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Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups. As an area of study among behavioral economists, psychologists, and sociologists, it ranges beyond discrimination to take non-cognitive factors into consideration for explaining unwarranted differences between individuals of similar abilities but differing ethnicities. Background[edit] The concept of the ethnic penalty was first discussed by Oxford sociologist Anthony Heath and refined with greater specificity by another Oxford sociologist, Reza Hasmath and, recently, by another sociologist, Elyakim Kislev. Heath originally looked at the ethnic penalty by making comparisons between two groups in Britain, whites and blacks, noting that unemployment of black African men was twice as high as unemployment of white men.[1] Using 2001 UK census data, Johnston et al. suggests that all ethno-religious groups in the UK experienced ethnic penalties in the labour market, with the exception of White British ethno-religious groups.[2] Carmichael and Woods additionally show that "the penalties paid vary considerably between the minority groups" studied, in the case of black, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi workers in the United Kingdom.[3] Simpson, Purdam, Tajar, et al. also found that this differs between UK-born members of an ethnic minority and those of the same ethnicity born abroad – UK-born males are more likely to be unemployed than males from overseas, while UK-born women "tend to do better in the labour market than their overseas-born counterparts".[4] Beyond this, Simpson et al. confirmed that this disadvantage is not tied to "concentration of ethnic minorities in deprived areas"; those of an "ethnic minority were still twice as likely to be unemployed than their White counterparts... even in areas that are predominantly White". Recent research has explored the possibility of a "double penalty" which considers the interaction effects of ethnicity and gender.[5] Reza Hasmath concludes that exclusionary discrimination is not the only potential explanation for ethnic penalties. Conditions such an individual's social network,[6] a firm's working culture, and a community's social trust should be strongly factored.[7] Silberman and Fournier, in their investigation of ethnic penalty in France, also highlight that an employer may not necessarily wish themselves to discriminate, but that they may be pressured by "a given company’s employees or a customer wishing to have nothing to do with an individual with this or that characteristic".[8] Elyakim Kislev's work divides the ethnic penalty into four components: individual characteristics, country characteristics, the social environment in host country, and the policy environment in host country. Kislev shows that the main reasons for immigrants’ disadvantage in terms of labor force participation and household income are both origin and host country characteristics, while the effects of ethnic origins, social exclusion, and policies are weaker. However, ethnic origins and social exclusion actually play a central role in determining unemployment of immigrants.[9] References[edit]

^ Heath, A.F. and J. Ridge (1983) “Social Mobility of Ethnic Minorities”, Journal of Biosocial Science, Supplement No. 8: 169-184. ^ Johnston, R. et al. (2010) "Ethno-Religious Categories and Measuring Occupational Attainment in Relation to Education in England and Wales: A Multilevel Analysis’, Environment and Planning A 42(3): 578-591. ^ Carmichael, F.; Woods, R. (2000). "Ethnic Penalties in Unemployment and Occupational Attainment: Evidence for Britain". International Review of Applied Economics. 14 (1): 71–98. doi:10.1080/026921700101498.  ^ Simpson et al. (2006) "Ethnic Minority Populations and the Labour Market: An Analysis of the 1991 and 2001 Census", Department for Work and Pensions. ^ Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Hasmath, Reza; Ho, Benjamin (2016). "The Double Penalty? Ethno-Gender Outcomes in China's Labour Market". Rochester, NY: Paper Presented at North American Chinese Sociologists Association Annual Meeting (Seattle, USA), August 19. SSRN 2824122 .  ^ May, Julia (4 June 2012). "Lack of network hurting migrant workers". Sydney Morning Herald.  ^ Hasmath, R. (2012). The Ethnic Penalty: Immigration, Education and the Labour Market. Aldershot: Ashgate. Retrieved 12 November 2016. ^ Silberman, R.; Fournier, I. (2008). "Second Generations on the Job Market in France: A Persistent Ethnic Penalty - A Contribution to Segmented Assimilation Theory". Revue Française de Sociologie. 49 (5): 45–94. doi:10.3917/rfs.495.0045. Retrieved 24 November 2014.  ^ Kislev, Elyakim (2016-09-19). "Deciphering the 'Ethnic Penalty' of Immigrants in Western Europe: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis". Social Indicators Research. doi:10.1007/s11205-016-1451-x. 

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Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist movements Xenophobia

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Discrimination

General forms

Age Caste Class Color Disability Gender Genotype Hair Height Language Looks Mental condition Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Religion Sex Sexuality Size Species

Social

AIDS stigma Adultism Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism Audism Binarism Biphobia Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Ethnopluralism Fatism Genderism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism Homophobia Islamophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Mentalism Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Shadism Supremacism

Arab Black White

Transmisogyny Transphobia Vegaphobia Xenophobia

Manifestations

Animal cruelty Animal testing Blood libel Blood sport Carnism Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Democide Disability
Disability
hate crime Educational Economic Eliminationism Employment Enemy of the people Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital mutilation Genocide

examples

Glass ceiling Group libel Hate crime Hate group Hate speech Homeless dumping Housing Indian rolling LGBT hate crime Lavender scare Lynching Meat eating Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Race war Red Scare Religious persecution Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt

Discriminatory policies

Segregation

age racial religious sex

Age of candidacy Blood quantum Cleanliness of blood Crime of apartheid Disabilities

Jewish Catholic

Ethnocracy Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donor controversy Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
(laws and issues prohibiting) Sodomy law Ugly law Voter suppression

Countermeasures

Affirmative action Animal rights Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Desegregation Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Human rights Intersex rights Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Self-determination Social integration Toleration Vegetarianism Veganism

Related topics

Allophilia Anthropocentrism Anti-cultural sentiment Assimilation Bias Christian privilege Data discrimination Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Multiculturalism Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Power distance Prejudice Racial bias in criminal news Racism
Racism
by country Regressive left Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social stigma Stereotype

threat

White privilege

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