ETHNOFICTION is a neologism which refers to an ethnographic docufiction , a blend of documentary and fictional film in the area of visual anthropology . It is a film type in which, by means of fictional narrative or creative imagination , often improvising, the portrayed characters (natives ) play their own roles as members of an ethnic or social group.
Jean Rouch is considered to be the father of ethnofiction. An
ethnologist , he discovered that a filmmaker interferes with the event
he registers. His camera is never a candid camera. The behavior of
the portrayed individuals, the natives, will be affected by its
presence. Contrary to the principles of
An ethnographer cameraman will be accepted as a natural partner by the actors who play their roles. The cameraman will be one of them. He may even be possessed by the rhythm of dancers during a ritual celebration and induced in a state of cine-trance . Going further than his predecessors, Jean Rouch introduces the actor as a tool in research.
A new genre was born. Robert Flaherty, a main reference for Rouch, may be seen as the grandfather of this genre , although he was a pure documentary maker and not an ethnographer.
Being mainly used to refer to ethnographic films as an object of visual anthropology, the term ethnofiction is as well adequate to refer to experimental documentaries preceding and following Rouch’s oeuvre and to any fictional creation in human communication, arts or literature, having an ethnographical or social background.
* 1 History
* 2 Chronology
* 2.1 1920s * 2.2 1930s * 2.3 1940s * 2.4 1950s * 2.5 1960s * 2.6 1970s * 2.7 1980s * 2.8 Recent
* 3 Footnotes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
Parallel to those of Flaherty or Rouch, ethnic portraits of hard
local realities are often drawn in Portuguese films since the
thirties, with particular incidence from the sixties to the eighties,
and again in the early 21st century. The remote Trás-os-Montes region
Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province in
* 1926 – Moana by
* 1930 –
Maria do Mar by
José Leitão de Barros ,
* 1961 – La pyramide humaine by
Jean Rouch ,
* 1976 – People from Praia da Vieira (Gente da Praia da Vieira) by
António Campos ,
* 2000 – No Quarto da Vanda (In Vanda’s Room) by Pedro Costa * 2003 – Terra Longe (Remote Land) by Daniel E. Thorbecke * 2006 – Colossal Youth by Pedro Costa * 2007 – Transfiction by Johannes Sjöberg * 2011 - Toomelah by Ivan Sen
* ^ Glossary at MAITRES_FOUS.NET
* ^ Types of Cameras – definition at UCLA
Links: ------ /wiki/Neologism /wiki/Ethnographic /wiki/Docufiction /wiki/Documentary /wiki/Fictional_film