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Eurasia
Eurasia
/jʊəˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.[3][4][5] The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
and Asia). Located primarily in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the east, the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the north, and by Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the south.[6] The division between Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
as two different continents is a historical social construct, with no clear physical separation between them; thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia
Eurasia
is recognized as the largest of five or six continents.[5] In geology, Eurasia
Eurasia
is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia
Eurasia
is debated based on paleomagnetic data.[7][8] Eurasia
Eurasia
covers around 55,000,000 square kilometres (21,000,000 sq mi), or around 36.2% of the Earth's total land area. The landmass contains around 5.0 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population. Humans first settled in Eurasia
Eurasia
between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago. Some major islands, including Great Britain, Iceland, and Ireland, and those of Japan, the Philippines
Philippines
and Indonesia, are often included under the popular definition of Eurasia, in spite of being separate from the contiguous landmass. Physiographically, Eurasia
Eurasia
is a single continent.[5] The concepts of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
as distinct continents date back to antiquity and their borders are geologically arbitrary. In ancient times the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara, along with their associated straits, were seen as separating the continents, but today the Ural and Caucasus ranges are more seen as the main delimiters between the two. Eurasia is connected to Africa
Africa
at the Suez Canal, and Eurasia
Eurasia
is sometimes combined with Africa
Africa
to make the largest contiguous landmass on Earth called Afro-Eurasia.[9] Due to the vast landmass and differences in latitude, Eurasia
Eurasia
exhibits all types of climate under the Köppen classification, including the harshest types of hot and cold temperatures, high and low precipitation and various types of ecosystems.

Contents

1 History 2 Geopolitics 3 Use of term

3.1 History of the Europe– Asia
Asia
division 3.2 Anthropology
Anthropology
and genetics 3.3 Geography 3.4 Post-Soviet countries

4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References

History[edit] Main article: History of Eurasia Further information: Laurasia
Laurasia
and Foreign interactions with Europe Eurasia
Eurasia
formed 375 to 325 million years ago with the merging of Siberia, Kazakhstania, and Baltica, which was joined to Laurentia, now North America, to form Euramerica. Chinese cratons collided with Siberia's southern coast. Eurasia
Eurasia
has been the host of many ancient civilizations, including those based in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and China. In the Axial Age (mid-first millennium BC), a continuous belt of civilizations stretched through the Eurasian subtropical zone from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This belt became the mainstream of world history for two millennia. Geopolitics[edit] Originally, “Eurasia” is a geographical notion: in this sense, it is simply the biggest continent; the combined landmass of Europe
Europe
and Asia. However, geopolitically, the word has several different meanings, reflecting the specific geopolitical interests of each nation.[10] “Eurasia” is one of the most important geopolitical concepts; as Zbigniew Brzezinski
Zbigniew Brzezinski
observed:

“... how America "manages" Eurasia
Eurasia
is critical. A power that dominates “Eurasia” would control two of the world’s three most advanced and economically productive regions. A mere glance at the map also suggests that control “Eurasia” would almost automatically entail Africa’s subordination, rendering the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and Oceania
Oceania
geopolitically peripheral to the world’s central continent. About 75 per cent of the world’s people live in “Eurasia”, and most of the world’s physical wealth is there as well, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil. “Eurasia” accounts for about three-fourths of the world’s known energy resources.”[11]

At the moment one of the most prominent projects of the European Union (EU) is the Russia
Russia
- EU Four Common Spaces Initiative. However no significant progress was made and the project was put on hold after Russia-EU relations deteriorated after the crisis in Ukraine. An economic union of former Soviet states named the Eurasian Economic Union was established in 2015, similar in concept to the EU. The Russian concept of “Eurasia” corresponded initially more or less to the land area of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
in 1914, including parts of Eastern Europe.[12] One of Russia's main geopolitical interests lies in ever closer integration with those countries that it considers part of “Eurasia.”[13] This concept is further integrated with communist eschatology by author Alexander Dugin
Alexander Dugin
as the guiding principle of "self-sufficiency of a large space" during expansion.[14]

Members of the ASEM

Every two years since 1996 a meeting of most Asian and European countries is organised as the Asia– Europe
Europe
Meeting (ASEM). Use of term[edit] History of the Europe– Asia
Asia
division[edit] In ancient times, the Greeks
Greeks
classified Europe
Europe
(derived from the mythological Phoenician princess Europa) and Asia
Asia
(derived from Asia, a woman in Greek mythology) as separate "lands". Where to draw the dividing line between the two regions is still a matter of discussion. Especially whether the Kuma-Manych Depression
Kuma-Manych Depression
or the Caucasus Mountains form the southeast boundary is disputed, since Mount Elbrus would be part of Europe
Europe
in the latter case, making it (and not Mont Blanc) Europe's highest mountain. Most accepted is probably the boundary as defined by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in the 18th century. He defined the dividing line along the Aegean Sea, Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea, Kuma–Manych Depression, Caspian Sea, Ural River, and Ural Mountains. Anthropology
Anthropology
and genetics[edit] In modern usage, the term "Eurasian" is a demonym usually meaning "of or relating to Eurasia" or "a native or inhabitant of Eurasia".[15] The term "Eurasian" is also used to describe people of combined "Asian" and "European" descent. West or western Eurasia
Eurasia
is a loose geographic definition used in some disciplines, such as genetics or anthropology, to refer to the region inhabited by the relatively homogeneous population of West Asia
Asia
and Europe. The people of this region are sometimes described collectively as West or Western Eurasians.[16] Geography[edit] Located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres, Eurasia
Eurasia
is considered a supercontinent, part of the supercontinent of Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia
or simply a continent in its own right.[17] In plate tectonics, the Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
includes Europe
Europe
and most of Asia
Asia
but not the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
or the area of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
east of the Chersky Range. Post-Soviet countries[edit]

Single markets in European and post Soviet countries; European Economic Area and Common Economic Space

Nineteenth-century Russian philosopher Nikolai Danilevsky
Nikolai Danilevsky
defined Eurasia
Eurasia
as an entity separate from Europe
Europe
and Asia, bounded by the Himalayas, the Caucasus, the Alps, the Arctic, the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea, a definition that has been influential in Russia
Russia
and other parts of the former Soviet Union.[18] Nowadays, partly inspired by this usage, the term Eurasia
Eurasia
is sometimes used to refer to the post-Soviet space – in particular Russia, the Central Asian republics, and the Transcaucasian republics – and sometimes also adjacent regions such as Turkey, Mongolia, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Xinjiang. This usage can be seen in the names of Eurasianet,[19] The Journal of Eurasian Studies,[20] and the Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies,[21] as well as the titles of numerous academic programmes at US universities.[22][23][24][25][26] Another prominent example of this usage is in the name of the Eurasian Economic Community, an organization including Kazakhstan, Russia, and some of their neighbors, and headquartered in Moscow, Russia, and Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan. The word "Eurasia" is often used in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to describe its location. Numerous Kazakh institutions have the term in their names, like the L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University (Kazakh: Л. Н. Гумилёв атындағы Еуразия Ұлттық университеті; Russian: Евразийский Национальный университет имени Л. Н. Гумилёва)[27] (Lev Gumilev's Eurasianism
Eurasianism
ideas having been popularized in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
by Olzhas Suleimenov), the Eurasian Media Forum,[28] the Eurasian Cultural Foundation (Russian: Евразийский фонд культуры), the Eurasian Development Bank (Russian: Евразийский банк развития),[29] and the Eurasian Bank.[30] In 2007 Kazakhstan's President, Nursultan Nazarbayev, proposed building a " Eurasia
Eurasia
Canal" to connect the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
via Russia's Kuma-Manych Depression in order to provide Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and other Caspian-basin countries with a more efficient path to the ocean than the existing Volga-Don Canal.[31] This usage is comparable to how Americans use "Western Hemisphere" to describe concepts and organizations dealing with the Americas
Americas
(e.g., Council on Hemispheric Affairs, Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation). See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia
Asia
portal Europe
Europe
portal

Asia- Europe
Europe
Foundation Asia– Europe
Europe
Meeting Afro-Eurasia Borders of the continents Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Eastern Partnership Eurasia
Eurasia
(Nineteen Eighty-Four) Eurasian (other) Eurasian Economic Community Eurasia
Eurasia
Tunnel Eurasian Union European Union Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges Intermediate Region Laurasia, a geological supercontinent joining Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America. List of Eurasian countries by population List of supercontinents Marmaray, railway tunnel links the Europe
Europe
to Asia. Neo-Eurasianism Palearctic Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Steppe Route Turkish Straits Vega expedition, the first voyage to circumnavigate Eurasia Eurasianism United States of Eurasia Eurasian Media Forum

Further reading[edit]

The Dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order by Bruno Maçães, Publisher: Allen Lane D. Lane, V. Samokhvalov, The Eurasian Project and Europe
Europe
Regional Discontinuities and Geopolitics, Palgrave: Basingstoke (2015) V. Samokhvalov, The new Eurasia: post-Soviet space between Russia, Europe
Europe
and China, European Politics and Society, Volume 17, 2016 – Issue sup1: The Eurasian Project in Global Perspective

Journal homepage References[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Eurasia.

Look up eurasia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eurasia.

^ "Population of Europe
Europe
(2018) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ "Population of Asia
Asia
(2018) - Worldometers". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997), The myth of continents: a critique of metageography, University of California Press, pp. 31–32, ISBN 0-520-20743-2  "While a few professionals may regard Europe
Europe
as a mere peninsula of Asia
Asia
(or Eurasia), most geographers—and almost all nongeographers—continue to treat it not only as a full-fledged continent, but as the archetypal continent." ^ Nield, Ted. "Continental Divide". Geological Society. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ a b c "How many continents are there?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 27 July 2017. By convention there are seven continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Australia, and Antarctica. Some geographers list only six continents, combining Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
into Eurasia. In parts of the world, students learn that there are just five continents: Eurasia, Australia (Oceania), Africa, Antarctica, and the Americas.  ^ "What is Eurasia?". geography.about.com. Retrieved 17 December 2012.  ^ Pavlov, V.E. (2012). "Siberian Paleomagnetic
Paleomagnetic
Data and the Problem of Rigidity of the Northern Eurasian Continent
Continent
in the Post Paleozoic". Izvestiya, Physics of the Solid Earth. 48: 721–737.  ^ Li, Yong-Xiang; Shu, Liangshu; Wen, Bin; Yang, Zhenyu; Ali, Jason R. (1 September 2013). "Magnetic inclination shallowing problem and the issue of Eurasia's rigidity: insights following a palaeomagnetic study of upper Cretaceous basalts and redbeds from SE China". Geophysical Journal International. 194 (3): 1374–1389. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt181. ISSN 0956-540X.  ^ R. W. McColl, ed. (2005). 'continents' – Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1. Golson Books Ltd. p. 215. ISBN 9780816072293. Retrieved 26 June 2012. And since Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
are connected at the Suez Peninsula, Europe, Africa, and Asia
Asia
are sometimes combined as Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia
or Eurafrasia.  ^ Andreen, Finn. "The Concept of Eurasia". Blogger.com /. Comment and Outlook. Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1997). The grand chessboard : American primacy and its geostrategic imperatives ([Repr.] ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 31. ISBN 0465027261.  ^ Nartov, N. A. (2004). Geopolitika : [učebnik] (3rd ed.). Moskva: Edinstvo. Part 2.4, p. 50. ISBN 5238006829.  ^ Andreen, Finn. "The Concept of Euroasia". Blogger.com. Commentary and Outlook. Retrieved 6 June 2014.  ^ Dugin, Alexander. "Eurasia: A Special
Special
Worldview". The Fourth Political Theory. Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ American Heritage Dictionary ^ "Anthropologically, historically and linguistically Eurasia
Eurasia
is more appropriately, though vaguely subdivided into West Eurasia
Eurasia
(often including North Africa) and East Eurasia", Anita Sengupta, Heartlands of Eurasia: The Geopolitics of Political Space, Lexington Books, 2009, p.25 ^ " Pangaea
Pangaea
Supercontinent". Geology.com. Retrieved 19 February 2011.  ^ Schmidt, Matthew (2005). "Is Putin Pursuing a Policy of Eurasianism?". Demokratizatsiya. 1 (13): 90.  ^ "Eurasianet". Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Journal of Eurasian Studies". Elsevier. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "About ASEEES". Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Slavic and Eurasian Studies". Duke Graduate School. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Russian and Eurasian Studies". George Mason University. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Department of Slavic and Eurasian Studies". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies". Stanford University. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Institute of Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University". Emu.kz. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "The Eurasian Media Forum". Eamedia.org. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "Eurasian Development Bank". Eabr.org. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ "Eurasian Bank". Eurasian-bank.kz. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ Canal will link Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to world (The Times, 29 June 2007)

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

Book Category

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan
Japan
Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China
China
proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China
China
Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China
China
Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley
Indus Valley
Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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Coordinates: 50°N 80°E / 50°N 80°E / 50; 80

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239429852 LCCN: sh85045617 GND: 401568

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