The Info List - Ethyl Ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C 2H 5) 2O, Sometimes abbreviated as Et 2O (see Pseudoelement symbols). It is a colorless, highly volatile flammable liquid. It is commonly used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was formerly used as a general anesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane. It has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication.


1 Production 2 Uses

2.1 Fuel 2.2 Laboratory uses 2.3 Anesthetic use 2.4 Medical use 2.5 Recreational use

3 Metabolism 4 Safety and stability 5 History 6 References 7 External links

Production[edit] Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol. This process uses solid-supported phosphoric acid catalysts and can be adjusted to make more ether if the need arises.[7] Vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol over some alumina catalysts can give diethyl ether yields of up to 95%.[8] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
can be prepared both in laboratories and on an industrial scale by the acid ether synthesis.[9] Ethanol
is mixed with a strong acid, typically sulfuric acid, H2SO4. The acid dissociates in the aqueous environment producing hydronium ions, H3O+. A hydrogen ion protonates the electronegative oxygen atom of the ethanol, giving the ethanol molecule a positive charge:

CH3CH2OH + H3O+ → CH3CH2OH2+ + H2O

A nucleophilic oxygen atom of unprotonated ethanol displaces a water molecule from the protonated (electrophilic) ethanol molecule, producing water, a hydrogen ion and diethyl ether.

CH3CH2OH2+ + CH3CH2OH → H2O + H+ + CH3CH2OCH2CH3

This reaction must be carried out at temperatures lower than 150 °C in order to ensure that an elimination product (ethylene) is not a product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, ethanol will dehydrate to form ethylene. The reaction to make diethyl ether is reversible, so eventually an equilibrium between reactants and products is achieved. Getting a good yield of ether requires that ether be distilled out of the reaction mixture before it reverts to ethanol, taking advantage of Le Chatelier's principle. Another reaction that can be used for the preparation of ethers is the Williamson ether synthesis, in which an alkoxide (produced by dissolving an alkali metal in the alcohol to be used) performs a nucleophilic substitution upon an alkyl halide. Uses[edit] It is particularly important as a solvent in the production of cellulose plastics such as cellulose acetate.[7] Fuel[edit] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
has a high cetane number of 85-96 and is used as a starting fluid, in combination with petroleum distillates for gasoline and Diesel engines[10] because of its high volatility and low flash point. Ether
starting fluid is sold and used in countries with cold climates, as it can help with cold starting an engine at sub-zero temperatures. For the same reason it is also used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines. In this way diethyl ether is very similar to one of its precursors, ethanol. Laboratory uses[edit] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
is a common laboratory aprotic solvent. It has limited solubility in water (6.05 g/100 ml at 25 °C[3]) and dissolves 1.5 g/100 g (1.0 g/100 ml) water at 25 °C.[11] This, coupled with its high volatility, makes it ideal for use as the non-polar solvent in liquid-liquid extraction. When used with an aqueous solution, the diethyl ether layer is on top as it has a lower density than the water. It is also a common solvent for the Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
in addition to other reactions involving organometallic reagents. Due to its application in the manufacturing of illicit substances, it is listed in the Table II precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances as well as substances such as acetone, toluene and sulfuric acid.[12] Anesthetic use[edit]

Panel from monument in Boston commemorating Morton's demonstration of ether's anesthetic use.

William T.G. Morton
William T.G. Morton
participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether
Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, M.D., is now known to have demonstrated its use privately as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, and Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration.[13][14][15] British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was widely prescribed in conjunction with opium.[16] Diethyl ether largely supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a potentially toxic dose.[17] Because of its associations with Boston, the use of ether became known as the "Yankee Dodge." Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
depresses the myocardium and increases tracheobronchial secretions.[18] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
could also be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C.E. mixture, or chloroform and alcohol to make A.C.E. mixture. In the 2000s, ether is rarely used. The use of flammable ether was displaced by nonflammable fluorinated hydrocarbon anesthetics. Halothane
was the first such anesthetic developed and other currently used inhaled anesthetics, such as isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane, are halogenated ethers.[19] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
was found to have undesirable side effects, such as post-anesthetic nausea and vomiting. Modern anesthetic agents reduce these side effects.[13] Prior to 2005 it was on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines for use as an anesthetic.[20][21] Medical use[edit] Ether
was once used in pharmaceutical formulations. A mixture of alcohol and ether, one part of diethyl ether and three parts of ethanol, was known as "Spirit of ether", Hoffman's Anodyne or Hoffman's Drops. In the United States this concoction was removed from the Pharmacopeia at some point prior to June 1917,[22] as a study published by William Procter, Jr. in the American Journal of Pharmacy as early as 1852 showed that there were differences in formulation to be found between commercial manufacturers, between international pharmacopoeia, and from Hoffman’s original recipe.[23] Recreational use[edit] See also: Ether
addiction The anesthetic and intoxicating effects of ether have made it a recreational drug. Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
in anesthetic dosage is an inhalant which has a long history of recreational use. One disadvantage is the high flammability, especially in conjunction with oxygen. One advantage is a well-defined margin between therapeutic and toxic doses, which means one would lose consciousness before dangerous levels of dissolved ether in blood would be reached. With a strong, dense smell, ether causes irritation to respiratory mucosa and is uncomfortable to breathe, and in overdose triggering salivation, vomiting, coughing or spasms. In concentrations of 3–5% in air, an anesthetic effect can slowly be achieved in 15–20 minutes of breathing approximately 15–20 ml of ether, depending on body weight and physical condition. Ether
causes a very long excitation stage prior to blacking out. In the 19th century and early 20th century ether drinking was popular among Polish peasants.[24] It is a traditional and still relatively popular recreational drug among Lemkos.[25] It is usually consumed in a small quantity (kropka, or "dot") poured over milk, water with sugar or orange juice in a shot glass. As a drug, it has been known to cause temporary dependence, the only symptom of which is the will to consume more, sometimes referred to as etheromania.[26] Metabolism[edit] A cytochrome P450 enzyme is proposed to metabolize diethyl ether.[27] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, and thus slows the metabolism of ethanol.[28] It also inhibits metabolism of other drugs requiring oxidative metabolism. For example, diazepam requires hepatic oxidization whereas its oxidized metabolite oxazepam does not.[29] Safety and stability[edit] Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
is extremely flammable and may form explosive vapour/air mixtures.[30] Since ether is heavier than air it can collect low to the ground and the vapour may travel considerable distances to ignition sources, which does not need to be an open flame, but may be a hot plate, steam pipe, heater etc.[30] Vapour may be ignited by the static electricity which can build up when ether is being poured from one vessel into another. The autoignition temperature of diethyl ether is 160 °C (320 °F). A common practice in chemical labs is to use steam (thus limiting the temperature to 100 °C (212 °F) ) when ether must be heated or distilled. The diffusion of diethyl ether in air is 9.18 × 10−6 m2/s (298 K, 101.325 kPa).[citation needed] Ether
is sensitive to light and air, tending to form explosive peroxides.[30] Ether
peroxides have a higher boiling point than ether and are contact explosives when dry.[30] Commercial diethyl ether is typically supplied with trace amounts of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which reduces the formation of peroxides. Storage over sodium hydroxide precipitates the intermediate ether hydroperoxides. Water and peroxides can be removed by either distillation from sodium and benzophenone, or by passing through a column of activated alumina.[31] History[edit] The compound may have been synthesised by either Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
in the 8th century[32] or Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull
in 1275.[32][33] It was synthesized in 1540 by Valerius Cordus, who called it "sweet oil of vitriol" (oleum dulce vitrioli) — the name reflects the fact that it is obtained by distilling a mixture of ethanol and sulfuric acid (then known as oil of vitriol) — and noted some of its medicinal properties.[32] At about the same time, Paracelsus
discovered ether's analgesic properties in chickens.[32] The name ether was given to the substance in 1729 by August Sigmund Frobenius.[34] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0277". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ "Diethyl ether". ChemSpider. Retrieved 19 January 2017.  ^ a b Merck Index, 10th Edition, Martha Windholz, editor, Merck & Co., Inc, Rahway, NJ, 1983, page 551 ^ Carl L. Yaws, Chemical Properties Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999, page 567 ^ a b "Ethyl ether". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).  ^ a b "Ethyl Ether
MSDS". J.T. Baker. Retrieved 2010-06-24.  ^ a b "Ethers, by Lawrence Karas and W. J. Piel". Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.  ^ Ethyl Ether, Chem. Economics Handbook. Menlo Park, Calif: SRI International. 1991.  ^ Cohen, Julius Berend (1920). A Class-book of Organic Chemistry, Volume 1. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 39.  ^ "Extra Strength Starting Fluid: How it Works". Valvovine. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-09-05.  ^ H. H. Rowley; Wm. R. Reed (1951). " Solubility
of Water in Diethyl Ether
at 25 °". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73 (6): 2960–2960. doi:10.1021/ja01150a531.  ^ Microsoft Word - RedListE2007.doc Archived February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Hill, John W. and Kolb, Doris K. Chemistry for changing times: 10th edition. Page 257. Pearson: Prentice Hall. Upper saddle river, New Jersey. 2004. ^ Madden, M. Leslie (May 14, 2004). "Crawford Long (1815-1878)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. University of Georgia Press. Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ "Crawford W. Long". Doctors' Day. Southern Medical Association. Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2015.  ^ Grattan, N. Treatment of Uterine Haemorrhage. Provincial Medicine and Surgical Journal. Vol. 1, No. 6 (Nov. 7, 1840), p. 107. ^ Calderone, F.A. (1935). "STUDIES ON ETHER DOSAGE AFTER PRE-ANESTHETIC MEDICATION WITH NARCOTICS (BARBITURATES, MAGNESIUM SULPHATE AND MORPHINE)" (PDF). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 55 (1): 24–39.  ^ " Ether
and its effects in Anesthesia".  ^ Morgan, G. Edward, Jr. et al. "Clinical Anesthesiology" 3rd Ed, p. 3. New York: Mc Graw-Hill. 2002 ^ "Essential Medicines WHO Model List (revised April 2003)" (PDF). apps.who.int (13th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. April 2003. Retrieved 6 September 2017.  ^ "Essential Medicines WHO Model List (revised March 2005)" (PDF). apps.who.int (14th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2005. Retrieved 6 September 2017.  ^ The National druggist, Volume 47, June 1917, pp.220 ^ Procter, Jr., William (1852). ""On Hoffman's Anodyne Liquor"". American Journal of Pharmacy. 28.  ^ Zandberg, Adrian (2010). "Short Article "Villages … Reek of Ether Vapours": Ether
Drinking in Silesia before 1939". Medical History. 54 (3): 387–396. doi:10.1017/s002572730000466x. PMC 2890321 . PMID 20592886.  ^ Kaszycki, Nestor (2006-08-30). "Łemkowska Watra w Żdyni 2006 – pilnowanie ognia pamięci". Histmag.org – historia od podszewki (in Polish). Kraków, Poland: i-Press. Retrieved 2009-11-25. Dawniej eteru używało się w lecznictwie do narkozy, ponieważ ma właściwości halucynogenne, a już kilka kropel inhalacji wystarczyło do silnego znieczulenia pacjenta. Jednak eter, jak każda ciecz, może teoretycznie być napojem. Łemkowie tę teorię praktykują. Mimo to, nazywanie skroplonego eteru – „kropki” – ich „napojem narodowym” byłoby przesadą. Chociaż stanowi to pewną część mitu „bycia Łemkiem”.  ^ Krenz, Zimmermann, Kolly, Zullino 2003 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00439.x/abstract ^ 109. Aspergillus flavus mutant strain 241, blocked in aflatoxin biosynthesis, does not accumulate aflR transcript. Matthew P. Brown and Gary A. Payne, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 fgsc.net ^ P. T. Normann; A. Ripel; J. Morland (1987). "Diethyl Ether
Inhibits Ethanol
Metabolism in Vivo by Interaction with Alcohol
Dehydrogenase". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 11 (2): 163–166. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1987.tb01282.x. PMID 3296835.  ^ Larry K. Keefer; William A. Garland; Neil F. Oldfield; James E. Swagzdis; Bruce A. Mico (1985). "Inhibition of N-Nitrosodimethylamine Metabolism in Rats by Ether
Anesthesia" (PDF). Cancer Research. 45 (11 Pt 1): 5457–60. PMID 4053020.  ^ a b c d "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-11-13. Retrieved 2014-02-15.  ^ W. L. F. Armarego; C. L. L. Chai (2003). Purification of laboratory chemicals. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-7571-0.  ^ a b c d Toski, Judith A; Bacon, Douglas R; Calverley, Rod K (2001). The history of Anesthesiology. In: Barash, Paul G; Cullen, Bruce F; Stoelting, Robert K. Clinical Anesthesia (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-2268-1.  ^ Hademenos, George J.; Murphree, Shaun; Zahler, Kathy; Warner, Jennifer M. (2008-11-12). McGraw-Hill's PCAT. McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-07-160045-3. Retrieved 2011-05-25.  ^ Dr. Frobenius (1729) "An account of a spiritus vini æthereus, together with several experiments tried therewith,"[permanent dead link] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London), 36 : 283-289.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diethyl ether.

Michael Faraday's announcement of ether as an anesthetic in 1818 Calculation of vapor pressure, liquid density, dynamic liquid viscosity, surface tension of diethyl ether, ddbonline.ddbst.de CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards

v t e

General anesthetics (N01A)


(ethyl chloride)‡ Chloroform‡ Cyclopropane‡ Desflurane Diethyl ether‡ Enflurane Ethylene‡ Fluroxene‡ Halothane# Isoflurane# Methoxyflurane Methoxypropane‡ Nitrous oxide# Sevoflurane Trichloroethylene‡ Vinyl ether‡ Xenon



Fospropofol Propofol#


Morphine Oxycodone Anileridine‡ Embutramide‡ Fentanyl Alfentanil Phenoperidine Remifentanil÷ Sufentanil


Esketamine Ketamine# Phencyclidine‡ Tiletamine

Neuroactive steroids

Alfadolone Alfaxalone Hydroxydione



#WHO-EM ‡Withdrawn from market Clinical trials:

†Phase III §Never to phase III


v t e

GABAA receptor positive modulators


Brometone Butanol Chloralodol Chlorobutanol
(cloretone) Ethanol
(alcohol) (alcoholic drink) Ethchlorvynol Isobutanol Isopropanol Menthol Methanol Methylpentynol Pentanol Petrichloral Propanol tert- Butanol
(2M2P) tert-Pentanol (2M2B) Tribromoethanol Trichloroethanol Triclofos Trifluoroethanol


(-)-DMBB Allobarbital Alphenal Amobarbital Aprobarbital Barbexaclone Barbital Benzobarbital Benzylbutylbarbiturate Brallobarbital Brophebarbital Butabarbital/Secbutabarbital Butalbital Buthalital Butobarbital Butallylonal Carbubarb Crotylbarbital Cyclobarbital Cyclopentobarbital Difebarbamate Enallylpropymal Ethallobarbital Eterobarb Febarbamate Heptabarb Heptobarbital Hexethal Hexobarbital Metharbital Methitural Methohexital Methylphenobarbital Narcobarbital Nealbarbital Pentobarbital Phenallymal Phenobarbital Phetharbital Primidone Probarbital Propallylonal Propylbarbital Proxibarbital Reposal Secobarbital Sigmodal Spirobarbital Talbutal Tetrabamate Tetrabarbital Thialbarbital Thiamylal Thiobarbital Thiobutabarbital Thiopental Thiotetrabarbital Valofane Vinbarbital Vinylbital


2-Oxoquazepam 3-Hydroxyphenazepam Adinazolam Alprazolam Arfendazam Avizafone Bentazepam Bretazenil Bromazepam Brotizolam Camazepam Carburazepam Chlordiazepoxide Ciclotizolam Cinazepam Cinolazepam Clazolam Climazolam Clobazam Clonazepam Clonazolam Cloniprazepam Clorazepate Clotiazepam Cloxazolam CP-1414S Cyprazepam Delorazepam Demoxepam Diazepam Diclazepam Doxefazepam Elfazepam Estazolam Ethyl carfluzepate Ethyl dirazepate Ethyl loflazepate Etizolam EVT-201 FG-8205 Fletazepam Flubromazepam Flubromazolam Fludiazepam Flunitrazepam Flunitrazolam Flurazepam Flutazolam Flutemazepam Flutoprazepam Fosazepam Gidazepam Halazepam Haloxazolam Iclazepam Imidazenil Irazepine Ketazolam Lofendazam Lopirazepam Loprazolam Lorazepam Lormetazepam Meclonazepam Medazepam Menitrazepam Metaclazepam Mexazolam Midazolam Motrazepam N-Desalkylflurazepam Nifoxipam Nimetazepam Nitrazepam Nitrazepate Nitrazolam Nordazepam Nortetrazepam Oxazepam Oxazolam Phenazepam Pinazepam Pivoxazepam Prazepam Premazepam Proflazepam Pyrazolam QH-II-66 Quazepam Reclazepam Remimazolam Rilmazafone Ripazepam Ro48-6791 Ro48-8684 SH-053-R-CH3-2′F Sulazepam Temazepam Tetrazepam Tolufazepam Triazolam Triflubazam Triflunordazepam
(Ro5-2904) Tuclazepam Uldazepam Zapizolam Zolazepam Zomebazam


Carisbamate Carisoprodol Clocental Cyclarbamate Difebarbamate Emylcamate Ethinamate Febarbamate Felbamate Hexapropymate Lorbamate Mebutamate Meprobamate Nisobamate Pentabamate Phenprobamate Procymate Styramate Tetrabamate Tybamate


6-Methylapigenin Ampelopsin
(dihydromyricetin) Apigenin Baicalein Baicalin Catechin EGC EGCG Hispidulin Linarin Luteolin Rc-OMe Skullcap constituents (e.g., baicalin) Wogonin


Etomidate Metomidate Propoxate


10-Methoxyyangonin 11-Methoxyyangonin 11-Hydroxyyangonin Desmethoxyyangonin 11-Methoxy-12-hydroxydehydrokavain 7,8-Dihydroyangonin Kavain 5-Hydroxykavain 5,6-Dihydroyangonin 7,8-Dihydrokavain 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroyangonin 5,6-Dehydromethysticin Methysticin 7,8-Dihydromethysticin Yangonin


Acecarbromal Apronal
(apronalide) Bromisoval Carbromal Capuride Ectylurea

Neuroactive steroids

Acebrochol Allopregnanolone
(brexanolone) Alfadolone Alfaxalone 3α-Androstanediol Androstenol Androsterone Certain anabolic-androgenic steroids Cholesterol DHDOC 3α-DHP 5α-DHP 5β-DHP DHT Etiocholanolone Ganaxolone Hydroxydione Minaxolone ORG-20599 ORG-21465 P1-185 Pregnanolone
(eltanolone) Progesterone Renanolone SAGE-105 SAGE-217 SAGE-324 SAGE-516 SAGE-689 SAGE-872 Testosterone THDOC


β-Carbolines: Abecarnil Gedocarnil Harmane SL-651,498 ZK-93423

Cyclopyrrolones: Eszopiclone Pagoclone Pazinaclone Suproclone Suriclone Zopiclone

Imidazopyridines: Alpidem DS-1 Necopidem Saripidem Zolpidem

Pyrazolopyrimidines: Divaplon Fasiplon Indiplon Lorediplon Ocinaplon Panadiplon Taniplon Zaleplon

Others: Adipiplon CGS-8216 CGS-9896 CGS-13767 CGS-20625 CL-218,872 CP-615,003 CTP-354 ELB-139 GBLD-345 Imepitoin JM-1232 L-838,417 Lirequinil
(Ro41-3696) NS-2664 NS-2710 NS-11394 Pipequaline ROD-188 RWJ-51204 SB-205,384 SX-3228 TGSC01AA TP-003 TPA-023 TP-13 U-89843A U-90042 Viqualine Y-23684


Fospropofol Propofol Thymol


Glutethimide Methyprylon Piperidione Pyrithyldione


Cartazolate Etazolate ICI-190,622 Tracazolate


Afloqualone Cloroqualone Diproqualone Etaqualone Mebroqualone Mecloqualone Methaqualone Methylmethaqualone Nitromethaqualone SL-164


Acetone Acetophenone Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate Aliflurane Benzene Butane Butylene Centalun Chloral Chloral
betaine Chloral
hydrate Chloroform Cryofluorane Desflurane Dichloralphenazone Dichloromethane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethyl chloride Ethylene Fluroxene Gasoline Halopropane Halothane Isoflurane Kerosine Methoxyflurane Methoxypropane Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Norflurane Paraldehyde Propane Propylene Roflurane Sevoflurane Synthane Teflurane Toluene Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) Trichloroethylene Vinyl ether


3-Hydroxybutanal α-EMTBL AA-29504 Avermectins (e.g., ivermectin) Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide) Carbamazepine Chloralose Chlormezanone Clomethiazole DEABL Dihydroergolines (e.g., dihydroergocryptine, dihydroergosine, dihydroergotamine, ergoloid (dihydroergotoxine)) DS2 Efavirenz Etazepine Etifoxine Fenamates (e.g., flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, tolfenamic acid) Fluoxetine Flupirtine Hopantenic acid Lanthanum Lavender oil Lignans (e.g., 4-O-methylhonokiol, honokiol, magnolol, obovatol) Loreclezole Menthyl isovalerate
Menthyl isovalerate
(validolum) Monastrol Niacin Nicotinamide
(niacinamide) Org 25,435 Phenytoin Propanidid Retigabine
(ezogabine) Safranal Seproxetine Stiripentol Sulfonylalkanes (e.g., sulfonmethane (sulfonal), tetronal, trional) Terpenoids (e.g., borneol) Topiramate Valerian constituents (e.g., isovaleric acid, isovaleramide, valerenic acid, valerenol)

Unsorted benzodiazepine site positive modulators: α-Pinene MRK-409 (MK-0343) TCS-1105 TCS-1205

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators

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Glycine receptor
Glycine receptor

Receptor (ligands)


Agonists: β-Alanine β-ABA (BABA) β-AIBA Caesium D-Alanine D-Serine GABA Glycine Hypotaurine Ivermectin L-Alanine L-Proline L-Serine L-Threonine MDL-27531 Milacemide Picolinic acid Propofol Quisqualamine Sarcosine Taurine

Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), tribromoethanol, trichloroethanol, trifluoroethanol) Alkylbenzene sulfonate Anandamide Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Chlormethiazole D12-116 Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine) Etomidate Ginseng
constituents (e.g., ginsenosides (e.g., ginsenoside-Rf)) Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
(glutamate) Ivermectin Ketamine Neuroactive steroids (e.g., alfaxolone, pregnenolone (eltanolone), pregnenolone acetate, minaxolone, ORG-20599) Nitrous oxide Penicillin G Propofol Tamoxifen Tetrahydrocannabinol Triclofos Tropeines (e.g., atropine, bemesetron, cocaine, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron) Volatiles/gases (e.g., chloral hydrate, chloroform, desflurane, diethyl ether (ether), enflurane, halothane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, toluene, trichloroethane (methyl chloroform), trichloroethylene) Xenon Zinc

Antagonists: 2-Aminostrychnine 2-Nitrostrychnine 4-Phenyl-4-formyl-N-methylpiperidine αEMBTL Bicuculline Brucine Cacotheline Caffeine Colchicine Colubrine Cyanotriphenylborate Dendrobine Diaboline Endocannabinoids (e.g., 2-AG, anandamide (AEA)) Gaboxadol
(THIP) Gelsemine iso-THAZ Isobutyric acid Isonipecotic acid Isostrychnine Laudanosine N-Methylbicuculline N-Methylstrychnine N,N-Dimethylmuscimol Nipecotic acid Pitrazepin Pseudostrychnine Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) RU-5135 Sinomenine Strychnine Thiocolchicoside Tutin

Negative modulators: Amiloride Benzodiazepines (e.g., bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam) Corymine Cyanotriphenylborate Daidzein Dihydropyridines (e.g., nicardipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine) Furosemide Genistein Ginkgo constituents (e.g., bilobalide, ginkgolides (e.g., ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, ginkgolide M)) Imipramine NBQX Neuroactive steroids (e.g., 3α-androsterone sulfate, 3β-androsterone sulfate, deoxycorticosterone, DHEA sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, progesterone) Opioids (e.g., codeine, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, levomethadone, levorphanol, morphine, oripavine, pethidine, thebaine) Picrotoxin
(i.e., picrotin and picrotoxinin) PMBA Riluzole Tropeines (e.g., bemesetron, LY-278584, tropisetron, zatosetron) Verapamil Zinc


See here instead.

Transporter (blockers)


ACPPB ALX-1393 ALX-5407 (NFPS) AMG-747 ASP2535 Bitopertin
(RG1678/RO4917838) CP-802079 Ethanol
(alcohol) Glycyldodecylamide GSK1018921 LY-2365109 ORG-24598 ORG-25935
(SCH-900435) PF-02545920 PF-03463275 PF-04958242 Sarcosine SSR-103,800 SSR-504,734


Amoxapine Ethanol
(alcohol) NAGly Opiranserin (VVZ-149) ORG-25543 VVZ-368

See also Receptor/signaling modulators GABA receptor modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor

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Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor


Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA BOAA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Proline Quisqualic acid Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam Cyclothiazide CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 Farampator
(CX-691, ORG-24448) CX-717 CX-1739 CX-1942 Diazoxide Hydrochlorothiazide
(HCTZ) IDRA-21 LY-392098 LY-395153 LY-404187 LY-451646 LY-503430 Mibampator
(LY-451395) Nooglutyl ORG-26576 Oxiracetam PEPA PF-04958242 Piracetam Pramiracetam S-18986 Tulrampator
(S-47445, CX-1632)

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 ATPO Becampanel Caroverine CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX Fanapanel
(MPQX) GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Kynurenine Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) NBQX PNQX Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate YM90K Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Cyclopropane Enflurane Ethanol
(alcohol) Evans blue GYKI-52466 GYKI-53655 Halothane Irampanel Isoflurane Perampanel Pregnenolone
sulfate Sevoflurane Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline


Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine 5-Iodowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA ATPA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Kainic acid LY-339434 Proline Quisqualic acid SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide Diazoxide Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LY-382884 NBQX NS102 Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Enflurane Ethanol
(alcohol) Evans blue NS-3763 Pregnenolone


Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA Aspartate Glutamate Homocysteic acid
Homocysteic acid
(L-HCA) Homoquinolinic acid Ibotenic acid NMDA Proline Quinolinic acid Tetrazolylglycine Theanine; Glycine
site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine ACBD ACC (ACPC) ACPD AK-51 Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) B6B21 CCG D-Alanine D-Cycloserine D-Serine DHPG Dimethylglycine Glycine HA-966 L-687414 L-Alanine L-Serine Milacemide Neboglamine
(nebostinel) Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin Spermidine Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol DHEA (prasterone) DHEA sulfate
DHEA sulfate
(prasterone sulfate) Epipregnanolone sulfate Pregnenolone
sulfate SAGE-201 SAGE-301 SAGE-718

Antagonists: Competitive antagonists: AP5
(APV) AP7 CGP-37849 CGP-39551 CGP-39653 CGP-40116 CGS-19755 CPP Kaitocephalin LY-233053 LY-235959 LY-274614 MDL-100453 Midafotel
(d-CPPene) NPC-12626 NPC-17742 PBPD PEAQX Perzinfotel PPDA SDZ-220581 Selfotel; Glycine
site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101) 5,7-DCKA 7-CKA ACC ACEA-1011 ACEA-1328 Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) AV-101 Carisoprodol CGP-39653 CNQX D-Cycloserine DNQX Felbamate Gavestinel GV-196771 Harkoseride Kynurenic acid Kynurenine L-689560 L-701324 Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LU-73068 MDL-105519 Meprobamate MRZ 2/576 PNQX Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine Co 101676 Diaminopropane Diethylenetriamine Huperzine A Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site): 2-MDP 3-HO-PCP 3-MeO-PCE 3-MeO-PCMo 3-MeO-PCP 4-MeO-PCP 8A-PDHQ 18-MC α-Endopsychosin Alaproclate Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Amantadine Aptiganel Argiotoxin-636 Arketamine ARL-12495 ARL-15896-AR ARL-16247 Budipine Coronaridine Delucemine
(NPS-1506) Dexoxadrol Dextrallorphan Dextromethadone Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dieticyclidine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Ephenidine Esketamine Etoxadrol Eticyclidine Fluorolintane Gacyclidine Ibogaine Ibogamine Indantadol Ketamine Ketobemidone Lanicemine Levomethadone Levomethorphan Levomilnacipran Levorphanol Loperamide Memantine Methadone Methorphan Methoxetamine Methoxphenidine Milnacipran Morphanol NEFA Neramexane Nitromemantine Noribogaine Norketamine Orphenadrine PCPr PD-137889 Pethidine
(meperidine) Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Propoxyphene Remacemide Rhynchophylline Rimantadine Rolicyclidine Sabeluzole Tabernanthine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists: Besonprodil Buphenine
(nylidrin) CO-101244 (PD-174494) Eliprodil Haloperidol Isoxsuprine Radiprodil (RGH-896) Rislenemdaz
(CERC-301, MK-0657) Ro 8-4304 Ro 25-6981 Safaprodil Traxoprodil
(CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004 MPX-007 TCN-201 TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen Magnesium Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene Butane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethanol
(alcohol) Halothane Hexanol Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Octanol Sevoflurane Toluene Trichloroethane Trichloroethanol Trichloroethylene Urethane Xenon Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896 Bumetanide Caroverine Conantokin D-αAA Dexanabinol Flufenamic acid Flupirtine FPL-12495 FR-115427 Furosemide Hodgkinsine Ipenoxazone (MLV-6976) MDL-27266 Metaphit Minocycline MPEP Niflumic acid Pentamidine Pentamidine
isethionate Piretanide Psychotridine Transcrocetin

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators Glutamate
metabolism/transport modulators

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