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The Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
(EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states. [1] The organisation originated from the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) on 29 March 1996,[2] with the treaty on the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Community signed on 10 October 2000 in Kazakhstan's capital Astana
Astana
by Presidents Alexander Lukashenko
Alexander Lukashenko
of Belarus, Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
of Kazakhstan, Askar Akayev
Askar Akayev
of Kyrgyzstan, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
of Russia, and Emomali Rahmon of Tajikistan.[3] Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
joined the community on 7 October 2005, however later withdrew on 16 October 2008. During the 14 years, the EAEC implemented a number of economic policies to unify the community. The Customs Union
Customs Union
of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia
Russia
was formed on the 1 January 2010, and later renamed the Eurasian Customs
Customs
Union. The four freedoms (goods, capital, services, and people) were fully implemented by 25 January 2012, with the formation of the Eurasian Economic Space.[4][5][6] On 10 October 2014, an agreement on the termination of the Eurasian Economic Community was signed in Minsk
Minsk
after a session of the Interstate Council of the EAEC. The Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
was terminated from 1 January 2015 in connection with the launch of the Eurasian Economic Union.[7] While the Eurasian Economic Union effectively replaces the community, membership negotiations with Tajikistan
Tajikistan
are still ongoing. All other EAEC members have joined the new union.

Contents

1 Membership

1.1 Members

2 Aims 3 Institutional framework

3.1 Interstate Council 3.2 Integration Committee 3.3 Secretariat 3.4 The Interparliamentary Assembly

4 Economic data 5 Economic Cooperation

5.1 Single Economic Space 5.2 Eurasian Customs
Customs
Union 5.3 Anti-Crisis Fund

6 History

6.1 Origins of the Eurasian Economic Community 6.2 The dissolution of the CEC into the EurAsEC 6.3 Uzbekistan's withdrawal from the EurAsEC 6.4 Legacy of the Eurasian Economic Community

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Membership[edit] Members[edit]

 Belarus  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Russia  Tajikistan

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
was previously a member of the EAEC, however it suspended its membership in 2008.[8] In accordance with the Charter of the EurAsEC, observer status could be granted to the states or intergovernmental organizations at their request. The observers had the right to attend the public meetings of the Eurasian Economic Community, to speak at these meetings and with the consent of the presiding officer to obtain public documents and decisions taken by the Community. Observer status did not allow states to take part in decision-making at the meetings of the Eurasian Economic Community. Observer states were: Aims[edit] The Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
was established for effective promotion of the creation by the Customs Union
Customs Union
member states of a Single Economic Space and for coordinating their approaches while integrating into the world economy and the international trade system. One of the Organization's chief activity vectors is ensuring the dynamic evolution of the Community states through coordinating their economic and social reforms while effectively using their economic potentials to improve the living standards of their peoples. Among the principal tasks of the Community are:

completing the formalization of a free trade regime in all respects, creating a unified customs tariff and a unified system of nontariff regulation measures; laying down the common rules for trade in goods and services and their access to internal markets; Ensuring the free movement of capital introducing a unified procedure for foreign exchange controls; creating a common unified system of customs regulation; Harmonization of economies for the transition to a future single currency drawing up and implementing joint programs of economic and social development; creating equal conditions for production and entrepreneurial activities; forming a common market for transportation services and a unified transport system; forming a common energy market; creating equal conditions for access by foreign investment to the sides' markets; giving the citizens of the Community states equal rights in receiving education and medical assistance throughout its territory; converging and harmonizing national legislation; ensuring the coordination of the legal systems of the Eurasian Economic Community states with a view to creating a common legal space within the Community.

Institutional framework[edit]

Representatives of EAEC and CSTO.

Interstate Council Integration Committee

Energy Policy Council Transport Policy Council Council on Border Issues Council of Heads of Customs
Customs
Services Council of Heads of Tax Services Council of Ministers of Justice

Secretariat Commission of Permanent Representatives Interparliamentary Assembly Community's Court of Justice

Interstate Council[edit]

Meeting of the EurAsEC Interstate Council on 5 July 2010 in Astana

The supreme body of the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
is composed of the Heads of State and Government of the member states. The Interstate Council considers the main issues of the Community relating to the common interests of member states, determines the strategy, direction and prospects of integration and takes decisions aimed at achieving the goals and objectives of the Community. The Interstate Council meets at the level of Heads of State at least once a year, and the heads of government - at least twice a year. The council takes decisions by consensus. The decisions taken are binding on all Member States of the Community.[9] Integration Committee[edit] The Integration Committee is a permanent organ of the Eurasec. It consists of deputy heads of governments of the countries of the Community. The Integration Committee meetings must be held at least four times a year. In integration, the Committee's decisions are taken by a two-thirds majority.[9] Every member state has a certain number of votes:

  Russia
Russia
- 40 votes   Belarus
Belarus
- 15 votes   Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
- 15 votes   Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
- 7.5 votes   Tajikistan
Tajikistan
- 7.5 votes   Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(suspended) - 15 votes

Some boards and commissions within the Integration Committee:

Commission for the protection of national markets; Commission on cooperation in the field of export control; Commission on technical regulations, sanitary, veterinary and phytosanitary trade; Commission on Tariffs and non-tariff regulation; Cooperation Council In the field of atomic energy for peaceful purposes; Council for Culture; Council of the agro-industrial policy; Council Transportation Policy; Council for Energy Policy; Council on Migration Policy; Council of Social Policy; Council on Intellectual Property. Board of Health; Board of Education; Board of Environmental Protection; Chief Executives Board authorized to regulate the securities market body; Council of Heads of Tax Services; Council of Heads of insurance supervision and regulation of insurance business; Council of Heads of Customs;

Secretariat[edit] The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General of the Eurasec, the highest Community official, appointed by the interstate Council. The seats of the Secretariat are in the cities of Almaty
Almaty
(Kazakhstan) and Moscow
Moscow
(Russia).[9] The Interparliamentary Assembly[edit] The Interparliamentary Assembly of the Eurasian Economic Community serves as body of parliamentary cooperation in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Community. It addresses the issues of harmonization (convergence, harmonization) of national legislation and bring it into line with the agreements concluded in the framework of the Eurasian Economic Community. Assembly is composed of members of parliament, delegated by the parliaments of member states.[9] Its structure includes:

 Russia: 42 members  Belarus: 16 members  Kazakhstan: 16 members  Kyrgyzstan: 8 members  Tajikistan: 8 members

The Secretariat of the Interparliamentary Assembly is located in St. Petersburg, Russia. Economic data[edit]

Country Population GDP 2011 (In Millions USD) GDP 2012 (In Millions USD) per capita

Belarus 9,459,000 59,735 63,259 6,739

Russia 143,455,000 1,899,056 2,021,960 14,247

Kazakhstan 17,027,000 183,107 196,419 11,773

Kyrgyzstan 5,717,000 6,199 6,473 1,158

Uzbekistan 30,214,000 45,353 51,168 1,737

Tajikistan 8,044,000 6,523 7,592 953

EAEC total 213,916,000 2,189,991 2,346,871 10,971

Economic Cooperation[edit] Single Economic Space[edit] Main article: Eurasian Economic Space After discussion about the creation of a common market between the CIS countries of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, agreement in principle about the creation of this space was announced after a meeting in the Moscow
Moscow
suburb of Novo-Ogarevo
Novo-Ogarevo
on 23 February 2003. The Common Economic Space would involve a supranational commission on trade and tariffs that would be based in Kiev, would initially be headed by a representative of Kazakhstan, and would not be subordinate to the governments of the four nations. The ultimate goal would be a regional organisation that would be open for other countries to join as well, and could eventually lead even to a single currency. On 22 May 2003 The Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
(the Ukrainian Parliament) voted 266 votes in favor and 51 against the joint economic space. However, Viktor Yushchenko's victory in the Ukrainian presidential election of 2004 was a significant blow against the project: Yushchenko had shown renewed interest in Ukrainian membership in the European Union, and such membership would have been incompatible with the envisioned common economic space. On March 1, 2010 the first deputy head of the presidential administration of newly elected Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych, Iryna Akymova
Iryna Akymova
stated that Ukraine
Ukraine
does not intend to join the Customs Union
Customs Union
of Russia, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Belarus
Belarus
in the near future "Since the customs union contradicts and will greatly complicate Ukraine's membership in the WTO".[10] A single market for the Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
came into effect in January 2012,[6][11] followed by the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union on 1 January 2015.[6] Eurasian Customs
Customs
Union[edit] Main article: Eurasian Customs
Customs
Union Forming a customs union between EurAsEC member states became a top priority from Spring 2008, when the EU announced its Eastern Partnership. Since that time, there has been discord between the EU and Russia
Russia
with both sides accusing the other of attempting to carve out spheres of influence over the countries at issue (Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine). A supranational body of the customs union—the Eurasian Economic Commission—was established on December 12, 2008. Boiled down to its essence, Russia has offered EurAsEC members access to its markets (i.e., for Kazakhstan) and lower energy prices (i.e., Belarus, Ukraine). The EU's offer to membership countries amounts to promises of de facto EU integration, such as relaxed visa entry requirements. Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
had proposed the creation of a common noncash currency called yevraz for the community. This would have reportedly helped insulate the countries from the global economic crisis.[12] On 3 September 2013, EUobserver
EUobserver
reported that Armenia
Armenia
had decided to join the Eurasian Customs
Customs
Union. The website quoted a Russian government communique stating that, " Armenia
Armenia
[has] decided to join the Customs Union
Customs Union
and take the necessary practical steps to subsequently participate in the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union."[13] Anti-Crisis Fund[edit] On 9 June 2009, Member States of the EurAsEC in collaboration with Armenia, announced the establishment of an anti-crisis of Eurasec Fund to deal with the 2009 financial crisis.[14] The Russian Finance Minister, Alexei Kudrin
Alexei Kudrin
clarified: "The money from the fund will be used to grant sovereign loans and stabilization credits to Member States and to finance interstate investment projects. Therefore, this fund will be a kind of replica of the Regional International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As we know, the IMF provides credit stabilization globally, while the EBRD grants loans for investment projects. It should be noted that Russia
Russia
has refused to increase the amount of its contribution to the IMF, which would have been used to grant loans to stabilize countries in need around the world. Instead, it creates a regional fund to help its neighbors and allies. " Belarusian President, Alexander Lukashenko
Alexander Lukashenko
said: "The Eurasian Economic Community will establish a fund of $10 billion to deal with the financial crisis." On June 9, 2009, the Fund was established at a meeting of the EurAsEc. The Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
contributed 7.5 billion and 1 billion dollars respectively to the anti-crisis fund.[14] History[edit] Origins of the Eurasian Economic Community[edit]

Summit of the EurAsEC on 31 May 2001

On October 10, 2000, when reforms on the CIS were reached the Eurasian Economic Community was formed. The EurAsEC aimed to erase the failures of the CIS, to form a true common market, face the challenges of globalization and to resume the integration processes within the CIS. Very quickly, the EurAsEC emerged as the economic complement of the CSTO.[15][16] The dissolution of the CEC into the EurAsEC[edit] In 2004, Russia
Russia
joined the Central Asian Economic Community (ECSC) in order to strengthen its presence in Central Asia. Soon after, Moscow expressed its desire to dissolve the ECSC in the EurAsEC . In late 2005, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
argued for its accession to the EurAsEC, which led other members of the ECSC to negotiate and eventually merge the two organizations . This merge was effective on January 25, 2006. Most of the functions of the Central Asian Economic Community were transferred to the Eurasec since 2006.[15][16] However the status of current observers of the ECSC that are not observers of Eurasec is not yet settled (including Georgia and Turkey, the latter activist which is also for accession to the European Union) . Members wanted the EurAsEC to become a viable economic bloc between the powerful EU in the West, and the growing economies in the east, which established the ASEAN). Uzbekistan's withdrawal from the EurAsEC[edit] On October 16, 2008, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
submitted an official note to the EurAsEC Secretariat, requesting to withdraw from the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC).[17] Although Uzbekisan has not given any official reason, many interpret the move as an attempt to revive stagnating relations with the West and to assertively dismissing Russian influence.[18] Other views interpret Uzbekistan's move as a nationalist attempt in response to an economic crisis, in order to regain tighter control over its economy.[19] Legacy of the Eurasian Economic Community[edit] The Customs Union
Customs Union
members—Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
and Russia—reached an agreement on a unified customs tariff in June 2009 and endorsed a schedule for creating a unified customs territory. The new Customs Union is intended to go into effect on July 1, 2010[20] The Russian, Kazakhstani, and Belarusian leaders have approved documents to establish a “single economic space” on 1 January 2012 – a single market for goods, investment, and labor.[21] On 29 May 2014, a meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council took place in Astana, following which Vladimir Putin, President of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Nursultan Nazarbayev
Nursultan Nazarbayev
and President of Belarus
Belarus
Alexander Lukashenko signed an Agreement on the Eurasian Economic Union.[22] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eurasian Economic Community.

Comecon, Soviet-era economic integration plan. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe statistics Regional organizations in the Post-Soviet states European integration Eurasianism

References[edit]

^ Boris N. Mamlyuk (2014). "Regionalizing Multilateralism: The Effect of Russia's Accession to the WTO
WTO
on Existing Regional Integration Schemes in the Former Soviet Space". UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs, Vol. 18, No. 2. SSRN 2412319 .  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ WTO
WTO
WT/REG71/1 Archived 2009-02-25 at Archive-It ^ Foundation Agreement of EAEC ^ Могут ли граждане стран, входящих в ЕврАзЭс, свободно перемещаться по территории Сообщества? (in Russian) ^ Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus
Belarus
plan on common economic space ^ a b c Ukraine
Ukraine
cannot get observer status at Eurasian Econ Union due to Association Agreement with EU, Russia, Interfax-Ukraine (14 June 2013) ^ Eurasian Economic Community
Eurasian Economic Community
Leaders Sign Group Abolition Agreement, putniknews.com. Retrieved 13 January 2015. ^ Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
suspends Eurasec membership, Moscow
Moscow
unruffled Archived June 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d "Structure of the Eurasian Economic Community". evrazes.com.  ^ Presidential administration official: Ukraine
Ukraine
not to join customs union, Kyiv Post (March 1, 2010) ^ Russia
Russia
expects CIS countries to create free trade area ^ Moscow
Moscow
Times: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Suggests a New Currency ^ EUobserver: Armenia
Armenia
to join Russia
Russia
trade bloc, surprises EU ^ a b "EurAsEC Anti-crisis Fund".  ^ a b "About EurAsEC". evrazes.  ^ a b "History of the EurAsEC".  ^ http://enews.fergananews.com/articles/2477 ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/JL19Ag01.html ^ http://enews.fergananews.com/news.php?id=844&mode=snews ^ http://www.tsouz.ru/Pages/Default.aspx ^ Kenjali Tinibai, Economy & Business: A Semi- Soviet Union
Soviet Union
is Born, TRANSITIONS ONLINE (March 9, 2010) available at www.ceeol.com Central and Eastern European Online Library ^ "Visit to Kazakhstan. Meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council", President of Russia
Russia
website

External links[edit]

Official website (in Russian) EurAsEC website (in Russian)

v t e

International trade

Terminology

Absolute advantage Balance of payments Balance of trade Capital account Comparative advantage Current account Export-oriented industrialization Fair trade Foreign exchange reserves Globalization Import substitution industrialization Net capital outflow Outsourcing Tariff Trade justice Trade war Trading nation

Organizations and policies

International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) United Nations Conference on Trade and Development World Bank Group World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO)

International Trade Centre

Bilateral investment treaty Economic integration Free-trade zone Special
Special
economic zone Trade agreement Trade barrier Trade bloc

Political economy

Free trade
Free trade
(Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Repeal of the Corn Laws) Mercantilism Protectionism
Protectionism
(Economic nationalism, Autarky)

Regional organizations

ACU ASEAN CACM CAN CARICOM CEMAC CUBKR EAC EAU EU GCC Mercosur RCEP SAARC SACU WAEMU

Exports by product

Aircraft & Spacecraft Aircraft parts Aluminium Cars Car parts Coal Coffee Computers Copper Corn Cotton Diamonds Electricity Engines Gas turbines Gold Integrated circuits Iron ore Natural gas Oil Petrol Pharmaceuticals Ships Steel Telecommunications equipment Telephones Trucks Wheat Wine

Category Commons

v t e

Central Asian regional organizations

Central Asia
Central Asia
plus Japan Central Asia
Central Asia
Regional Economic Cooperation Program Central Asian Union
Central Asian Union
(proposed) Commonwealth of Independent States

Collective Security Treaty Organization Eurasian Economic Community

Economic Cooperation Organization Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Turkic Council TAKM

v t e

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS)

Customs Union
Customs Union
of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union Union State

Membership

Members

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Associate members

Turkmenistan Ukraine

Former members

Georgia (1993–2009)

History

Russian Empire Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Belavezha Accords
Belavezha Accords
(Near abroad) Alma-Ata Protocol

Sports

Unified Team at the Olympics Unified Team at the Paralympics CIS national bandy team CIS national football team CIS national ice hockey team CIS national rugby team CIS Cup (football)

Military

Collective Security Treaty Organization Collective Rapid Reaction Force Joint CIS Air Defense System

Economics

Economic Court CISFTA Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization EU Technical Aid

Organization

Interstate Aviation Committee Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS

Category

v t e

Eurasian Economic Union

Member states

Armenia Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia

Observer members

Moldova

Prospective members

Mongoli

.