The Info List - Eugene O'Neill

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Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was an American playwright and Nobel laureate
Nobel laureate
in Literature. His poetically titled plays were among the first to introduce into U.S. drama techniques of realism earlier associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, and Swedish playwright August Strindberg. The drama Long Day's Journey into Night is often numbered on the short list of the finest U.S. plays in the 20th century, alongside Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman.[1] O'Neill's plays were among the first to include speeches in American English vernacular and involve characters on the fringes of society. They struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations, but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair. Of his very few comedies, only one is well-known (Ah, Wilderness!).[2][3] Nearly all of his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism.


1 Early life 2 Career 3 Family life 4 Illness and death 5 Legacy 6 Museums and collections 7 Work

7.1 Full-length plays 7.2 One-act plays 7.3 Other works

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 Editions of O'Neill 10.2 Scholarly works

11 External links

Early life[edit] O'Neill was born in a hotel, the Barrett House, at Broadway and 43rd Street, on what was then Longacre Square (now Times Square).[4] A commemorative plaque was first dedicated there in 1957.[4][5] The site is now occupied by 1500 Broadway, which houses offices, retail, and ABC Studios.[6]

Portrait of O'Neill as a child, c. 1893

Birthplace plaque (1500 Broadway, northeast corner of 43rd & Broadway, NYC), presented by Circle in the Square.

He was the son of Irish immigrant actor James O'Neill and Mary Ellen Quinlan, who was also of Irish descent. Because his father was often on tour with a theatrical company, accompanied by Eugene's mother, O'Neill was sent to St. Aloysius Academy for Boys, a Catholic boarding school in the Riverdale section of the Bronx, where he found his only solace in books.[citation needed] His father suffered from alcoholism[citation needed] ; his mother from an addiction to morphine, prescribed to relieve the pains of the difficult birth of her third son, Eugene[7]. O'Neill spent his summers at the Monte Cristo Cottage
Monte Cristo Cottage
in New London, Connecticut
and also briefly attended Betts Academy
Betts Academy
in Stamford.[8] He attended Princeton University
Princeton University
for one year. Accounts vary as to why he left. He may have been dropped for attending too few classes,[9] been suspended for "conduct code violations,"[10] or "for breaking a window",[11] or according to a more concrete but possibly apocryphal account, because he threw "a beer bottle into the window of Professor Woodrow Wilson", the future president of the United States.[12] O'Neill spent several years at sea, during which he suffered from depression and alcoholism. Despite this, he had a deep love for the sea and it became a prominent theme in many of his plays, several of which are set on board ships like those on which he worked. O'Neill joined the Marine Transport Workers Union of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), which was fighting for improved living conditions for the working class using quick 'on the job' direct action.[13] O'Neill's parents and elder brother Jamie (who drank himself to death at the age of 45) died within three years of one another, not long after he had begun to make his mark in the theater. Career[edit] After his experience in 1912–13 at a sanatorium where he was recovering from tuberculosis, he decided to devote himself full-time to writing plays (the events immediately prior to going to the sanatorium are dramatized in his masterpiece, Long Day's Journey into Night).[citation needed] O'Neill had previously been employed by the New London Telegraph, writing poetry as well as reporting. In the fall of 1914, he entered Harvard University to attend a course in dramatic technique given by Professor George Baker. He left after one year and did not complete the course.[citation needed]

O'Neill's first play, Bound East for Cardiff, premiered at this theatre on a wharf in Provincetown, Massachusetts.

During the 1910s O'Neill was a regular on the Greenwich Village literary scene, where he also befriended many radicals, most notably Communist Labor Party of America
Communist Labor Party of America
founder John Reed. O'Neill also had a brief romantic relationship with Reed's wife, writer Louise Bryant.[citation needed] O'Neill was portrayed by Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
in the 1981 film Reds, about the life of John Reed. His involvement with the Provincetown Players
Provincetown Players
began in mid-1916.[citation needed] O'Neill is said[by whom?] to have arrived for the summer in Provincetown with "a trunk full of plays."[citation needed] Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell
describes a reading of Bound East for Cardiff that took place in the living room of Glaspell and her husband George Cram Cook's home on Commercial Street, adjacent to the wharf (pictured) that was used by the Players for their theater: "So Gene took Bound East for Cardiff out of his trunk, and Freddie Burt read it to us, Gene staying out in the dining-room while reading went on. He was not left alone in the dining-room when the reading had finished."[14] The Provincetown Players
Provincetown Players
performed many of O'Neill's early works in their theaters both in Provincetown and on MacDougal Street in Greenwich Village. Some of these early plays began downtown and then moved to Broadway.[citation needed] O'Neill's first published play, Beyond the Horizon, opened on Broadway in 1920 to great acclaim, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. His first major hit was The Emperor Jones, which ran on Broadway in 1920 and obliquely commented on the U.S. occupation of Haiti that was a topic of debate in that year's presidential election.[15] His best-known plays include Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(Pulitzer Prize 1922), Desire Under the Elms
Desire Under the Elms
(1924), Strange Interlude
Strange Interlude
(Pulitzer Prize 1928), Mourning Becomes Electra (1931), and his only well-known comedy, Ah, Wilderness!,[3][16] a wistful re-imagining of his youth as he wished it had been. In 1936 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature after he had been nominated that year by Henrik Schück, member of the Swedish Academy.[17] After a ten-year pause, O'Neill's now-renowned play The Iceman Cometh was produced in 1946. The following year's A Moon for the Misbegotten
A Moon for the Misbegotten
failed, and it was decades before coming to be considered as among his best works.[citation needed] He was also part of the modern movement to partially revive the classical heroic mask from ancient Greek theatre and Japanese Noh theatre in some of his plays, such as The Great God Brown and Lazarus Laughed.[18] Family life[edit]

"Spithead", the 18th century Bermudian home of Hezekiah Frith
Hezekiah Frith
and 20th century home of Eugene O'Neill.

O'Neill in the mid-1930s. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1936

O'Neill was married to Kathleen Jenkins from October 2, 1909 to 1912, during which time they had one son, Eugene O'Neill, Jr. (1910–1950). In 1917, O'Neill met Agnes Boulton, a successful writer of commercial fiction, and they married on April 12, 1918. They lived in a home owned by her parents in Point Pleasant, New Jersey
Point Pleasant, New Jersey
after their marriage.[19] The years of their marriage—during which the couple lived in Connecticut
and Bermuda
and had two children, Shane and Oona—are described vividly in her 1958 memoir Part of a Long Story. They divorced in 1929, after O'Neill abandoned Boulton and the children for the actress Carlotta Monterey
Carlotta Monterey
(born San Francisco, California, December 28, 1888; died Westwood, New Jersey, November 18, 1970). O'Neill and Carlotta married less than a month after he officially divorced his previous wife.[20]

Actress Carlotta Monterey
Carlotta Monterey
in Plymouth Theatre
Plymouth Theatre
production of O'Neill's The Hairy Ape, 1922. Monterey later became the playwright's third wife.

In 1929, O'Neill and Monterey moved to the Loire Valley
Loire Valley
in central France, where they lived in the Château du Plessis in Saint-Antoine-du-Rocher, Indre-et-Loire. During the early 1930s they returned to the United States
United States
and lived in Sea Island, Georgia, at a house called Casa Genotta. He moved to Danville, California
Danville, California
in 1937 and lived there until 1944. His house there, Tao House, is today the Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
National Historic Site. In their first years together, Monterey organized O'Neill's life, enabling him to devote himself to writing. She later became addicted to potassium bromide, and the marriage deteriorated, resulting in a number of separations, although they never divorced.

The Chaplins and six of their eight children in 1961. From left to right: Geraldine, Eugene, Victoria, Chaplin, Oona O'Neill, Annette, Josephine and Michael.

In 1943, O'Neill disowned his daughter Oona for marrying the English actor, director, and producer Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
when she was 18 and Chaplin was 54. He never saw Oona again. He also had distant relationships with his sons. Eugene O'Neill, Jr., a Yale
classicist, suffered from alcoholism and committed suicide in 1950 at the age of 40. Shane O'Neill became a heroin addict and moved into the family home in Bermuda, Spithead, with his new wife, where he supported himself by selling off the furnishings. He was disowned by his father before also committing suicide (by jumping out of a window) a number of years later. Oona ultimately inherited Spithead and the connected estate (subsequently known as the Chaplin Estate).[21] In 1950 O'Neill joined The Lambs, the famed theater club.

Child Date of birth Date of death

Eugene O'Neill, Jr 1910 1950

Shane O'Neill 1918 1977

Oona O'Neill 5/14/1925 9/27/1991

Illness and death[edit] After suffering from multiple health problems (including depression and alcoholism) over many years, O'Neill ultimately faced a severe Parkinsons-like tremor in his hands which made it impossible for him to write during the last 10 years of his life; he had tried using dictation but found himself unable to compose in that way.[citation needed] While at Tao House, O’Neill had intended to write a cycle of 11 plays chronicling an American family since the 1800s.[citation needed] Only two of these, A Touch of the Poet
A Touch of the Poet
and More Stately Mansions, were ever completed. As his health worsened, O’Neill lost inspiration for the project and wrote three largely autobiographical plays, The Iceman Cometh, Long Day's Journey into Night, and A Moon for the Misbegotten. He managed to complete Moon for the Misbegotten in 1943, just before leaving Tao House and losing his ability to write. Drafts of many other uncompleted plays were destroyed by Carlotta at Eugene’s request.[citation needed]

Grave of Eugene O'Neill

O'Neill stamp issued in 1967

O'Neill died in Room 401 of the Sheraton Hotel (now Boston University's Shelton Hall) on Bay State Road in Boston, on November 27, 1953, at the age of 65. As he was dying, he whispered his last words: "I knew it. I knew it. Born in a hotel room and died in a hotel room."[22] Dr. Harry Kozol, the lead prosecuting expert of the Patty Hearst trial, treated O'Neill during these last years of illness.[citation needed] He also was present for O'Neill's death and announced the fact to the public.[23] O'Neill is interred in the Forest Hills Cemetery
Forest Hills Cemetery
in Boston's Jamaica Plain neighborhood. In 1956 Carlotta arranged for his autobiographical play Long Day's Journey into Night to be published, although his written instructions had stipulated that it not be made public until 25 years after his death.[24] It was produced on stage to tremendous critical acclaim and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1957.[citation needed] This last play is widely considered to be his finest. Other posthumously-published works include A Touch of the Poet
A Touch of the Poet
(1958) and More Stately Mansions (1967). The United States
United States
Postal Service honored O'Neill with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) $1 postage stamp. Legacy[edit] In Warren Beatty's 1981 film Reds, O'Neill is portrayed by Jack Nicholson, who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance. George C. White founded the Eugene O'Neill Theatre
Eugene O'Neill Theatre
Center in Waterford, Connecticut
in 1964.[25] Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame.[26] O'Neill is referenced by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
in The Cup of Fury
The Cup of Fury
(1956), by J.K. Simmons' character in Whiplash (2014), and by Tony Stark
Tony Stark
in Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), specifically Long Day's Journey into Night. Museums and collections[edit] O'Neill's home in New London, Monte Cristo Cottage, was made a National Historic Landmark in 1971. His home in Danville, California, near San Francisco, was preserved as the Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
National Historic Site in 1976. Connecticut
College maintains the Louis Sheaffer Collection, consisting of material collected by the O'Neill biographer. The principal collection of O'Neill papers is at Yale
University. The Eugene O'Neill Theater Center
Eugene O'Neill Theater Center
in Waterford, Connecticut
fosters the development of new plays under his name. There is also a Theatre in New York City
New York City
named after him located at 230 West 49th Street in midtown-Manhattan. The Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
Theatre has housed musicals and plays such as Yentl, Annie, Grease, M. Butterfly, Spring Awakening, and The Book of Mormon. Work[edit] See also: Category:Plays by Eugene O'Neill

Full-length plays[edit]

Bread and Butter, 1914 Servitude, 1914 The Personal Equation, 1915 Now I Ask You, 1916 Beyond the Horizon, 1918 - Pulitzer Prize, 1920 The Straw, 1919 Chris Christophersen, 1919 Gold, 1920 Anna Christie, 1920 - Pulitzer Prize, 1922 The Emperor Jones, 1920 Diff'rent, 1921 The First Man, 1922 The Hairy Ape, 1922 The Fountain, 1923 Marco Millions, 1923–25 All God's Chillun Got Wings, 1924 Welded, 1924 Desire Under the Elms, 1924 Lazarus Laughed, 1925–26 The Great God Brown, 1926 Strange Interlude, 1928 - Pulitzer Prize Dynamo, 1929 Mourning Becomes Electra, 1931 Ah, Wilderness!, 1933 Days Without End, 1933 The Iceman Cometh, written 1939, published 1940, first performed 1946 Long Day's Journey into Night, written 1941, first performed 1956; Pulitzer Prize 1957 A Moon for the Misbegotten, written 1941–1943, first performed 1947 A Touch of the Poet, completed in 1942, first performed 1958 More Stately Mansions, second draft found in O'Neill's papers, first performed 1967 The Calms of Capricorn, published in 1983

One-act plays[edit] The Glencairn Plays, all of which feature characters on the fictional ship Glencairn—filmed together as The Long Voyage Home:

Bound East for Cardiff, 1914 In the Zone, 1917 The Long Voyage Home, 1917 Moon of the Caribbees, 1918

Other one-act plays include:

A Wife for a Life, 1913 The Web, 1913 Thirst, 1913 Recklessness, 1913 Warnings, 1913 Fog, 1914 Abortion, 1914 The Movie Man: A Comedy, 1914[3][27] The Sniper, 1915 Before Breakfast, 1916 Ile, 1917 The Rope, 1918 Shell Shock, 1918 The Dreamy Kid, 1918 Where the Cross Is Made, 1918 Exorcism 1919[28] Hughie, written 1941, first performed 1959

Other works[edit]

The Last Will and Testament of an Extremely Distinguished Dog, 1940. Written to comfort Carlotta as their "child" Blemie was approaching his death in December 1940.[29]

See also[edit]

Biography portal

The Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill


^ Harold Bloom (2007). Introduction. In: Bloom (Ed.), Tennessee Williams, updated edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 2. ^ The New York Times, August 25, 2003: 'Next year Playwrights Theater will present an unproduced O'Neill comedy, Now I Ask You, a comic spin on Ibsen's Hedda Gabler." ^ a b c The Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
Foundation newsletter: "Now I Ask You, along with The Movie Man, ... is the only surviving comedy from O’Neill’s early years." ^ a b Gelb, Arthur (October 17, 1957). "O'Neill's Birthplace Is Marked By Plaque at Times Square
Times Square
Site". The New York Times. p. 35. Retrieved November 13, 2008.  ^ Simonson, Robert (July 23, 2012). "Ask Playbill.com: A Question About Eugene O'Neill's Birthplace, in a Broadway Hotel". Playbill. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ Henderson, Kathy (April 21, 2009). "The Tragic Roots of Eugene O'Neill's Desire Under the Elms". Broadway.com. Retrieved November 8, 2015.  ^ Londré, Felicia (2016). "Eugene O'neill: A Life in Four Acts by Robert M. Dowling, and: Eugene O'neill: The Contemporary Reviews ed. by Jackson R. Bryer and Robert M. Dowiling (review)". Theatre History Studies. 35: 351–353 – via Project Muse.  ^ "Spelled Freedom" From:Stamford Past & Present, 1641 – 1976 The Commemorative Publication of the Stamford Bicentennial Committee (Stamford Historical Society http://www.stamfordhistory.org/pp_ed.htm ^ Manheim, Michael, ed. (1998). The Cambridge Companion to Eugene O'Neil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 97.  ^ Bloom, Steven F. (2007). Student Companion to Eugene O'Neil. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 3.  ^ Abbotson, Susan C.W. (2005). Masterpieces of 20th-Century American Drama. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 8.  ^ O'Neill, Eugene (1959). Ah, Wilderness!. Frankfurt am Main: Hirschgraben-Verlag. p. 3.  ^ Patrick Murfin. "The Sailor Who Became "America's Shakespeare"". Heretic, Rebel, a Thing to Flout. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ Glaspell, Susan (1941) [1927]. The Road to the Temple (2nd ed.). New York: Frederick A. Stokes. p. 255.  ^ Renda, Mary (2001). Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 198–212. ISBN 0-8078-4938-3.  ^ van Gelder, Lawrence (August 25, 2003). "Arts Briefing". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ "Nomination Database". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ Smith, Susan Harris (1984). Masks in Modern Drama. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 66–70, 106–08, 131–36, index S124. ISBN 0-520-05095-9.  ^ Cheslow, Jerry. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Point Pleasant, N.J.; A Borough With a Variety of Boating", The New York Times, November 9, 2003. Accessed January 25, 2015. "The most famous Point Pleasant resident was Eugene O'Neill, who married a local girl named Agnes Boulton
Agnes Boulton
and grumbled about being bored through the winter of 1918-19, as he lived rent free in a home owned by Agnes's parents. ^ " Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
Wed to Miss Monterey". The New York Times. 1929-07-24. p. 9. Retrieved 2008-11-13.  ^ "Bermuda's Warwick Parish".  ^ Sheaffer, Louis (1973). O'Neill: Son and Artist. Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 0-316-78337-4.  ^ " Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
Dies of Pneumonia; Playwright, 65, Won Nobel Prize". The New York Times. November 28, 1953. Retrieved November 8, 2016.  ^ Carlotta’s Obituary ^ " Eugene O'Neill Theatre
Eugene O'Neill Theatre
Center Website". Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members".  ^ Title as in original typescript and title page of Modern Library edition ^ "Exorcism". Yale
U. Library Acquires Lost Play by Eugene O'Neill. Chronicle of Higher Education. October 19, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.  (The play, set in 1912, is based on O’Neill’s suicide attempt from an overdose of barbiturates in a Manhattan rooming house. After its premiere in 1920, O’Neill canceled the production and, it had been thought, destroyed all copies.) ^ O'Neill, Eugene; Yorinks, Adrienne (1999). The Last Will and Testament of an Extremely Distinguished Dog (First ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 0-8050-6170-3. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 

Further reading[edit] Editions of O'Neill[edit]

O'Neill, Eugene; Bogard, Travis (1988). Complete Plays 1913–1920. The Library of America. 40. New York: Literary Classics. ISBN 0-940450-48-8.  O'Neill, Eugene; Bogard, Travis (1988). Complete Plays 1920–1931. The Library of America. 41. New York: Literary Classics. ISBN 0-940450-49-6.  O'Neill, Eugene; Bogard, Travis (1988). Complete Plays 1932–1943. The Library of America. 42. New York: Literary Classics. ISBN 0-940450-50-X. 

Scholarly works[edit]

Black, Stephen A. (2002). Eugene O'Neill: Beyond Mourning and Tragedy. Yale
University press. ISBN 0-300-09399-3.  Clark, Barrett H. (November 1932). "Aeschylus and O'Neill". The English Journal. XXI (9): 699–710. doi:10.2307/804473. JSTOR 804473.  Clark, Barrett H. (1926). Eugene O'Neill: The Man and His Plays. Dover Publications, Inc. New York.  Dowling, Robert M. (2014). Eugene O'Neill: A Life in Four Acts. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17033-7.  Floyd, Virginia (editor) (1979). Eugene O'Neill: A World View. Frederick Unger. ISBN 0-8044-2204-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Floyd, Virginia (1985). The Plays of Eugene O'Neill: A New Assessment. Frederick Unger. ISBN 0-8044-2206-0.  Gelb, Arthur; Gelb, Barbara (2000). O'Neill: Life with Monte Christo. Applause/Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-399-14912-0.  Gelb, Arthur; Gelb, Barbara (2016). By Women Possessed: A Life of Eugene O’Neill. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. ISBN 978-0-399-15911-4.  Sheaffer, Louis (2002) [1968]. O'Neill Volume I: Son and Playwright. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1243-6.  Sheaffer, Louis (1999) [1973]. O'Neill Volume II: Son and Artist. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1244-4.  Tiusanen, Timo (1968). O’Neill’s Scenic Images (Ph.D. thesis, University of Helsinki). Princeton: Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. LCCN 68-20882.  Wainscott, Ronald H. (1988). Staging O’Neill: The Experimental Years. Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-300-04152-7.  Winther, Sophus Keith (1934). Eugene O’Neill: A Critical Study. New York: Random House. OCLC 900356. 

External links[edit]

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official website Casa Genotta official website Works by Eugene O'Neill
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at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Eugene O'Neill
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(public domain audiobooks) Works by Eugene O'Neill
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at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
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at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Eugene O'Neill
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on IMDb Eugene O'Neill
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PlaybillVault.com Eugene O'Neil Autobiography at the Nobel Foundation The Iceman Cometh: A Study Guide Eugene O'Neill: A Life in Four Acts Robert M. Dowling at Amazon Works by Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
at Project Gutenberg
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Australia Eugene O'Neill
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National Historic Site American Experience - Eugene O'Neill: A Documentary Film on PBS Works by Eugene O'Neill
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(public domain in Canada) Haunted by Eugene O'Neill—Article in BU Today, Sept. 29, 2009 Eugene O’Neill: the sailor, the sickness, the stage from the Museum of the City of New York Collections blog Carlotta O'Neill notebook of letters and photographs, 1927-1954, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. The notebook contains handwritten transcriptions by Carlotta O'Neill of letters and inscriptions to her from her husband, Eugene O'Neill, and photographs, mostly portraits of Eugene and Carlotta O'Neill.

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Warren S. Stone Cover of Time magazine March 17, 1924 Succeeded by Raymond Poincaré

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Eugene O'Neill


In the Zone (1917) Beyond the Horizon (1918) Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1920) The Emperor Jones
The Emperor Jones
(1920) The Hairy Ape
The Hairy Ape
(1922) All God's Chillun Got Wings (1924) Desire Under the Elms
Desire Under the Elms
(1925) Lazarus Laughed (1925–26) The Great God Brown (1926) Strange Interlude
Strange Interlude
(1928) Dynamo (1929) Mourning Becomes Electra (1931) Ah, Wilderness!
Ah, Wilderness!
(1933) The Iceman Cometh (1939) Hughie (1941) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(1941) A Moon for the Misbegotten
A Moon for the Misbegotten
(1943) A Touch of the Poet
A Touch of the Poet
(1942) More Stately Mansions


Anna Christie

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1923 film) Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1930 English-language film) Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1930 German-language film) New Girl in Town
New Girl in Town
(1957 musical)

The Emperor Jones

The Emperor Jones
The Emperor Jones
(1933 film) The Emperor Jones
The Emperor Jones
(1933 opera) The Emperor Jones
The Emperor Jones
(1955 film)

Mourning Becomes Electra

Mourning Becomes Electra (1947 film) Mourning Becomes Electra (1967 opera)

Ah, Wilderness!

Ah, Wilderness!
Ah, Wilderness!
(1935 film) Summer Holiday (1948 musical film) Take Me Along
Take Me Along
(1959 musical)

The Iceman Cometh

The Iceman Cometh (The Play of the Week) The Iceman Cometh (1973 film)

Long Day's Journey into Night

Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(1962 film) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(1973 film) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(1996 film)


Strange Interlude
Strange Interlude
(1932 film) The Long Voyage Home
The Long Voyage Home
(1940 film)


James O'Neill (father) Ella O'Neill (mother) Eugene O'Neill Jr. (son) Agnes Boulton
Agnes Boulton
(second wife) Carlotta Monterey
Carlotta Monterey
(third wife) Oona O'Neill
Oona O'Neill
(daughter) Geraldine Chaplin
Geraldine Chaplin
(granddaughter) Oona Chaplin
Oona Chaplin


Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
National Historic Site Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
Award The Face of a Genius Monte Cristo Cottage Reds (1981 film)

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Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature


1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw


1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell


1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale


1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian


2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

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Pulitzer Prize for Drama: Authors

Jesse Lynch Williams (1918) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1920) Zona Gale
Zona Gale
(1921) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1922) Owen Davis
Owen Davis
(1923) Hatcher Hughes (1924) Sidney Howard
Sidney Howard
(1925) George Kelly (1926) Paul Green (1927) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1928) Elmer Rice
Elmer Rice
(1929) Marc Connelly
Marc Connelly
(1930) Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell
(1931) George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind and Ira Gershwin
Ira Gershwin
(1932) Maxwell Anderson
Maxwell Anderson
(1933) Sidney Kingsley
Sidney Kingsley
(1934) Zoe Akins
Zoe Akins
(1935) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1936) Moss Hart
Moss Hart
and George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
(1937) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1938) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1939) William Saroyan
William Saroyan
(1940) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1941) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1943) Mary Chase (1945) Russel Crouse and Howard Lindsay (1946) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1948) Arthur Miller
Arthur Miller
(1949) Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
and Joshua Logan (1950) Joseph Kramm (1952) William Inge
William Inge
(1953) John Patrick (1954) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1955) Albert Hackett
Albert Hackett
and Frances Goodrich (1956) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1957) Ketti Frings (1958) Archibald MacLeish
Archibald MacLeish
(1959) Jerome Weidman, George Abbott, Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
(1960) Tad Mosel
Tad Mosel
(1961) Frank Loesser
Frank Loesser
and Abe Burrows
Abe Burrows
(1962) Frank D. Gilroy (1965) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1967) Howard Sackler (1969) Charles Gordone (1970) Paul Zindel
Paul Zindel
(1971) Jason Miller (1973) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1975) Michael Bennett, Nicholas Dante, James Kirkwood Jr., Marvin Hamlisch and Edward Kleban (1976) Michael Cristofer
Michael Cristofer
(1977) Donald L. Coburn (1978) Sam Shepard
Sam Shepard
(1979) Lanford Wilson
Lanford Wilson
(1980) Beth Henley (1981) Charles Fuller (1982) Marsha Norman
Marsha Norman
(1983) David Mamet
David Mamet
(1984) James Lapine
James Lapine
and Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1985) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1987) Alfred Uhry
Alfred Uhry
(1988) Wendy Wasserstein
Wendy Wasserstein
(1989) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1990) Neil Simon
Neil Simon
(1991) Robert Schenkkan
Robert Schenkkan
(1992) Tony Kushner
Tony Kushner
(1993) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1994) Horton Foote (1995) Jonathan Larson (1996) Paula Vogel
Paula Vogel
(1998) Margaret Edson (1999) Donald Margulies
Donald Margulies
(2000) David Auburn (2001) Suzan-Lori Parks
Suzan-Lori Parks
(2002) Nilo Cruz
Nilo Cruz
(2003) Doug Wright (2004) John Patrick Shanley
John Patrick Shanley
(2005) David Lindsay-Abaire (2007) Tracy Letts
Tracy Letts
(2008) Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
(2009) Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey (2010) Bruce Norris (2011) Quiara Alegría Hudes (2012) Ayad Akhtar
Ayad Akhtar
(2013) Annie Baker
Annie Baker
(2014) Stephen Adly Guirgis (2015) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24615441 LCCN: n79092602 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 4715 GND: 118590014 SELIBR: 220970 SUDOC: 027304868 BNF: cb120267398 (data) MusicBrainz: db0e11f5-6e03-4afb-8623-d81600a5a6ab NLA: 35398872 NDL: 00451609 NKC: jn20000604273 BNE: XX837461 CiNii: DA01002