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Euglena
Euglena
is a genus of single-celled flagellate eukaryotes. It is the best known and most widely studied member of the class Euglenoidea, a diverse group containing some 54 genera and at least 800 species.[3][4] Species of Euglena
Euglena
are found in fresh and salt waters. They are often abundant in quiet inland waters where they may bloom in numbers sufficient to color the surface of ponds and ditches green (E. viridis) or red (E. sanguinea).[5] The species Euglena gracilis
Euglena gracilis
has been used extensively in the laboratory as a model organism.[6] Most species of Euglena
Euglena
have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. However, they can also take nourishment heterotrophically, like animals. Since Euglena
Euglena
have features of both animals and plants, early taxonomists, working within the Linnaean three-kingdom system of biological classification, found them difficult to classify.[7][8] It was the question of where to put such "unclassifiable" creatures that prompted Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
to add a third living kingdom (a fourth kingdom in toto) to the Animale, Vegetabile (and Lapideum meaning Mineral) of Linnaeus: the Kingdom Protista.[9]

Contents

1 Form and function 2 Reproduction 3 Historical background and early classification 4 Recent phylogeny and classification 5 Human consumption 6 Video gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Form and function[edit] When feeding as a heterotroph, Euglena
Euglena
takes in nutrients by osmotrophy, and can survive without light on a diet of organic matter, such as beef extract, peptone, acetate, ethanol or carbohydrates.[10][11] When there is sufficient sunlight for it to feed by phototrophy, it uses chloroplasts containing the pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b to produce sugars by photosynthesis.[12] Euglena's chloroplasts are surrounded by three membranes, while those of plants and the green algae (among which earlier taxonomists often placed Euglena) have only two membranes. This fact has been taken as morphological evidence that Euglena's chloroplasts evolved from a eukaryotic green alga.[13] Thus, the intriguing similarities between Euglena
Euglena
and the plants would have arisen not because of kinship but because of a secondary endosymbiosis. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has lent support to this hypothesis, and it is now generally accepted.[14][15]

Diagram of Euglena

Euglena
Euglena
chloroplasts contain pyrenoids, used in the synthesis of paramylon, a form of starch energy storage enabling Euglena
Euglena
to survive periods of light deprivation. The presence of pyrenoids is used as an identifying feature of the genus, separating it from other euglenoids, such as Lepocinclis and Phacus.[16] All euglenoids have two flagella rooted in basal bodies located in a small reservoir at the front of the cell. In Euglena, one flagellum is very short, and does not protrude from the cell, while the other is relatively long, and often easily visible with light microscopy. In some species, the longer, emergent flagellum is used to help the organism swim. Like other euglenoids, Euglena
Euglena
possess a red eyespot, an organelle composed of carotenoid pigment granules. The red spot itself is not thought to be photosensitive. Rather, it filters the sunlight that falls on a light-detecting structure at the base of the flagellum (a swelling, known as the paraflagellar body), allowing only certain wavelengths of light to reach it. As the cell rotates with respect to the light source, the eyespot partially blocks the source, permitting the Euglena
Euglena
to find the light and move toward it (a process known as phototaxis).[17]

Spiral pellicle strips

Euglena
Euglena
lacks a cell wall. Instead, it has a pellicle made up of a protein layer supported by a substructure of microtubules, arranged in strips spiraling around the cell. The action of these pellicle strips sliding over one another, known as metaboly, gives Euglena
Euglena
its exceptional flexibility and contractility.[17] The mechanism of this euglenoid movement is not understood, but its molecular basis may be similar to that of amoeboid movement.[18] In low moisture conditions, or when food is scarce, Euglena
Euglena
forms a protective wall around itself and lies dormant as a resting cyst until environmental conditions improve. Reproduction[edit] Euglena
Euglena
reproduce asexually through binary fission, a form of cell division. Reproduction begins with the mitosis of the cell nucleus, followed by the division of the cell itself. Euglena
Euglena
divide longitudinally, beginning at the front end of the cell, with the duplication of flagellar processes, gullet and stigma. Presently, a cleavage forms in the anterior, and a V-shaped bifurcation gradually moves toward the posterior, until the two halves are entirely separated.[19] Reports of sexual conjugation are rare, and have not been substantiated.[20] Historical background and early classification[edit]

Cercaria viridis (= E. viridis) from O.F. Müller's Animalcula Infusoria. 1786

Species of Euglena
Euglena
were among the first protists to be seen under the microscope. In 1674, in a letter to the Royal Society, the Dutch pioneer of microscopy Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
wrote that he had collected water samples from an inland lake, in which he found "animalcules" that were "green in the middle, and before and behind white." Clifford Dobell regards it as "almost certain" that these were Euglena
Euglena
viridis, whose "peculiar arrangement of chromatophores...gives the flagellate this appearance at low magnification."[21] Twenty-two years later, John Harris published a brief series of "Microscopical Observations" reporting that he had examined "a small Drop of the Green Surface of some Puddle-Water" and found it to be "altogether composed of Animals of several Shapes and Magnitudes." Among them, were "oval creatures whose middle part was of a Grass Green, but each end Clear and Transparent," which "would contract and dilate themselves, tumble over and over many times together, and then shoot away like Fish."[22] In 1786, O.F. Müller gave a more complete description of the organism, which he named Cercaria viridis, noting its distinctive color and changeable body shape. Müller also provided a series of illustrations, accurately depicting the undulating, contractile movements (metaboly) of Euglena's body.[23]

Euglena
Euglena
from Félix Dujardin's Histoire Naturelle des Zoophytes, 1841

In 1830, C. G. Ehrenberg renamed Müller's Cercaria Euglena
Euglena
viridis, and placed it, in keeping with the short-lived system of classification he invented, among the Polygastrica in the family Astasiaea: multi-stomached creatures with no alimentary canal, variable body shape but no pseudopods or lorica.[24][25] By making use of the newly invented achromatic microscope,[26] Ehrenberg was able to see Euglena's eyespot, which he correctly identified as a "rudimentary eye" (although he reasoned, wrongly, that this meant the creature also had a nervous system). This feature was incorporated into Ehrenberg's name for the new genus, constructed from the Greek roots "eu-" (well, good) and glēnē (eyeball, socket of joint).[27] Ehrenberg did not notice Euglena's flagella, however. The first to publish a record of this feature was Félix Dujardin, who added "filament flagelliforme" to the descriptive criteria of the genus in 1841.[28] Subsequently, the class Flagellata (Cohn, 1853) was created for creatures, like Euglena, possessing one or more flagella. While "Flagellata" has fallen from use as a taxon, the notion of using flagella as a phylogenetic criterion remains vigorous.[29] Recent phylogeny and classification[edit]

Euglena
Euglena
movement, known as metaboly

In 1881, Georg Klebs
Georg Klebs
made a primary taxonomic distinction between green and colorless flagellate organisms, separating photosynthetic from heterotrophic euglenoids. The latter (largely colorless, shape-changing uniflagellates) were divided among the Astasiaceae and the Peranemaceae, while flexible green euglenoids were generally assigned to the genus Euglena.[30] As early as 1935, it was recognized that this was an artificial grouping, however convenient.[31] In 1948, Pringsheim affirmed that the distinction between green and colorless flagellates had no taxonomic justification, although he acknowledged its practical appeal. He proposed something of a compromise, placing colorless, saprotrophic euglenoids in the genus Astasia, while allowing some colorless euglenoids to share a genus with their photosynthesizing cousins, provided they had structural features that proved common ancestry. Among the green euglenoids themselves, Pringsheim recognized the close kinship of some species of Phacus
Phacus
and Lepocinclis with some species of Euglena.[30] The idea of classifiying the euglenoids by their manner of nourishment was finally abandoned in the 1950s, when A. Hollande published a major revision of the phylum, grouping organisms by shared structural features, such as the number and type of flagella.[32] If any doubt remained, it was dispelled in 1994, when genetic analysis of the non-photosynthesizing euglenoid Astasia longa confirmed that this organism retains sequences of DNA inherited from an ancestor that must have had functioning chloroplasts.[33] In 1997, a morphological and molecular study of the Euglenozoa
Euglenozoa
put Euglena gracilis
Euglena gracilis
in close kinship with the species Khawkinea quartana, with Peranema
Peranema
trichophorum basal to both.[34] Two years later, a molecular analysis showed that E. gracilis was, in fact, more closely related to Astasia longa than to certain other species recognized as Euglena. In 2015, Dr Ellis O'Neill and Professor Rob Field have sequenced the transcriptome of Euglena
Euglena
gracilis, which provides information about all of the genes that the organism is actively using. They found that Euglena gracilis
Euglena gracilis
has a whole host of new, unclassified genes which can make new forms of carbohydrates and natural products.[35][36] The venerable Euglena
Euglena
viridis was found to be genetically closer to Khawkinea quartana than to the other species of Euglena
Euglena
studied.[32] Recognizing the polyphyletic nature of the genus Euglena, Marin et al. (2003) have revised it to include certain members traditionally placed in Astasia and Khawkinea.[16] Human consumption[edit] Starting in 2005, Tokyo-based Euglena
Euglena
Company has started marketing Euglena-based food and beverage products, based on their provision of both plant- and animal-based nutrients.[37] While the fitness of euglena for human consumption had long been surmised, Euglena
Euglena
Co. was the first to develop a technique to cultivate and farm the microorganism in large enough quantities to be commercially viable.[38] The company's main production facility is located on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, due to favorable climate conditions. Euglena
Euglena
Company is also experimenting with the use of Euglena
Euglena
as a potential fuel source.[39] Video gallery[edit]

Play media

Red Euglena
Euglena
sp.

Play media

Euglena
Euglena
mutabilis, showing metaboly, paramylon bodies and chloroplasts

Play media

Euglena
Euglena
sanguinea

Play media

Euglena, moving by metaboly and swimming

See also[edit]

Elysia chlorotica Kleptoplasty

References[edit]

^ Adl, SM; Simpson, AG; Lane, CE; Lukeš, J; Bass, D (2012). "The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 59 (5): 429–493. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. PMC 3483872 . PMID 23020233.  ^ Guiry, MD; Guiry, GM. "Algaebase Taxonomy Browser". Algaebase. National University of Ireland. Retrieved 2015-05-11.  ^ "The Euglenoid Project: Alphabetic Listing of Taxa". The Euglenoid Project. Partnership for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Retrieved Sep 20, 2014.  ^ "The Euglenoid Project for Teachers". The Euglenoid Project for Teachers. Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Retrieved Sep 20, 2014.  ^ Wolosski, Konrad. "Phylum Euglenophyta". In John, David M.; Whitton, Brian A.; Brook, Alan J. The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles: an Identification Guide to Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-521-77051-4.  ^ Russell, A. G.; Watanabe, Y; Charette, JM; Gray, MW (2005). "Unusual features of fibrillarin cDNA and gene structure in Euglena
Euglena
gracilis: Evolutionary conservation of core proteins and structural predictions for methylation-guide box C/D snoRNPs throughout the domain Eucarya". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (9): 2781–91. doi:10.1093/nar/gki574. PMC 1126904 . PMID 15894796.  ^ Margulis, Lynn (2007). "Power to the Protoctists". In Margulis, Lynn; Sagan, Dorion. Dazzle Gradually: Reflections on the Nature of Nature. White River Junction: Chelsea Green. pp. 29–35. ISBN 978-1-60358-136-3.  ^ Keeble, Frederick (1912). Plant-animals: a study in symbiosis. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–4. OCLC 297937639.  ^ Solomon, Eldra Pearl; Berg, Linda R.; Martin, Diana W., eds. (2005). "Kingdoms or Domains?". Biology (7th ed.). Belmont: Brooks/Cole Thompson Learning. pp. 421–7. ISBN 978-0-534-49276-2.  ^ Leadbeater, Barry S. C.; Green, John C. (2002-09-11). Flagellates: Unity, Diversity and Evolution. CRC Press. ISBN 9780203484814.  ^ Pringsheim, E. G.; Hovasse, R. (1948-06-01). "The Loss of Chromatophores in Euglena
Euglena
Gracilis". New Phytologist. 47 (1): 52–87. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1948.tb05092.x.  ^ Nisbet, Brenda (1984). Nutrition and Feeding Strategies in Protozoa. p. 73. ISBN 0-7099-1800-3.  ^ Gibbs, Sarah P. (1978). "The chloroplasts of Euglena
Euglena
may have evolved from symbiotic green algae". Canadian Journal of Botany. 56 (22): 2883–9. doi:10.1139/b78-345.  ^ Henze, Katrin; Badr, Abdelfattah; Wettern, Michael; Cerff, Rudiger; Martin, William (1995). "A Nuclear Gene of Eubacterial Origin in Euglena gracilis
Euglena gracilis
Reflects Cryptic Endosymbioses During Protist Evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (20): 9122–6. Bibcode:1995PNAS...92.9122H. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.20.9122. JSTOR 2368422. PMC 40936 . PMID 7568085.  ^ Nudelman, Mara Alejandra; Rossi, Mara Susana; Conforti, Visitacin; Triemer, Richard E. (2003). "Phylogeny of euglenophyceae based on small subunit rDNA sequences: Taxonomic implications". Journal of Phycology. 39 (1): 226–35. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02075.x.  ^ a b Marin, B; Palm, A; Klingberg, M; Melkonian, M (2003). "Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure". Protist. 154 (1): 99–145. doi:10.1078/143446103764928521. PMID 12812373.  ^ a b Schaechter, Moselio (2011). Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
Microbes. San Diego: Elsevier/Academic Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-12-383876-6.  ^ O'Neill, Ellis (2013). An exploration of phosphorylases for the synthesis of carbohydrate polymers (PhD thesis). University of East Anglia. pp. 170–171.  ^ Gojdics, Mary (1934). "The Cell Morphology and Division of Euglena deses Ehrbg". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 53 (4): 299–310. doi:10.2307/3222381. JSTOR 3222381.  ^ Lee, John J. (2000). An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa: organisms traditionally referred to as protozoa, or newly discovered groups. 2 (2nd ed.). Lawrence, Kansas: Society of Protozoologists. p. 1137.  ^ Dobell, Clifford (1960) [1932]. Antony van Leeuwenhoek and his 'Little Animals'. New York: Dover. p. 111. ISBN 0-486-60594-9.  ^ Harris, J. (1695). "Some Microscopical Observations of Vast Numbers of Animalcula Seen in Water by John Harris, M. A. Kector of Winchelsea in Sussex, and F. R. S". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 19 (215–235): 254–9. Bibcode:1695RSPT...19..254H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1695.0036. JSTOR 102304.  ^ Müller, Otto Frederik; Fabricius, Otto (1786). Animalcula Infusoria, Fluvia Tilia et Marina. Hauniae, Typis N. Mölleri. pp. 126, 473.  ^ Ehrenberg, C. Organisation, Systematik und geographisches Verhältnifs der Infusionsthierchen. Vol. II. Berlin, 1830. pp 58-9 ^ Pritchard, Andrew (1845). A history of Infusoria, living and fossil: arranged according to 'Die Infusionsthierchen' of C.G. Ehrenberg. London: Whittaker. p. 86. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t5fb4z64c.  ^ "Notes and Queries". Notes and Queries. 12 (13): 459. July–December 1855.  ^ "Merriam-Webster online dictionary". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 July 2005.  ^ Dujardin, Félix (1841). Histoire Naturelle des Zoophytes. Infusoires, comprenant la Physiologie et la Classification de ces Animaux, et la Manière de les Étudier a l'aide du Microscope. Paris. p. 358.  ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.-Y. (2003). "Phylogeny and Classification of Phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa)". Protist. 154 (3–4): 341–58. doi:10.1078/143446103322454112. PMID 14658494.  ^ a b Pringsheim, E. G. (1948). "Taxonomic Problems in the Euglenineae". Biological Reviews. 23 (1): 46–61. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1948.tb00456.x. PMID 18901101.  ^ Schwartz, Adelheid (2007). "F. E. Fritsch, the Structure and Reproduction of the Algae Vol. I/II. XIII und 791, XIV und 939 S., 245 und 336 Abb., 2 und 2 Karten. Cambridge 1965 (reprinted): Cambridge University Press 90 S je Band". Zeitschrift für allgemeine Mikrobiologie. 7 (2): 168–9. doi:10.1002/jobm.19670070220.  ^ a b Linton, Eric W.; Hittner, Dana; Lewandowski, Carole; Auld, Theresa; Triemer, Richard E. (1999). "A Molecular Study of Euglenoid Phylogeny using Small Subunit rDNA". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 46 (2): 217–23. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1999.tb04606.x. PMID 10361741.  ^ Gockel, Gabriele; Hachtel, Wolfgang; Baier, Susanne; Fliss, Christian; Henke, Mark (1994). "Genes for components of the chloroplast translational apparatus are conserved in the reduced 73-kb plastid DNA of the nonphotosynthetic euglenoid flagellate Astasia longa". Current Genetics. 26 (3): 256–62. doi:10.1007/BF00309557. PMID 7859309.  ^ Montegut-Felkner, Ann E.; Triemer, Richard E. (1997). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Selected Euglenoid Genera Based on Morphological and Molecular Data". Journal of Phycology. 33 (3): 512–9. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.00512.x.  ^ The potential in your pond published on August 14, 2015 by the "John Innes Centre" ^ O'Neill, Ellis C.; Trick, Martin; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Dusi, Renata G.; Hamilton, Christopher J.; Zimba, Paul V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Field, Robert A. (2015). "The transcriptome of Euglena gracilis reveals unexpected metabolic capabilities for carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry". Molecular Biosystems. 11 (10): 2808–21. doi:10.1039/C5MB00319A.  ^ http://www.euglena.jp/en/company/profile.html ^ https://blogs.wsj.com/speakeasy/2013/07/25/is-this-the-future-of-food/ ^ NHK World, Rising, 26 June 2015

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Euglena

Look up euglena in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Euglenoid Project Tree of Life web project: Euglenida Protist
Protist
Images: Euglena Euglena
Euglena
at Droplet - Microscopy of the Protozoa Images and taxonomy Constantopoulos, George; Bloch, Konrad (1967). "Effect of Light Intensity on the Lipid Composition of Euglena
Euglena
gracilis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 242 (15): 3538–42. 

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Eukaryota

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Diaphoretickes

Archaeplastida

Glaucophyta Rhodophyta

Viridiplantae Plantae s.s.

Chlorophyta Streptophyta

Cryptista

Corbihelia Cryptophyta

A+H

Ancoracysta twista Haptista

Centroheliozoa Haptophyta

SAR

Halvaria

Alveolata

Ciliates Miozoa

Acavomonadia Colponemidia Myzozoa

Stramenopiles (heterokonts)

Bicosoecea Developea Hyphochytrea Ochrophyta Peronosporomycota Pirsoniomycota Placidozoa Platysulcea Sagenista

Rhizaria

Filosa Phytomyxea Retaria

Ectoreta Marimyxia

Vampyrellidea

Incertae sedis

Kamera lens

Excavata

Ancyromonadida Malawimonadea Metamonada
Metamonada
(Anaeromonada, Trichozoa)

Discoba

Jakobea Tsukubea

Discicristata

Euglenozoa Percolozoa

Podiata

Amorphea

Amoebozoa

Conosa
Conosa
(Archamoebae, Semiconosia) Lobosa
Lobosa
(Cutosea, Discosea, Tubulinea)

Obazoa

Apusomonadida Breviatea

Opisthokonta

Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea Opisthosporidia

Aphelida Cryptomycota Microsporidia

True fungi

Holozoa

Choanoflagellates Filasterea Metazoa or Animals Ichthyosporea Pluriformea

Syssomonas Corallochytrea

CRuMs

Diphyllatea Mantamonadida Rigifilida Discocelida? Micronucleariida?

Incertae sedis

Parakaryon myojinensis †Acritarcha †Charnia †Gakarusia †Galaxiopsis †Grypania †Leptoteichos

Major kingdoms are underlined. See also: protist. Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies.

v t e

Excavata

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Discoba

Discicristata

Euglenozoa

Postgaardia

Postgaardea

Bihospitida

Bihospitidae

Postgaardida

Calkinsiidae Postgaardidae

Glycomonada

Diplonemea

Diplonemida

Diplonemidae Hemistasiidae

Kinetoplastea

Bordnamonadida Trypanophidida Prokinetoplastida Neobodonida Parabodonida Bodonida Trypanosomatida

Euglenida

Entosiphonea

Entosiphonida

Entosiphonidae

Stavomonadea

Heterostavida

Serpenomonadidae

Decastavida

Decastavidae Keelungiidae

Petalomonadida

Sphenomonadidae Petalomonadidae

Ploeotarea

Ploeotiida

Lentomonadidae Ploeotiidae

Peranemea

Peranemida

Pseudoperanemataceae

Anisonemida

Anisonemidae

Natomonadida

Neometanemidae Distigmidae Astasiidae

Acroglissida

Teloproctidae

Euglenophyceae

Rapazida

Rapazidae

Eutreptiales

Eutreptiaceae

Euglenales

Euglenomorphaceae Phacaceae Euglenaceae

Percolozoa

Pharyngomonadidea

Pharyngomonadida

Pharyngomonadidae

Heterolobosea

Lyromonadida

Plaesiobystridae Gruberellidae Psalteriomonadidae

Acrasida

Acrasidae Guttulinidae

Schizopyrenida

Naegleriidae Vahlkampfiidae Neovahlkampfiidae Paravahlkampfiidae Euhyperamoebidae

Percolatea

Percolomonas Stephanopogon

Jakobea

Jakobida

Andaluciidae Stygiellidae Moramonadidae Jakobidae Histionidae

Tsukubea

Tsukubamonadida

Tsukubamonadidae

Loukozoa

Metamonad

Trichozoa

Parabasalia

Chilomitea

Chilomitida

Chilomitidae

Trichonymphea

Lophomonadida

Lophomonadidae

Trichonymphida

Hoplonymphidae Spirotrichosomidae Staurojoeninidae Teranymphidae Trichonymphidae

Trichomonadea

Trichomonadida

Hypotrichomonadidae Tricercomitidae Hexamastigidae Honigbergiellidae Trichomonadidae

Trichocovinida

Trichocovinidae

Tritrichomonadida

Dientamoebidae Monocercomonadidae Simplicimonadidae Tritrichomonadidae

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Cristamonadida

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Carpediemonadidae

Other

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Trimastigidae

Oxymonadida

Polymastigidae Saccinobaculidae Pyrsonymphidae Streblomastigidae Oxymonadidae

Neolouka

Malawimonadea

Malawimonadida

Malawimonadidae

Ancyromonadida

Ancyromonadida

Ancyromonadida

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q236001 EoL: 11704 EPPO: 1EUGLG iNaturalist: 203631 ITIS: 9620 NCBI

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