loud "meow"-like sounds in the female.[16] Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
are secretive, and because the sounds they make are very quiet and seldom heard, their presence in an area may go unnoticed for years. Remnants of prey or tracks on snow are usually observed long before the animal is seen. Behaviour[edit]

Eurasian lynx

Lynx
Lynx
prey largely on small to fairly large sized mammals and birds. Among the recorded prey items for the species are hares, rabbits, marmots, squirrels, dormice, other rodents, mustelids (such as martens), grouse, red foxes, wild boar, chamois, young moose, roe deer, red deer, reindeer and other ungulates. Although taking on larger prey presents a risk to the animal, the bounty provided by killing them can outweigh the risks. The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
thus prefers fairly large ungulate prey, especially during winter when small prey is less abundant. They are the only Lynx
Lynx
species in which ungulates provide a great portion of their diet in relation to lagomorphs or rodents. Where common, roe deer appear to be the preferred prey species for the lynx.[17][18] Even where roe deer are quite uncommon, the deer are still quantitatively the favored prey species, though in summer smaller prey and occasional domestic sheep are eaten more regularly.[19] In parts of Finland, introduced white-tailed deer are eaten regularly.[18] In some areas of Poland
Poland
and Austria, red deer are the preferred prey and, in Switzerland, chamois may be locally favored.[18] They will also feed on carrion when it is available. Adult lynx require 1.1 to 2 kilograms (2.4 to 4.4 lb) of meat per day, and may take several days to fully consume some of their larger prey.[16] The main method of hunting is stalking, sneaking and jumping on prey, although they are also ambush predators when conditions are suitable. In winter certain snow conditions make this harder and the animal may be forced to switch to larger prey. Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
hunt using both vision and hearing, and often climb onto high rocks or fallen trees to scan the surrounding area. A very powerful predator, these lynxes have successfully killed adult deer weighing to at least 150 kg (330 lb).[20]

Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
at the Monte Kristo Estates zoo in Hal Farrug, Luqa, Malta.

The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
inhabits rugged forested country providing plenty of hideouts and stalking opportunities. Depending on the locality, this may include forest-steppe, boreal forest, and montane forest. In the more mountainous parts of their range, Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
will descend into the lowlands in winter, following their prey, and avoiding the deepest snows. They tend to be less common where wolves are abundant, and wolves have been reported to attack and even eat lynx.[16] In Russian forests, the most important predators of the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
are the grey wolf.[21] Wolves kill and eat lynxes that fail to escape into trees. Lynx
Lynx
populations decrease when wolves appear in a region and are likely to take smaller prey where wolves are active.[21][22] Wolverines are perhaps the most dogged of competitors for kills, often stealing lynx kills. Lynxes tend to actively avoid encounters with wolverines, but may sometimes fight them if defending kittens. Instances of predation on lynx by wolverines may occur, even perhaps on adults, but unlike wolf attacks on lynx are extremely rare if they do in fact occur.[20][21] One study in Sweden
Sweden
found that out of 33 deaths of lynx of a population being observed, one was probably killed by a wolverine.[23] Another known instance of predation by an adult wolverine on an adult lynx was reportedly seen in the Pechora River area, although this appeared to merely be an anecdotal claim.[21] There are no known instances of lynx preying on a wolverine.[21][24] Sometimes, Siberian tigers have also preyed on lynxes, as evidenced by examination of tiger stomach contents.[21] Lynx
Lynx
compete for food with the predators described above, and also with the red fox, eagle owls, golden eagles, wild boar (which scavenge from lynx kills), and in the southern part of its range, the snow leopard and leopard as well.[21] Brown bears, although not (so far as is known) a predator of Eurasian lynx, are in some areas a semi-habitual usurpers of ungulate kills by lynxes, not infrequently before the cat has had a chance to consume its kill itself.[25][26] Although they may hunt during the day when food is scarce, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is mainly nocturnal or crepuscular, and spends the day sleeping in dense thickets or other places of concealment. It lives solitarily as an adult. The hunting area of Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
can be anything from 20 to 450 km2 (8 to 174 sq mi), depending on the local availability of prey. Males tend to hunt over much larger areas than females, which tend to occupy exclusive, rather than overlapping, hunting ranges. The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
can travel up to 20 km (12 mi) during one night, although about half this distance is more typical. They patrol regularly throughout all parts of their hunting range, using scent marks to indicate their presence to other individuals. As with other cats, the scent marks may consist of faeces, urine, or scrape marks, with the former often being left in prominent locations along the boundary of the hunting territory.[16] Life cycle[edit]

Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
kitten

The mating season for Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
lasts from January to April. The female typically comes into oestrus only once during this period, lasting from four to seven days, but if the first litter is lost, a second period of oestrus is common. Unlike the closely related Canada lynx, the Eurasian species does not appear to be able to control its reproductive behaviour based on prey availability. This may be because, feeding on a larger range of prey than the Canada lynx, rarity of suitable prey is a less common occurrence.[16] Pregnant females construct dens in secluded locations, often protected by overhanging branches or tree roots. The den may be lined with feathers, deer hair, and dry grass to provide bedding for the young. Gestation lasts from 67 to 74 days, and results in the birth of from one to four kittens. At birth, Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
kittens weigh 240 to 430 grams (8.5 to 15.2 oz) and are blind and helpless. They initially have plain, greyish-brown fur, attaining the full adult colouration around eleven weeks of age. The eyes open after ten to twelve days. The kittens begin to take solid food at six to seven weeks, when they begin to leave the den, but are not fully weaned for five or six months.[16] The den is abandoned two to three months after the kittens are born, but the young typically remain with their mother until they are around ten months of age (the start of the next breeding season). Eurasian lynx reach sexual maturity at two or three years, and have lived for twenty one years in captivity.[16] Range and status[edit]

Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
in profile

Russia[edit] As of 2013, the Russian lynx population is estimated as comprising 22,510 individuals and is considered abundant and stable in some regions.[2] Asia[edit]

Central Asia: The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is native to the Chinese provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Shaanxi, as well as to northern slopes of Iran's Alborz Mountains, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Afghanistan. India: Kashmir's Ladakh
Ladakh
area, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and most other Himalayan states. Nepal: Most of northern areas of country. Pakistan: The Northern Areas (Gilgit–Baltistan), adjoining areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, FATA Turkey: until 2014, lynx population density was estimated in only one protected area, the Ciglikara Nature Reserve located in the Taurus Mountains where 15 individuals were identified.[27] Various government bodies are responsible for wildlife in Turkey[28] and before 1990, hunting of Lynx
Lynx
was uncontrolled. Since then hunting has been restricted and there are 83 game conservation and breeding areas where hunting is prohibited. This has had a positive effect on their conservation in Turkey.[29] Research carried out in Kars
Kars
have discovered a new breeding population in Sarıkamış. However, threats from legal and illegal logging as well as illegal poaching exists.[30]

Although the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is not found in Japan, fossils of the Eurasian or a closely related Lynx
Lynx
species from the late Pleistocene era and onward have been excavated at various locations in the Japanese archipelago. Since no archaeological evidence after the Yayoi period was found, it was probably eradicated during the Jōmon period.[31] Europe[edit] The Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
was once quite common in all of Europe. By the middle of the 19th century, it had become extirpated in most countries of Central and Western Europe. There have been successful attempts to reintroduce this lynx to forests. Status of the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
in various European countries and regions:

Carpathian Mountains: About 2,800 lynx live in this mountain range in the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia.[32] It is the largest contiguous Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
population west of the Russian border. Romania: over 2000 lynx live in Romania, including most of the Carpathian population. However, some experts consider these official population numbers to be overestimated.[33] Limited hunting is permitted but the population is stable.

Postage stamp
Postage stamp
from the Soviet Union, 1988

Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
at the Zoo Aquarium de Madrid

Balkan peninsula: The Balkan lynx
Balkan lynx
subspecies is found in Croatia, Montenegro, Albania, Kosovo, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and possibly Greece.[34][need quotation to verify] They can be found in remote mountainous regions of the Balkans, with the largest numbers in remote hills of western Macedonia, eastern Albania
Albania
and northern Albania. The Balkan Lynx
Lynx
is considered a national symbol of Macedonia,[35] and it is depicted on the reverse of the Macedonian 5 denars coin, issued in 1993.[36] The name of Lynkestis, a Macedonian tribe, is translated as "Land of the Lynx". It has been on the brink of extinction for nearly a century. Numbers are estimated to be around one hundred, and the decline is due to illegal poaching.[37][38] The animal was declared extinct in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
in 1985, but sightings continued well into the 1990s. In 2006 an audio recording of a lynx mating call was made in the Strandzha
Strandzha
mountain range in the southeast. Two years later an ear-marked individual was accidentally shot near Belogradchik
Belogradchik
in the northwest, and a few months later a mounted trap camera caught a glimpse of another individual. Further camera sightings followed in Osogovo
Osogovo
as well as Strandzha, confirming that the animal has returned to the country. A thorough examination on the subject is yet to be made available. Britain: It was thought that the lynx had died out in Britain either about 10,000 years ago, after the ice had retreated, or about 4,000 years ago, during a cooler and wetter climate change. However, carbon dating of lynx bones from caves in Sutherland
Sutherland
in the Scottish Highlands and in Craven
Craven
in North Yorkshire show they still lived in Britain between 80 and 425 AD,[39][40] with cultural sources suggesting a survival until the medieval period.[41] Old names for the species in the languages of Britain include Lugh (Gaelic), Llew (Welsh) and Lox (Old English).[41][42] There is interest in reintroducing the lynx to Britain in order to return some natural state of control to deer populations, which have no natural predators left in Britain.[43][44][45][46][47][48] A study of the biological feasibility of reintroducing Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
to Scotland indicates there is sufficiently abundant prey and well-connected habitat to support a viable population of over 400 animals.[49][50] Interest in reintroducing the species was further bolstered in 2016 in relation to a successful breeding programme for the Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
in Spain.[51] Plans have also been submitted by the Lynx
Lynx
UK Trust to Natural England to introduce the lynx to Kielder Forest
Kielder Forest
in Northumberland.[52] A proposal by the same organisation to reintroduce the lynx to Argyll and Inverness-shire
Inverness-shire
is undergoing public consultation.[53] Czech Republic: In Bohemia, the lynx was exterminated in the 19th century (1830–1890) and in Moravia
Moravia
probably at the turn of the 20th century. After 1945, migration from Slovakia
Slovakia
created a small and unstable population in Moravia. In the 1980s, almost 20 specimens were imported from Slovakia
Slovakia
and reintroduced in the Šumava
Šumava
area. In early 2006, the population of lynx in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
was estimated at 65–105 individuals. Hunting is prohibited, but the lynx is often threatened by poachers. Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
and Julian Alps: Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina are home to approx. 130–200 lynx.[32][54] The Eurasian lynx had been considered extinct in these countries since the beginning of the 20th century. However, a successful reintroduction project was carried out in Slovenia
Slovenia
in 1973, when three female and three male lynx from Slovakia
Slovakia
were released in the Kočevski Rog forest.[55] Today, lynx is present in the Dinaric forests of the south and southeastern part of Slovenia
Slovenia
and in the Croatian regions of Gorski kotar
Gorski kotar
and Velebit, spanning the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
and over the Dinara
Dinara
Mountain into western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The lynx has been also spotted in the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
and elsewhere in western Slovenia, but the A1 motorway presents a significant hindrance to the development of the population there.[56] Croatia's Plitvice Lakes National Park
Plitvice Lakes National Park
is home to several pairs of the lynx. In the three countries, the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
is listed as an endangered species and protected by law. Realistic population estimates are 40 lynx in Slovenia, 40–60 in Croatia, and more than 50 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Croatian massif Risnjak in Risnjak National Park
Risnjak National Park
probably got its name from the Croatian word for the lynx, ris. Estonia: There are 900 individuals in Estonia
Estonia
according to a 2001 estimate.[57] Although 180 lynx were legally hunted in Estonia
Estonia
in 2010, the country still has the highest known density of the species in Europe.[58] Fennoscandia: Fennoscandian lynx were close to extinction in the 1930s–1950s but increased again thanks to protection. In the meantime protective hunting for lynx has been legalized again. The numbers are still on a slow increase. Lynx
Lynx
is the only non-domestic feline in Scandinavia.

Finland: about 2200–2300 individuals, according to a 2009 estimate.[59] Lynx
Lynx
population in Finland
Finland
have been increasing every year since 1991, and is estimated to be nowadays larger than ever before. Limited hunting is permitted. In 2009 the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry gave a permit for hunting of 340 lynx individuals.[60] Norway: The Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
is found in stable populations throughout Norway
Norway
except for the southwestern counties, where they are only found sporadically. The national goal of 65 lynx births was reached in 2007, with 69 to 74 registered lynx born. The population was estimated at 409–439 specimens.[61] Sweden: Sweden
Sweden
had an estimated population of about 1400 lynx in 2006 and 1250 in 2011. The hunt is controlled by government agencies.[62] Hunters who wish to hunt for lynx must register for the so-called "protective hunt," which takes place in March. The hunt may only take place if the population has an annual increase of 300 animals. The government has allowed the requirement to fall to an increase of 250 lynx under "certain circumstances" and still permit the hunt. Even though the goal is rarely met, the hunt is always approved. This has led to a steady decrease of the number of lynx in Sweden
Sweden
and protests from larger non-governmental organisations such as the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. Only a few animals are allowed to be shot in each region, depending on the size of the local lynx population and/or how the reindeer herding is affected. Every shot animal and shooting location is controlled by the County Administration, and the carcass is sent away for analysis to the National Veterinary Institute. The hunter may keep the skin, if a microchip or transponder is attached by the local police authority. The skull of the shot animal can be sent back to the hunter for a fee of about €70. No more than 75 animals in 20 regions were permitted to be shot in 2007, an increase from 51 in 2006 (always about 5% of the population). In 2006 there were 41 lynx killed outside of hunting, 31 of which were killed in traffic accidents.

France: The lynx was exterminated in the French Alps
French Alps
in the early 20th century. Following reintroduction of lynx in Switzerland
Switzerland
in the 1970s, lynx were recorded again in the French Alps
French Alps
and Jura from the late 1970s onwards.[63]

L. lynx in Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Germany

Germany: The Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
was exterminated in Germany
Germany
in 1850. It was reintroduced to the Bavarian Forest
Bavarian Forest
and the Harz
Harz
in the 1990s; other areas were populated by lynx immigrating from neighboring France
France
and the Czech Republic. In 2002 the first birth of wild lynx on German territory was announced, following a litter from a pair of lynx in the Harz
Harz
National Park. Small populations exist also in Saxon Switzerland, Palatinate Forest, and Fichtelgebirge. Latvia: According to a 2005 estimate, about 700 animals inhabit areas in Courland
Courland
and Vidzeme.[64] Lithuania: Population
Population
is estimated at 80–100 animals.[65] Netherlands: The lynx has been extinct in the Netherlands
Netherlands
since the Middle Ages. Although there were some sightings, they probably stem from captive-bred lynx which have escaped or were released to the wild, or may be lynx moving in from Germany, since several of the sightings reported during the 1980s and 1990s were around the Reichswald area.[66] Belgium: The lynx was extinct for about 300 years, but started to recolonize the eastern part of the country in the first decade of the 21st century (around Vielsalm
Vielsalm
and Voeren). These animals are probably individuals from the lynx populations in the Eifel
Eifel
region of Germany or the Vosges region of France, or possibly also illegal introductions by hunters. Poland: The Mammal
Mammal
Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences has information about "at least 128 lynx", observed in 2006/2007. The report suggests that the number is underestimated.[67] Slovakia: The lynx is native to forested areas in Central and East Slovakia. The lynx in Slovakia
Slovakia
live mainly in mixed forests at altitudes from 800 to 1000 m. The feline can also be found in many national parks of Slovakia
Slovakia
and other protected areas.[68][69] Switzerland: The lynx became extinct here in 1915, but was reintroduced in the 1970s.[70] As of 2014, the overall lynx population in Switzerland
Switzerland
was estimated to be around 173 (163-182) independent (subadult and adult) individuals.[71] Swiss lynx also migrated to Austria, where they had also been exterminated. A higher proportion are killed by human causes than by infectious diseases.[72] Italy: The Lynx
Lynx
was considered extinct since the early 20th century but over the past 30 years a partial recolonization of the Alps, from the Swiss and Slovenian populations, is occurring. Claims in 2009 of the existence of a very small population in central Italy[73] proved to be unsubstantiated.[citation needed] Ukraine: The lynx is native to forested areas of the country. Before the 19th century it was common also in the Forest steppe
Forest steppe
zone. Nowadays, the most significant populations remain in the Carpathian mountains and across the forests of Polesia. The population is estimated as 80–90 animals for the Polesia
Polesia
region and 350–400 for the forests of the Carpathians.[74]

See also[edit]

Bobcat Iberian lynx

References[edit]

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( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in multi-use landscapes". Biological Conservation. 131 (1): 23–32. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.01.025.  ^ Andren, H., Persson, J., Mattisson, J., & Danell, A. C. (2011). Modelling the combined effect of an obligate predator and a facultative predator on a common prey: lynx Lynx
Lynx
lynx and wolverine Gulo gulo predation on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. Wildlife Biology, 17(1), 33-43. ^ Krofel, M., Kos, I., & Jerina, K. (2012). "The noble cats and the big bad scavengers: Effects of dominant scavengers on solitary predators". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 66 (9): 1297. doi:10.1007/s00265-012-1384-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Krofel, M., Huber, D., & Kos, I. (2011). "Diet of Eurasian lynx Lynx
Lynx
lynx in the northern Dinaric Mountains ( Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia)". Acta Theriologica. 56 (4): 315. doi:10.1007/s13364-011-0032-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Avgan, B., Zimmermann, F., Güntert, M., Arıkan, F. and Breitenmoser, U. (2014). "The first density estimation of an isolated Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
population in southwest Asia". Wildlife Biology 20 (4): 217–221. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Johnson, Kirk (2002). "The Status of Mammalian Carnivores in Turkey". University of Michigan.  ^ "European Lynx
Lynx
Specialists Conference". Cat
Cat
News (14). Spring 1991. Archived from the original on 2008-10-29.  ^ Şekercioğlu, Ç. (2012). "Turkey's First Wildlife Corridor Links Bear, Wolf
Wolf
and Lynx
Lynx
Populations to the Caucasus
Caucasus
Forests". National Geographic.  ^ Hasegawa Y., Kaneko H., Tachibana M., Tanaka G. (2011). "日本における後期更新世~前期完新世産のオオヤマネコLynxについて" [A study of the extinct Japanese Lynx
Lynx
from the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to the Early Holocene] (PDF). Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History (in Japanese with English summary). 15: 43−80. ISSN 1342-4092. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ a b "Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe Species fact sheet – Lynx
Lynx
lynx". Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^ "Status and conservation of the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in Europe in 2001" (PDF). Coordinated research projects for the conservation and management of carnivores in Switzerland
Switzerland
KORA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-19. Retrieved 2009-03-07.  ^ "ELOIS – Populations – Balkan population". Kora.ch. Retrieved 2010-12-29.  ^ "Macedonia Wildcats Fight for Survival", by Konstantin Testorides, Associated Press; in The Washington Post, 4 November 2006. – Retrieved on 30 March 2009. ^ Macedonian currency: Coins in circulation. National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia. ^ "Poachers put Balkan lynx
Balkan lynx
on brink of extinction". Terradaily. AFP. 22 February 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2016.  ^ "Action urged to save Balkan lynx". BBC. 3 November 2006. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^ "The bone-man's legacy"; New Scientist 11 August 2007; pp. 48–49 ^ Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M. (2005). "New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in medieval Britain". Journal of Quaternary Science. 21: 3. Bibcode:2006JQS....21....3H. doi:10.1002/jqs.960.  ^ a b Hetherington, D. (2010). O'Connor, T.; Sykes, N., eds. Extinctions and invasions: a social history of British fauna. Oxford: Windgather Press. pp. 75–82. ISBN 978-1-905119-31-8.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2010-12-29.  ^ "UK lynx 'could be reintroduced'". BBC. 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2009-05-27.  ^ "Aberdeenshire could be a lynx reintroduction site". BBC. 2015-03-09. Retrieved 2015-03-10.  ^ "Call for landowners to host wild lynx in Wales". BBC. 2015-03-09. Retrieved 2015-03-10.  ^ "Wild Lynx
Lynx
could be reintroduced to Britain". Wired UK. 2015-03-09. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ " Lynx
Lynx
to be reintroduced into wild in Britain after a 1,300-year absence". The Independent. 2015-03-08. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ " Kielder Forest
Kielder Forest
considered for lynx return". bbc.com. BBC. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Hetherington, D.; Gorman, M. (2007). "Using prey densities to estimate the potential size of reintroduced populations of Eurasian lynx". Biological Conservation. 137 (1): 37–44. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.01.009.  ^ Hetherington, D.; MacLeod, C.; Miller, D.; Gorman, M. (2008). "A potential habitat network for the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
Lynx
Lynx
lynx in Scotland". Mammal
Mammal
Review. 38 (4): 285–303. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00117.x.  ^ The return of the lynx. BBC (28 March 2016) ^ "Eurasian lynx: Plan to return it to Kielder Forest
Kielder Forest
to be submitted". BBC News. 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ "Call for lynx to be released in Scotland branded 'brazen and presumptuous'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-08-31.  ^ "World of Animals at Plitvice Lakes". Plitvice Lakes National Park World of Animals. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009.  ^ "Ris v Sloveniji" [The Lynx
Lynx
in Slovenia]. Strategija ohranjanja in trajnostnega upravljanja navadnega risa ( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) v Sloveniji 2016–2026 [The Strategy for Preserving and Sustainably Managing the Common Lynx
Lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in Slovenia
Slovenia
2016–2026] (PDF). Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Government of the Republic of Slovenia. 2016. p. 7.  ^ "Risom v Sloveniji in na Hrvaškem se obeta svetlejša prihodnost" [Brighter Future Expected for the Lynx
Lynx
of Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia]. Delo.si (in Slovene). 14 April 2017. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Valdmann, Harri. " Estonia
Estonia
– 3. Size & trend". Eurasian Lynx Online Information System for Europe. Archived from the original on November 22, 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-28.  ^ Eestist asustatakse Poola metsadesse ümber kuni 40 ilvest. Eesti Päevaleht, 1-3-2011. (in Estonian) ^ "RKTL – Ilves". Rktl.fi. 2010-10-14. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-29.  ^ "Metsästäjäliitto on tyytyväinen ilveksen pyyntilupien lisäämiseen Suomen Metsästäjäliitto – Finlands Jägarförbund r.y". Metsastajaliitto.fi. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2010-12-29.  ^ "Lynx". State of the Environment Norway. 19 June 2006. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-06.  ^ "Swedish Environmental Protection Agency & Council For Predator Issues". [permanent dead link] ^ Stahl, P.; Vandel, J.-M. (1998). "Distribution of the lynx in the French Alps". Hystrix. 10 (1): 3–15. doi:10.4404/hystrix-10.1-4117.  ^ "Latvia". Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
Online Information System for Europe. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  ^ "Lūšis – vienintelė kačių šeimos rūšis Lietuvoje". Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania. Retrieved 2011-04-29.  ^ "ELOIS – Introduction". Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
Online Information System for Europe. n.d. Retrieved May 28, 2007.  ^ " Wolf
Wolf
and lynx census". The Mammal
Mammal
Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. 2008-01-24. Retrieved February 13, 2009.  ^ "Natura 2000 Sites – Rys ostrovid" (in Slovak). State Nature Conservancy SR. n.d. Retrieved 2007-05-28.  ^ " Slovakia
Slovakia
(SK)". Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
Online Information System for Europe. n.d. Retrieved 2007-05-28. [dead link] ^ (in French) Heinz Staffelbach, Manuel des Alpes suisses. Flore, faune, roches et météorologie, Rossolis, 2009 (ISBN 978-2-940365-30-2). Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen. Pflanzen, Tiere, Gesteine und Wetter, Haupt Verlag, 2008 (ISBN 978-3-258-07638-6). ^ "KORA: Status". Kora.ch. Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ "Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38" (PDF). Wildlife Disease Association. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2009-06-12.  ^ "Lince Appenninica". Comitato Parchi Italia. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-04.  ^ I.A. Akimova – Kyiv; Globalconsulting; page. 546, eds. (2009). "Shkvyria M. G., Shevchenko L.S. Lynx
Lynx
// Red book of Ukraine. World of animals/". Wildlife Disease Association. Retrieved 2015-12-13. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lynx
Lynx
lynx.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lynx
Lynx
lynx

Species portrait Eurasian lynx; IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
Online Information System for Europe About the Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
from the Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan Eurasian Lynx
Lynx
on the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe Balkan Lynx
Lynx
Conservation Compendium DinaRis – lynx research project in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia Lynx
Lynx
archaeological research project in Craven, North Yorkshire Deksne, G.; Laakkonen, J.; Näreaho, A.; Jokelainen, P.; Holmala, K.; Kojola, I.; Sukura, A. (2013). "Endoparasites of the Eurasian Lynx ( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) in Finland". Journal of Parasitology. 99 (2): 229–234. doi:10.1645/GE-3161.1. PMID 23016871.  Free-ranging Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
lynx) as host of Toxoplasma gondii in Finland Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(Lynx lynx) from Finland
Finland
(a putative new species of Taenia found in Eurasian lynx) First Hard Evidence of Lynx
Lynx
( Lynx
Lynx
Lynx
Lynx
L.) Presence in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
− published in Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment Lynx
Lynx
UK Trust – Organisation driving efforts to reintroduce Eurasian lynx across the UK

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Mammals portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q43375 ADW: Lynx_lynx ARKive: lynx-lynx BioLib: 1970 EoL: 328603 EPPO: LYNXLY Fauna Europaea: 305366 Fossilworks: 160980 GBIF: 2435240 ITIS: 180584 IUCN: 12519 MSW: 14000156 NCBI: 13

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