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Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
is a practice in the Catholic, Anglo-Catholic and some Lutheran
Lutheran
traditions, in which the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is adored by the faithful. This practice may occur either when the Eucharist
Eucharist
is exposed, or when it is not publicly viewable because it is reserved in a place such as a church tabernacle. Adoration
Adoration
is a sign of devotion to and worship of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, who is believed by Catholics to be present Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity, under the appearance of the consecrated host, that is, sacramental bread. From a theological perspective, the adoration is a form of latria, based on the tenet of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Host.[1] Christian meditation
Christian meditation
performed in the presence of the Eucharist outside Mass is called Eucharistic meditation. It has been practiced by such as Peter Julian Eymard, Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
and Thérèse of Lisieux. Authors such as the Venerable
Venerable
Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
and Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Maria Candida of the Eucharist
have produced large volumes of text based on their Eucharistic meditations. When the exposure and adoration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
is constant (twenty-four hours a day), it is called perpetual adoration. In a monastery or convent, it is done by the resident monks or nuns and, in a parish, by volunteer parishioners since the 20th century. In a prayer opening the Perpetual chapel in St. Peter Basilica, Pope John Paul II prayed for a perpetual adoration chapel in every parish in the world.[2] Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
instituted perpetual adoration for the laity in each of the five sectors of the diocese of Rome.[3]

Contents

1 Practice and context 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 16th–18th centuries 2.4 19th and 20th centuries

3 Christian traditions

3.1 Anglicans 3.2 Lutherans 3.3 Roman Catholics

3.3.1 Catholic prayers to the Blessed Sacrament

4 Eucharistic meditation 5 Perpetual adoration

5.1 Early traditions 5.2 20th and 21st centuries

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Works cited

8 External links

Practice and context[edit]

Ciborium St.Franziskus Kirche

Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
may be done both when the Eucharist
Eucharist
is exposed for viewing and when it is not.[4] It may take place in the context of the liturgical rite of Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
or an informal "visit" to pray before the tabernacle. Writer Valerie Schmalz notes that "During the first part of the twentieth century, it was common for Catholics, young and old, on their way home from work or school, en route to the grocery store or a sports practice, to "stop in for a visit" to the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
in their local church. Most times the Eucharist
Eucharist
was not exposed, but a red candle–then, as now–showed the Presence in the tabernacle."[5] Eucharistic exposition and benediction is a complete liturgical service in its own right,[6] and an extension of what is celebrated in the Eucharist.[7] At the beginning of the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, a priest or deacon removes the sacred host from the tabernacle and places it in the monstrance on the altar for adoration by the faithful. A monstrance is the vessel used to display the consecrated Eucharistic Host, during Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
or benediction. The adoration may also take place when the Eucharist
Eucharist
is not exposed but left in a ciborium, which is likewise placed on an altar or in an enclosed tabernacle so that the faithful may pray in its presence without the need for volunteers to be in constant attendance (as is required when the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is exposed).[8] The "Instruction on Eucharistic Worship", issued by the Sacred Congregation of Rites on the Feast of Corpus Christi, 25 May, 1967, reads in pertinent part, "The exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, for which either a monstrance or a ciborium may be used, stimulates the faithful to an awareness of the marvelous presence of Christ and is an invitation to spiritual communion with Him. It is therefore an excellent encouragement to offer Him that worship in spirit and truth which is His due."[9] Speaking to a gathering in Phoenix Park, during an three-day visit to Ireland, from September 29 to October 1, 1979, Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
said,

The visit to the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is a great treasure of the Catholic faith. It nourishes social love and gives us opportunities for adoration and thanksgiving, for reparation and supplication. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, Exposition and Adoration
Adoration
of the Blessed Sacrament, Holy Hours, and Eucharistic processions are likewise precious element of your heritage--in full accord with the teaching of the Second Vatican Council."[10]

As to the manner in which Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
is conducted, the "Instructions" state, "Even brief exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, ...should be so arranged that before the blessing with the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
reasonable time is provided for readings of the Word of God, hymns, prayers, and silent prayer, as circumstances permit." [11] While psalms, readings and devotional music may form part of the liturgical service, in common practice silent contemplation and reflection tend to predominate.[4] Where Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
is done by an individual for an uninterrupted hour, this is known as a Holy Hour. The inspiration for the Holy Hour
Holy Hour
is Matthew 26:40 when in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before his crucifixion, Jesus
Jesus
asks Peter: "So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?".[12] Some Christian denominations that do not subscribe to transubstantiation consider Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
unfounded and even bordering on idolatry.[13][14] Those who believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
would disagree.

Part of a series on

Eucharistic adoration of the Catholic Church

Solar monstrance of the Eucharist.

Papal documents

Mirae caritatis Dominicae Cenae Mysterium fidei Mediator Dei Ecclesia de Eucharistia

Organisations and events

Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament Servants of the Blessed Sacrament Perpetual Adorers Tabernacle
Tabernacle
Societies Eucharistic Congress

Notable individuals

Saint Francis of Assisi St. Peter Eymard St. John Vianney Marie Tamisier Leo Dupont Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen Mary Therese Vicente

Eucharistic meditators

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux Maria Candida Conchita de Armida Maria Valtorta

Catholicism portal

v t e

History[edit] See also: History of Catholic eucharistic theology Early history[edit] While the keeping of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
outside Mass seems to have been part of the Eucharistic Christian practice from the beginning, (both Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
and Tertullian
Tertullian
refer to it), the practice of adoration began somewhat later.[15] One of the first possible references to reserving the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
for adoration is found in a life of St. Basil
St. Basil
(died AD 379). Basil is said to have divided the Eucharistic bread into three parts when he celebrated the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
in the monastery. One part he consumed, the second part he gave to the monks, and the third he placed in a golden dove-shaped container suspended over the altar.[16] This separate portion was probably to reserve the sacrament for distribution to the sick who were unable to attend the liturgy.[17] In Eastern Christianity, the sort of extra-liturgical adoration which developed in the West has never been part of the Eastern liturgy which St. Basil
St. Basil
celebrated, but a liturgy for adoration does exist among the Eastern Catholic Churches, involving psalms and placing a covered diskos with the sacred species on the altar. This is befitting the Eastern custom of veiling those things deemed sacred from human eyes.[18] Middle Ages[edit]

Part of a series on the

Eucharist Lord's Supper • Communion

Elements

Bread Wine

Ritual and liturgy

Divine Liturgy Divine Service

Mass

Requiem Solemn

Consecration/Anaphora

Epiclesis Words of Institution Anamnesis

Practices and customs

Closed and Open Table Communion under both kinds

Adoration Discipline Thanksgiving

Reserved sacrament Feast of Corpus Christi First Communion Infant communion Viaticum

Vessels

Paten Chalice

History

Origin of the Eucharist Catholic historical roots

Theology

Real presence

Consubstantiation Impanation Metousiosis Receptionism Sacramental union Transignification Transubstantiation

Memorialism Sacrament Ordinance

Denominational teachings

Anglican Catholic Latter-day Saint Lutheran

Related articles

Black Mass Christian views on alcohol Host desecration

v t e

The theological basis for the adoration was prepared in the 11th century by Pope Gregory VII, who was instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ is present in the Blessed Host. In 1079, Gregory required of Berengar of Tours
Berengar of Tours
a confession of belief:

I believe in my heart and openly profess that the bread and wine that are placed on the altar are, through the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of the Redeemer, substantially changed into the true and proper and lifegiving flesh and blood of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
our Lord, and that after the consecration they are the true body of Christ[19]

This profession of faith began a "Eucharistic Renaissance" in the churches of Europe.[20] The Franciscan
Franciscan
archives credit Saint Francis of Assisi (who died in 1226) for starting Eucharistic Adoration
Adoration
in Italy. It then spread from Umbria
Umbria
to other parts of Italy.[21] In 1264 Pope Urban IV
Pope Urban IV
instituted the feast of Corpus Christi ("the Body of Christ") with the publication of the papal bull Transiturus. He asked the Dominican theologian, Thomas Aquinas, to write the texts for the Mass and Office of the feast.[22] This included such famous hymns as Panis angelicus, and Verbum Supernum Prodiens the last two strophes of which form the Benediction hymn O Salutaris Hostia. The last two verses of Pange Lingua, are sung as the hymn Tantum Ergo, also used at Benediction. As of the fourteenth century in The Western Church, devotions began to focus on the Eucharistic gifts as the objective presence of the risen Christ and the Host began to be elevated during the liturgy for the purpose of adoration.[23][page needed] 16th–18th centuries[edit] In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
was challenging various issues with respect to the Eucharist
Eucharist
and the Council of Trent responded to them via specific affirmations of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
and the theological basis for Eucharistic adoration. The Trent declaration was of the most significant theological component of Eucharistic doctrine since the apostolic age.[24] The statement included the following: The other sacraments do not have the power of sanctifying until someone makes use of them, but in the Eucharist
Eucharist
the very Author of sanctity is present before the Sacrament is used. For before the apostles received the Eucharist
Eucharist
from the hands of our Lord, He told them that it was His Body that He was giving them.[24] The council then declared Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
as a form of latria:

The only-begotten Son of God is to be adored in the Holy Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Eucharist
Eucharist
with the worship of "latria", including external worship. The Sacrament, therefore, is to be honored with extraordinary festive celebrations (and) solemnly carried from place to place in processions according to the praiseworthy universal rite and custom of the holy Church. The Sacrament
Sacrament
is to be publicly exposed for the people's adoration.[25]

Following the Council of Trent, figures such as Saints Charles Borromeo and Alain de Solminihac
Alain de Solminihac
promoted Eucharistic devotion and adoration.[26] As part of the simplification of Church interiors, and to emphasize the importance of the Blessed Sacrament, Charles Borromeo initiated the practice of placing the tabernacle at a higher, central location in the main altar. As Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
and Benediction became more widespread during the 17th century, the altar came to be seen as the "home of the Blessed Sacrament" where it would be adored.[27] A common early practice of adoration known as Quarantore (literary forty hours) started in the 16th century. It is an exercise of devotion in which continuous prayer is made for forty hours before the exposed Blessed Sacrament. This practice started in Milan in the 1530s and 1540s by Capuchins such as Giuseppe da Fermo who promoted long periods of adoration. From Northern Italy it was carried to elsewhere in Europe by the Capuchins and Jesuits.[28][29] The practice of the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament started in Naples in 1590 within the Order of the Clerics Regular Minor, founded by St. Francis Caracciolo, Fr. Augustine Adorno and Fr. Fabrizio Caracciolo. This practice was modified to continuous adoration during the day due to the few number of religious in the Order's Constitutions of 1597 with approval by Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
[30] At a later date, the Order would revert to its earlier rule of perpetual adoration, but only within houses of no less than twenty religious. The houses with less religious were offered perpetual adoration as an option if it would not interfere in the execution of the house's ministries. In the 18th century, large numbers of people were drawn to quiet adoration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
and priests such as Alphonsus Liguori encouraged the practice. He wrote a book on Visits to the Blessed Sacrament
Sacrament
and he explained that a visit to the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is the "practice of loving Jesus
Jesus
Christ", since friends who love each other visit regularly. Benedict Joseph Labre, a homeless beggar and Franciscan
Franciscan
tertiary, was a familiar figure in the city of Rome and known as the "saint of the Forty Hours" (or Quarant' Ore) for his dedication to Eucharistic adoration. 19th and 20th centuries[edit]

The Venerable
Venerable
Leo Dupont

St. Peter Julian Eymard

The French Revolution
French Revolution
hindered the practice of Eucharistic adoration, however, the beginning of the 19th century witnessed a strong emphasis on Eucharistic piety, devotions and adorations. By 1829, the efforts of the Confraternity of Penitents-Gris
Confraternity of Penitents-Gris
brought Eucharistic adoration back in France.[31] Twenty years later, the Venerable
Venerable
Leo Dupont initiated the nightly adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
in Tours
Tours
in 1849, from where it spread within France.[32] Saint Anthony Mary Claret, the confessor to Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II of Spain
and the founder of the Claretians, was also a fervent promoter of Eucharistic devotion and adoration and introduced the practice to Cuba, where he was sent as Archbishop.[33] The adoration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
within France
France
grew in this period and there were interactions between Catholic figures who were enthusiastic about spreading the practice e.g., Leo Dupont, Saint Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
and Saint Peter Julian Eymard, who in 1858, formed the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament.[34] Also in 1858, Eymard, known as the Apostle of the Eucharist, and sister Marguerite Guillot
Marguerite Guillot
formed the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament which now maintains houses on several continents where continuous Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
takes place.[35] By Decree of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, dated 9th December 1995, Saint Peter Julian Eymard, Priest, was added to the General Roman Calendar with the rank of optional memoria. Font and fullness of all evangelization and striking expression of the infinite love of our divine Redeemer for mankind, the Holy Eucharist clearly marked the life and pastoral activity of Peter Julian Eymard. He truly deserves to be called an outstanding apostle of the Eucharist. In fact, his mission in the Church consisted in promoting the centrality of the Eucharistic Mystery in the whole life of the Christian community. The first informally organized Eucharistic Congress
Eucharistic Congress
took place in 1874, through the efforts of Marie-MartheTamisier
Marie-MartheTamisier
of Tours, France. In 1881 Pope Leo XIII
Leo XIII
approved the first formal Eucharistic Congress which was organized by Louis-Gaston de Ségur
Louis-Gaston de Ségur
in Lille
Lille
France
France
and was attended by few adherents.[36] The 1905 congress took place in Rome and Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
presided over it.[37] The practice of prolonged Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
also spread to the United States
United States
in the 19th century and Saint John Neumann
Saint John Neumann
the Archbishop of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
started Forty Hours adorations there, where it continues to date.[38] Christian traditions[edit] Anglicans[edit] See also: Anglican Eucharistic theology Early Anglicanism officially rejected Eucharistic adoration. Article XXVIII — Of the Lord's Supper in Anglicanism's 39 Articles
39 Articles
rejects transubstantiation, declaring that " Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
(or the change of the substance of Bread and Wine) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a Sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions."[39] The Article also state that "The Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshiped."[39] Furthermore, the Black Rubric (in both its 1552 and 1662 versions) explain that "the Sacramental Bread and Wine remain still in their very natural substances, and therefore may not be adored; for that were Idolatry, to be abhorred of all faithful Christians". However, since the mid-19th century, the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
has broadened Anglican opinions on the matter. An early 20th century bishop, the Right Reverend Edgar Gibson, Bishop
Bishop
of Gloucester, wrote of Article 28 that "The statement in the Article is worded with the utmost care, and with studied moderation. It cannot be said that any one of the practices is condemned or prohibited by it. It only amounts to this: that none of them can claim to be part of the original Divine institution."[40] Today, opinions on the nature of the Eucharist
Eucharist
and thus on the propriety of adoration and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
vary in the Anglican tradition (see Anglican Eucharistic theology), but many Anglo-Catholics practice Eucharistic adoration.[citation needed] Others celebrate Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, which is not unlike Eucharistic adoration.[41] Lutherans[edit] See also: Eucharist
Eucharist
in the Lutheran
Lutheran
Church

Adoration
Adoration
at a High Lutheran
Lutheran
church in Kansas City, Missouri

Lutheran
Lutheran
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
is most commonly limited in duration to the Eucharistic service because Lutheran
Lutheran
tradition typically does not include public reservation of the Sacrament. If the holy elements are not consumed at the altar or after the service, then they can be set aside and placed in an aumbry, which is normally located in the sacristy. Primarily, the extra hosts are reserved for another Eucharist
Eucharist
or for taking to the sick and those too feeble to attend a church service. However, in North America and Europe, some Lutherans may choose to reserve the Eucharist
Eucharist
in a tabernacle near the altar. The Anglo- Lutheran
Lutheran
Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and some parishes in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic
Evangelical Catholic
tradition strongly encourage Eucharistic adoration. Historically in Lutheranism there have been two parties regarding Eucharistic adoration: Gnesio-Lutherans, who followed Martin Luther's view in favor of adoration, and Philippists
Philippists
who followed Philipp Melanchthon's view against it. Although Luther did not entirely approve of the Feast of Corpus Christi,[42] he wrote a treatise The Adoration
Adoration
of the Sacrament
Sacrament
(1523) where he defended adoration but desired that the issue not be forced. In his reform of the Roman Mass Luther placed the Sanctus
Sanctus
after the Institution Narrative to serve as a solemn act of worship of the Real Presence
Real Presence
just brought about by the latter. After the death of Martin Luther, further controversies developed including Crypto-Calvinism
Crypto-Calvinism
and the second Sacramentarian controversy, started by Gnesio- Lutheran
Lutheran
Joachim Westphal. The Philippist understanding of the Real Presence
Real Presence
without overt adoration through time became dominant in Lutheranism, although it is not in accordance with Luther's teaching. The German theologian Andreas Musculus can be regarded as one of the warmest defenders of Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
in early Lutheranism.[43] Roman Catholics[edit] See also: Eucharist
Eucharist
in the Catholic Church

Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
in the Chapel of the Apparitions
Chapel of the Apparitions
of the Sanctuary
Sanctuary
of Our Lady of Fátima in Portugal.

In Catholic teachings, at the moment of Consecration
Consecration
the elements (or "gifts" as they are termed for liturgical purposes) are changed in substance (transubstantiation – as opposed to 'transformation' wherein a change in physical form occurs) into the actual Body and Blood of Christ. Catholic doctrine holds that the elements are not only spiritually changed, but rather their substances are actually (substantially) changed into the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ. In the doctrine of Real Presence, at the point of Consecration, the act that takes place is a double miracle: 1) that Christ is present in a physical form and 2) that the bread and wine have truly, substantially become Jesus' Body and Blood. Because Roman Catholics believe that Christ is truly present (Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity) in the Eucharist, the reserved sacrament serves as a focal point of adoration. The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
states that: "The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist."[44][45] St. Faustina Kowalska
Faustina Kowalska
stated that she was called to religious life while attending the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
at age seven.[46] Notable examples of conversion are Saints Elizabeth Ann Seton and John Henry Newman, both having converted from Anglicanism, and the Venerable
Venerable
Hermann Cohen (Carmelite), O.C.D., from Judaism, following Eucharistic adoration. Cohen went on to help establish the widespread practice of nocturnal adoration. The practice of a "daily Holy Hour" of adoration has been encouraged in the Catholic tradition. Mother Teresa of Calcutta
Mother Teresa of Calcutta
had a Holy Hour each day and all members of her Missionaries of Charity
Missionaries of Charity
followed her example.[47] Since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the practice of Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
outside Mass has been encouraged by the popes.[48] In the midst of the Second Vatican Council, on 3 September 1965, a few days before opening the fourth session, Pope Paul VI
Paul VI
issued the Encyclical
Encyclical
Mysterium fidei whereby he urged daily Mass and communion and said, "And they should not forget about paying a visit during the day to the Most Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
in the very special place of honor where it is reserved in churches in keeping with the liturgical laws, since this is a proof of gratitude and a pledge of love and a display of the adoration that is owed to Christ the Lord who is present there."[49] "The daily adoration or visit to the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
is the practice which is the fountainhead of all devotional works," St. Pius X
Pius X
used to say.[citation needed] In Dominicae Cenae
Dominicae Cenae
Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
stated: "The Church and the world have a great need of Eucharistic worship. Jesus
Jesus
waits for us in this sacrament of love. Let us be generous with our time in going to meet Him in adoration and in contemplation that is full of faith."[50] And in Ecclesia de Eucharistia
Ecclesia de Eucharistia
John Paul II
John Paul II
stated: "The worship of the Eucharist
Eucharist
outside of the Mass is of inestimable value for the life of the Church.... It is the responsibility of Pastors to encourage, also by their personal witness, the practice of Eucharistic adoration, and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament."[51] From his early years, the Eucharist
Eucharist
had a central place in the theology of Joseph Ratzinger
Joseph Ratzinger
and in his role as Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
as well as in his book God Is Near Us: The Eucharist, the Heart of Life he strongly encouraged Eucharistic adoration.[52][53] Catholic prayers to the Blessed Sacrament[edit] One of the better known prayers of reparation to the Blessed Sacrament is attributed to the Angel of Portugal, said to have appeared at Fatima:

O most Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, I adore You profoundly. I offer You the Most Precious Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, present in all the tabernacles of the world, in reparation for the outrages, sacrileges and indifferences by which He is offended. By the infinite merits of the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, I beg the conversion of sinners.[54]

Short Visit to the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
By Blessed John Henry Newman

I place myself in the presence of Him, in whose Incarnate Presence I am before I place myself there. I adore You, O my Savior, present here as God and Man, in Soul and Body, in true Flesh and Blood. I acknowledge and confess that I kneel before the Sacred Humanity, which was conceived in Mary's womb, and lay in Mary's bosom; which grew up to man's estate, and by the Sea of Galilee called the Twelve, wrought miracles, and spoke words of wisdom and peace; which in due season hung on the cross, lay in the tomb, rose from the dead, and now reigns in heaven. I praise and bless, and give myself wholly to Him, Who is the true Bread of my soul, and my everlasting joy.[citation needed]

Eucharistic celebrations of any nature are sometimes initiated with the first four or at least the first stanza of the hymn Pange lingua, and often concluded with the Tantum ergo
Tantum ergo
(being the other two stanzas of the same hymn), or at the least the versicle and oration attached to the Tantum ergo
Tantum ergo
(see the article). These hymns and orations are from the Daily Office for Corpus Christi, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas. Eucharistic meditation[edit] See also: Christian meditation Apart from promoting the Eucharist, Saint Pierre Julien Eymard also made meditations before the Blessed host and his writings were later published as a book: The Real Presence.[55] His contemporary, Saint Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
also performed Eucharistic meditations which were later published.[56][57] Saint Thérèse of Lisieux
Thérèse of Lisieux
was devoted to Eucharistic meditation and on 26 February 1895 shortly before she died wrote from memory her poetic masterpiece "To Live by Love" which she had composed during Eucharistic meditation. During her life, the poem was sent to various religious communities and was included in a notebook of her poems.[58][59] Significant portions of the writings of the Venerable
Venerable
Concepcion Cabrera de Armida were reported as having been based on her meditations during adoration of the Blessed Sacrament.[60] In her book Eucharist: true jewel of eucharistic spirituality Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Eucharist
(who was beatified by Pope John Paul II) wrote about her own personal experiences and reflections on Eucharistic meditation.[61][62] Perpetual adoration[edit]

Perpetual adoration
Perpetual adoration
at the National Expiatory Temple of San Felipe de Jesus, Mexico
Mexico
City

Perpetual adoration
Perpetual adoration
is the practice of the continuous exposition and adoration of the Eucharist, twenty four hours a day. Similar to the "Perpetual Rosary" in which the Rosary
Rosary
is recited uninterrupted by a changing group of people, this practice gained popularity among Roman Catholics in 19th century France, and has since spread to lay Catholics in parishes across the world.[63] During perpetual adoration, a specific person performs adoration for a period of one hour or more, so there is always at least one person who performs adoration during each day and night. However, during Mass the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
may be reposed and is then exposed again after Mass.[64] The only other time perpetual adoration is not performed is during the three days of Easter Triduum. Early traditions[edit] Perpetual adoration
Perpetual adoration
of God by psalm and prayer has been a tradition among Christians since ancient times, e.g., in Eastern Christianity since the year 400 the Acoemetae
Acoemetae
monks kept up a divine service day and night and in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
the monks at the monastery of Agaunum performed perpetual prayers since its formation in 522 by King Sigismund.[65]

Perpetual adoration
Perpetual adoration
at the Cathedral of Chihuahua, Mexico

The first recorded instance of perpetual adoration formally began in Avignon, France
France
on 11 September 1226. To celebrate and give thanks for the victory over the Albigensians
Albigensians
in the later battles of the Albigensian Crusade, King Louis VIII asked that the sacrament be placed on display at the Chapel
Chapel
of the Holy Cross.[66] The overwhelming number of adorers brought the local bishop, Pierre de Corbie, to suggest that the exposition be continued indefinitely. With the permission of Pope Honorius III, the idea was ratified and the adoration continued there practically uninterrupted until the chaos of the French Revolution
French Revolution
halted it from 1792. On 25 March 1654 Mother Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
formed a Benedictine society formed for that purpose.[65] Mother Mechtilde pioneered perpetual adoration of the Eucharist
Eucharist
on request of Père Picotte.[67][66] Père Picotte was the confessor of Anne of Austria who asked him for a vow for the deliverance of France
France
from war and the order was formed in response to that vow. A small house was bought on Rue Feron in Paris and a Benedictine convent, founded for this purpose, began perpetual adoration there on 25 March 1654, one or more nuns kneeling in front of the altar in adoration each hour of the day and night. The simple Benedictine rules with which the nuns started were amended and formal approval for perpetual adoration was provided by the Camera Apostolica in Rome in 1705.[65] Various Roman Catholic societies and orders were formed for the specific purpose of perpetual adoration prior to the 19th century, e.g., the Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
(1659 in Marsaille), Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(formed in 1768 in Paris), and the Religious of the Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(1789, Switzerland). By the beginning of the 19th century, in France, as well as elsewhere in Europe, strong currents in favor of the Eucharistic piety, devotions and adoration began to appear. Preachers such as Prosper Guéranger, Peter Julian Eymard
Peter Julian Eymard
and Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
very effective in renewing such devotions.[68] The 19th century thus witnessed a rapid growth in perpetual adoration societies, and some existing orders (e.g., the Dominicans and the Poor Clares)[64] e.g., Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(1845 in Brittany), Poor Clares
Poor Clares
of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(also in 1854), Religious of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(Brussels, 1857), Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
(1858, Paris), Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(1863, Olpe, Germany), Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters (the Netherlands, 1896), etc. A number of perpetual adoration orders were also formed in the United States, e.g. Franciscan
Franciscan
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(1849 Wisconsin), and Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
(1874, Clyde, Missouri). The Poor Clares
Poor Clares
of the Monastery
Monastery
of Saint Mary of the Angels of Perpetual Adoration, in Drumshanbo, Ireland, first established perpetual adoration on 25 March 1870, and have continued the practice uninterrupted to this day.[69] The Franciscan
Franciscan
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Adoration
have been praying nonstop longer than anyone in the United States; the practice began on 1 August 1878, at 11 a.m. and continues to this date.[70]

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20th and 21st centuries[edit] In the 20th century, the practice of perpetual adoration spread from monasteries and convents to Catholic parishes at large, and is now also performed by lay Catholics. The perpetual adoration chapel in Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
was inaugurated by Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
in 1981 and a number of the major basilicas in Rome have also started perpetual adoration in the 20th century.[64] Early in the 20th century, questions arose as to the suitability of perpetual adoration by lay Catholics. However, after various discussions, on 2 June 1991 (feast of Corpus Christi), the Pontifical Council for the Laity issued specific guidelines that permit perpetual adoration in parishes. In order to establish a "perpetual adoration chapel" in a parish, the local priest must obtain permission from his bishop by submitting a request along with the required information for the local "perpetual adoration association", its officers, etc. At the beginning of the 21st century, there were over 2,500 perpetual adoration chapels in Catholic parishes around the world. The United States (with about 70 million Catholics) had about 1,100 chapels, the Philippines
Philippines
(with about 80 million Catholics) 500, the Republic of Ireland (with about 4 million Catholics) about 150, South Korea
South Korea
(with about 4 million Catholics) had about 70.[71] The world's largest monstrance is in Chicago where a perpetual adoration chapel is under construction. This Sanctuary
Sanctuary
devoted to The Divine Mercy
Divine Mercy
is being constructed adjacent to Church of St. Stanislaus Kostka, one of the city's Polish churches.[72] See also[edit]

Fermentum "I Am": Eucharistic Meditations on the Gospel Showbread Seven Churches Visitation

References[edit]

^ Schadé, Johannes P., "Eucharistic adoration", Encyclopedia of World Religions, 2006, ISBN 978-1-60136-000-7 ^ Separate chapel; 1967 (1967-05-25). "Eucharisticum Mysterium - Instruction on Eucharistic Worship, 53". Adoremus Bulletin. Retrieved 2017-04-26.  ^ Pope Benedict XVI. "Meeting with the members of the Roman Clergy", March 2, 2006, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ a b Dimock, Giles. 101 questions and answers on the Eucharist, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8091-4365-8 pp. 88–90 ^ Schmalz, Valerie. "Eucharistic Adoration: Reviving An Ancient Tradition", Ignatius Insight, 3 October 2005 ^ "What is Eucharistic Adoration?", The Vicariate Apostolic of Kuwait ^ Grün, Anselm and Cumming, John. The seven sacraments, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8264-6704-1 pp. 82–83 ^ Arinze, Francis. The Holy Eucharist, 2001, ISBN 978-0-87973-978-2 p. 110 ^ Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction on Eucharistic Worship, §60 ^ "Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
Recalls and Encourages National Eucharistic Devotion" ^ Instruction on Eucharistic Worship, §66. ^ Stravinskas, p. 498. ^ 'Eucharistic Adoration'; ^ Heads of Agreement on the Lord's Supper by John Calvin' Archived 28 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.; ^ Driscoll, Jeremy. Theology at the eucharistic table, 2003, ISBN 978-0-85244-469-6 pp. 237–244 ^ Hardon 1997, p. 3. ^ Emmons, D.D., "Eucharistic Adoration", The Catholic Answer, Our Sunday Visitor, 3 June 2013 ^ 'Byzantine Daily Worship'; Archbishop Joseph Raya, Baron Jose de Vinck ^ Pope Paul VI. "Mysterium Fidei", §52, September 3, 1965, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Hardon 1997, p. 5. ^ Robson, Michael. St Francis of Assisi: The Legend and the Life, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8264-6508-5 pp. 83–84 ^ Torrell, Jean-Pierre. Saint Thomas, Catholic University of America Press, 1996, pp. 129-136 ^ Hardon 1997. ^ a b Hardon 1997, p. 8. ^ Hardon 1997, p. 9. ^ Bunson, Matthew. John Paul II's book of saints, 1999, ISBN 978-0-87973-934-8 p. 88 ^ Schloeder, Steven J., Architecture in communion, 1998, ISBN 978-0-89870-631-4 p. 98 ^ Johnson, Timothy J., Franciscans at prayer, 2007, ISBN 978-90-04-15699-9 pp. 444–445 ^ Black, Christopher F., Italian Confraternities in the Sixteenth Century, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-53113-9 p. 99 ^ Capetola, C.R.M., Nicholas. "St. Francis Caracciolo: Founder of the Clerics Regular Minor (Adorno Fathers)" pp. 68-69 ^ Hardon 1997, p. 11. ^ Scalan, Dorothy. The Holy Man of Tours. (1990) ISBN 978-0-89555-390-4 ^ Dimock, p. 125. ^ Cruz, Joan Carroll, Saintly Men of Modern Times. (2003) ISBN 978-1-931709-77-4 ^ Letellier, Arthur. "Congregation of the Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 24 November 2017 ^ Meehan, Thomas. "Eucharistic Congresses." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 24 November 2017 ^ Bunson, Matthew. OSV's encyclopedia of Catholic history, 2004, ISBN 978-1-59276-026-8 p. 334 ^ Trigilio, John and Brighenti, Kenneth. The Catholicism Answer Book: The 300 Most Frequently Asked Questions, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4022-0806-5 p. 153 ^ a b The Thirty-Nine Articles Archived 25 June 2007 at WebCite ^ Gibson, Edgar Charles Sumner (1908). The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. Methuen & Company. p. 62.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Services". Church of the Ascension, Chicago. 2006. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2015.  ^ Corpus Christi Archived 3 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. article in Christian Cyclopedia ^ The Sacrament
Sacrament
of the Altar. A Book on the Lutheran
Lutheran
Doctrine of the Lord's Supper by Tom G A Hardt ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, §1377 ^ Arinze, Francis. Celebrating the Holy Eucharist, 2006, ISBN 978-1-58617-158-2 p. 103 ^ Guiley, Rosemary. The encyclopedia of saints, 2001, ISBN 978-0-8160-4134-3 p. 106 ^ McHugh, Joan Carter. My Daily Eucharist
Eucharist
II, 1997, ISBN 978-0-9640417-5-2 p. 14 ^ Ball, Ann. 2003, Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 978-0-87973-910-2 p. 11 ^ "Mysterium Fidei", §66. ^ Vatican website: Dominicae Cenae ^ Pope John Paul II, "Ecclesia de Eucharistia", Chapter 2, §25, 17 April 2003 ^ Murphy, Joseph. Christ, Our Joy: The Theological Vision of Pope Benedict XVI, 2008, ISBN 978-1-58617-182-7 p. 180 ^ Ratzinger, Joseph. God Is Near Us: The Eucharist, the Heart of Life, 2003, ISBN 978-0-89870-962-9 pp. 88–91 ^ "Third Apparition", 100 years of Fatima, ewtn ^ Eymard, Peter Julian. The Real Presence: eucharistic meditations, Sentinel Press, 1938 ASIN B00087ST7Q ^ Vianney, Jean Baptiste Marie. The eucharistic meditations of the Curé d'Ars, Carmelite Publications (1961) ASIN B0007IVDMY ^ Vianney, Jean Baptiste Marie, Convert, H. and Benvenuta, Mary. Eucharistic Meditations: Extracts from the Writings and Instructions of Saint John Vianney, 1998, ISBN 978-0-940147-03-4 ^ Descouvemont, Pierre and Loose, Helmuth Nils. Therese and Lisieux, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8028-3836-0 p. 245 ^ Collected poems of St Thérèse of Lisieux
Thérèse of Lisieux
by Thérèse (de Lisieux), Alan Bancroft 2001 ISBN 978-0-85244-547-1 p. 75 ^ Armida, Concepción Cabrera de. I Am: Eucharistic Meditations on the Gospel ISBN 978-0-8189-0890-3 ^ Bunson, Matthew. Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac, 2008, ISBN 978-1-59276-441-9 page 255 ^ " Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Maria Candida of the Eucharist
(1884-1949)", Vatican Website ^ Stravinskas, p. 776. ^ a b c Stravinskas, Peter. 1998, Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia, OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-669-9 p. 409 ^ a b c Addis, William E. and Arnold, Thomas. A Catholic Dictionary, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7661-9380-2 p. 656 ^ a b McMahon, Joseph. "Perpetual Adoration." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 25 November 2017 ^ Goyau, Georges. "Saint-Dié." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 25 November 2017 ^ Alban Butler; Paul Burns (1998). Butler's Lives of the Saints: August. Burns & Oats. p. 16. ISBN 0860122573.  ^ "History". Poor Clare Colettine Federation of St. Mary of the Angels in Ireland & Scotland.  ^ History of Our Adoration ^ "The Eucharist: Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church", October 2005, Vatican website ^ Duriga, Joyce. "Nine-foot monstrance unveiled as part of new Divine Mercy shrine", Catholic News Agency, 10 June 2008

Works cited[edit]

Hardon, John A. (1997). The History of Eucharistic Adoration. CMJ Marian Publishers. ISBN 0-9648448-9-3.  Pope Paul VI. "Mysterium Fidei", September 3, 1965, Libreria Editrice Vaticana Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction on Eucharistic Worship

External links[edit]

The Reservation and Veneration of the Most Holy Eucharist
Eucharist
from the Catholic Code of Canon law Location of Eucharistic Adoration
Adoration
sites Nocturnal Adoration
Adoration
Society Roger Oakland – The New Evangelization and the Coming Eucharistic Reign of Jesus The History of Eucharistic Adoration
Adoration
by Fr. John A. Hardon, S.J. in PDF format St. Martin of Tours
Tours
Roman Catholic Church, Louisville, Kentucky's online perpetual adoration. Savior.org Online Eucharistic Adoration Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration
and live adoration Sample prayer of spiritual communion

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