ETHNOLOGY (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation" ) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural , social , or sociocultural anthropology ).
* 1 Scientific discipline * 2 Scholars * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links
Compared to ethnography , the study of single groups through direct
contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that
ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different
Adam František Kollár
The term ethnologia (ethnology) is credited to Adam Franz Kollár
(1718-1783) who used and defined it in his Historiae ivrisqve pvblici
Regni Vngariae amoenitates published in
Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused
by the situation in his native multi-ethnic and multilingual Kingdom
of Hungary and his roots among its Slovaks , and by the shifts that
began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the
Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of human
history , and the formulation of cultural invariants , such as the
incest taboo and culture change, and the formulation of
generalizations about "human nature ", a concept which has been
criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers (
The 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occidental , such as, the notion of the " Other ". This term was used in conjunction with "savages", which was either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as "noble savage ". Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary , a classic opposition constitutive of the even more commonly shared ethnocentrism . The progress of ethnology, for example with Claude Lévi-Strauss 's structural anthropology , led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear progress , or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of history as constituted by accumulative growth.
Lévi-Strauss often referred to
The French school of ethnology was particularly significant for the
development of the discipline since the early 1950s with
Paul Rivet ,
Marcel Griaule ,
Germaine Dieterlen ,
Claude Lévi-Strauss and Jean
Rouch . Izmir
* ^ "ethno-". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 21 March 2013.
* ^ "ethnology". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 21 March 2013.
* ^ Zmago Šmitek and Božidar Jezernik, "The anthropological
tradition in Slovenia." In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez
Roldán, eds. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the
* Forster, Johann Georg Adam . Voyage round the World in His
Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James
Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5 (2 vols), London (1777).
* Lévi-Strauss, Claude . The Elementary Structures of Kinship,
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