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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

OLD ITALIC is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic ) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan ) languages. The alphabets derive from the Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet , used at Ischia
Ischia
and Cumae
Cumae
in the Bay of Naples
Bay of Naples
in the eighth century BC.

Various Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
belonging to the Italic branch (Faliscan and members of the Sabellian group, including Oscan
Oscan
, Umbrian
Umbrian
, and South Picene
South Picene
, and other Indo-European branches such as Celtic , Venetic and Messapic ) originally used the alphabet. Faliscan, Oscan, Umbrian, North Picene , and South Picene
South Picene
all derive from an Etruscan form of the alphabet.

The Germanic runic alphabet was derived from one of these alphabets by the 2nd century AD.

CONTENTS

* 1 Alphabets

* 1.1 Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
* 1.2 Oscan
Oscan
alphabet * 1.3 Alphabet
Alphabet
of Nuceria * 1.4 Alphabet
Alphabet
of Lugano
Lugano
* 1.5 Raetic alphabets * 1.6 Venetic alphabet * 1.7 Camunic alphabet

* 2 Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
* 3 South Picene
South Picene
alphabet

* 4 Unicode
Unicode

* 4.1 Block * 4.2 Letters with Transliteration

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

ALPHABETS

ETRUSCAN ALPHABET

History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
-------------------------

Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE

* Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE

* Demotic 7 c. BCE

* Meroitic 3 c. BCE

* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE

* Ugaritic 15 c. BCE

* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* Phoenician 12 c. BCE

* Paleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan 6 c. BCE

* Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCE

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* Paleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE

* Brāhmī 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* Pahlavi 3 c. BCE

* Avestan 4 c. CE

* Palmyrene 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* Nabataean 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* Sogdian 2 c. BCE

* Orkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CE

* Old Hungarian c. 650 CE

* Old Uyghur

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* Etruscan 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* Runic 2 c. CE * Ogham
Ogham
(origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* Coptic 3 c. CE * Gothic 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * Glagolitic 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* Old Permic 1372 CE

Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

See also: Etruscan numerals Etruscan cippus (grave marker) from the necropolis Crocifisso del Tufo outside Orvieto
Orvieto
, Italy, side view showing the inscription in the Old Italic (Etruscan) alphabet.

It is not clear whether the process of adaptation from the Greek alphabet took place in Italy
Italy
from the first colony of Greeks, the city of Cumae
Cumae
, or in Greece
Greece
/ Asia Minor
Asia Minor
. It was in any case a Western Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
. In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value , Ψ stood for ; in Etruscan: X = , Ψ = or (Rix 202–209).

The earliest Etruscan abecedarium , the Marsiliana
Marsiliana
(near Grosseto
Grosseto
) tablet which dates to c. 700 BC, lists 26 letters corresponding to contemporary forms of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
which retained Digamma , san and qoppa but which had not yet developed omega . Comparison of the Western Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
with archaic and classical Etruscan variants.

𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌

𐌍 𐌎 𐌏 𐌐 𐌑 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗 𐌘 𐌙

in transliteration,

A B G D E V Z H Θ I K L M

N Ξ O P Ś Q R S T Y X Φ Ψ

Until about 600 BC, the archaic form of the Etruscan alphabet remained practically unchanged, and the direction of writing was free. From the 6th century, however, the alphabet evolved, adjusting to the phonology of the Etruscan language, and letters representing phonemes nonexistent in Etruscan were dropped. By 400 BC, it appears that all of Etruria
Etruria
was using the classical Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
of 20 letters, mostly written from left to right:

𐌀 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌐 𐌑 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌘 𐌙 𐌚

A C D E V Z H Θ I L M N P Ś R S T U Φ Ψ F

An additional sign 𐌚, in shape similar to the numeral 8, transcribed as F, was present in both Lydian and Etruscan (Jensen 513). Its origin is disputed; it may have been an altered B or H or an ex novo creation (Rix 202). Its sound value was /f/ and it replaced the Etruscan FH. Some letters were, on the other hand, falling out of use: B and D were apparently considered superfluous over P and T. K was dropped in favour of G (also transcribed as C). O disappeared and was replaced by U. In the course of its simplification, the redundant letters showed some tendency towards a syllabary : C, K and Q were predominantly used in the contexts CE, KA, QU.

This classical alphabet remained in use until the 2nd century BC when it began to be influenced by the rise of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
. Soon after, the Etruscan language
Etruscan language
itself became extinct.

OSCAN ALPHABET

The Osci
Osci
probably adopted the archaic Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
during the 7th century BC, but a recognizably Oscan
Oscan
variant of the alphabet is attested only from the 5th century BC; its sign inventory extended over the classical Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
by the introduction of lowered variants of I and U, transcribed as Í and Ú. Ú came to be used to represent Oscan
Oscan
/o/, while U was used for /u/ as well as historical long */oː/, which had undergone a sound shift in Oscan
Oscan
to become ~.

𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌉 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌐 𐌑 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌚 𐌞 𐌝

A B G D E V Z H I L M N P Ś R S T U F Ú Í

ALPHABET OF NUCERIA

The Nucerian alphabet is based on inscriptions found in southern Italy
Italy
( Nocera Superiore , Sorrento
Sorrento
, Vico Equense and other places). It is attested only between the 6th and the 5th century BC. The most important sign is the /S/, shaped like a fir tree, and possibly a derivation from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
.

ALPHABET OF LUGANO

The alphabets of Este (Venetic), Magrè and Bolzano/Bozen- Sanzeno (Raetic), Sondrio (Camunic), Lugano
Lugano
(Lepontic)

The Alphabet
Alphabet
of Lugano
Lugano
, based on inscriptions found in northern Italy
Italy
and Canton Ticino
Canton Ticino
, was used to record Lepontic
Lepontic
inscriptions, among the oldest testimonies of any Celtic language
Celtic language
, in use from the 7th to the 5th centuries BC. The alphabet has 18 letters, derived from the archaic Etruscan alphabet:

𐌀 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌏 𐌐 𐌑 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗

A E V Z Θ I K L M N O P Ś R S T U X

The alphabet does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced occlusives , i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /t/ or /d/, K for /g/ or /k/. Z is probably for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished. Θ is probably for /t/ and X for /g/. There are claims of a related script discovered in Glozel .

RAETIC ALPHABETS

The alphabet of Sanzeno (also, of Bolzano
Bolzano
), about 100 Raetic inscriptions.

The alphabet of Magrè (near Schio ), east Raetian inscriptions.

VENETIC ALPHABET

Alphabet
Alphabet
of Este: Similar but not identical to that of Magrè, Venetic inscriptions.

CAMUNIC ALPHABET

Inscripted abecedarium on rock engraves in Valle Camonica .

LATIN ALPHABET

Duenos inscription
Duenos inscription
, 6th century BC Main article: History of the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet

21 of the 26 archaic Etruscan letters were adopted for Old Latin
Old Latin
from the 7th century BC, either directly from the Cumae alphabet
Cumae alphabet
, or via archaic Etruscan forms, compared to the classical Etruscan alphabet retaining B, D, K, O, Q, X but dropping Θ, Ś, Φ, Ψ, and F. (Etruscan U is Latin V; Etruscan V is Latin F.)

𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌏 𐌐 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗

A B C D E F Z H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X

SOUTH PICENE ALPHABET

Further information: South Picene
South Picene
language

The South Picene
South Picene
alphabet, known from the 6th century BC, is most like the southern Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
in that it uses Q for /k/ and K for /g/. It is:

𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌇 𐌉 𐌝 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌏 𐌐 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌞 𐌚 𐌟

A B G D E V H I Í K L M N O P Q R S T U Ú F *

⟨.⟩ is a reduced ⟨o⟩ and ⟨:⟩ is a reduced ⟨8⟩, used for /f/.

UNICODE

The Old Italic alphabets were unified and added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2001 with the release of version 3.1.

BLOCK

Main article: Old Italic ( Unicode
Unicode
block)

The Unicode
Unicode
block for Old Italic is U+10300–U+1032F without specification of a particular alphabet (i.e. the Old Italic alphabets are considered equivalent, and the font used will determine the variant).

Writing direction (right-to-left, left-to-right, or boustrophedon ) varies based on the language and even the time period. For simplicity most scholars use left-to-right and this is the Unicode
Unicode
default direction for the Old Italic block. For this reason, the glyphs in the code chart are shown with left-to-right orientation.

OLD ITALIC Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1030x 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌎 𐌏

U+1031x 𐌐 𐌑 𐌒 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌖 𐌗 𐌘 𐌙 𐌚 𐌛 𐌜 𐌝 𐌞 𐌟

U+1032x 𐌠 𐌡 𐌢 𐌣

𐌭 𐌮 𐌯

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

LETTERS WITH TRANSLITERATION

LETTER TRANSLIT. NAME

LETTER TRANSLIT. NAME

LETTER TRANSLIT. NAME

𐌀 a a

𐌁 b be

𐌂 c ke

𐌃 d de

𐌄 e e

𐌅 v ve

𐌆 z ze

𐌇 h he

𐌈 þ the

𐌉 i i

𐌊 k ka

𐌋 l el

𐌌 m em

𐌍 n en

𐌎 š esh

𐌏 o o

𐌐 p pe

𐌑 ś she

𐌒 q ku

𐌓 r er

𐌔 s es

𐌕 t te

𐌖 u u

𐌗 x eks

𐌘 ph phe

𐌙 ch khe

𐌚 f ef

𐌛 ř ers

𐌜 ç che

𐌝 í ii

𐌞 ú uu

𐌟 * ess

𐌠 I 1

𐌡 V 5

𐌢 X 10

𐌣 L 50

SEE ALSO

* Euboean alphabet
Euboean alphabet
* Negau helmet
Negau helmet
* Alphabets of Asia Minor
Asia Minor

REFERENCES

* ^ Stuart-Smith, Jane (2004). Phonetics and philology: sound change in Italic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ITALIC LETTERS .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to ETRUSCAN ALPHABET .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to NUCERIAN ALPHABET .

* Etruscan Texts Project: A searchable online database of Etruscan inscriptions. * Old Italic Unicode * The Etruscan alphabet
Etruscan alphabet
(Omniglot) * Old Italic alphabets (Omniglot) * Etruscan (Ancient Scripts) * Oscan
Oscan
(Ancient Scripts) * Unicode
Unicode
Fonts

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme
Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by

.