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Ethnic media is media fashioned with a particular ethnic minority group or ethnic minority community in mind.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Ethnic media as alternative media 3 Examples of ethnic media 4 Examples of ethnic alternative media 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Definition[edit] Academic Yu Shi tenders an operational definition for ethnic media: “Ethnic media are often regarded as media by and for ethnics in a host country with content in ethnic languages."[1] Shi also adds, ethnic media “can be published by big ethnic media groups and by small organic ethnic communities”, as well.[2] Practitioner Inga Buchbinder of New America Media adds, “Our organization defines it most as a publication, whether that’s news, television, radio, online, print, magazine--any sort of publication that caters to a specific ethnic community. And it could be in-language…or it could be bilingual that reaches a very specific community.”[3] In addition to news, television, radio, online, print, and magazine outlets that qualify as ethnic media, academic John D.H. Downing adds musical culture and forms of religious expression to the ethnic media mix. Downing finds, “these may, along with language and dialect, act as a media force somewhere between shock absorption and psychic validation in the often fraught atmosphere between the ethnic majority and ethnic minorities.”[4] Downing finds that ethnic media tends to circulate, “within at least three different sectors, namely, indigenous nations and communities, recent migrants…and settled subordinate ethnic groups.”[5] Ethnic media as alternative media[edit] Analogous to the debate as to what qualifying factors constitute alternative media, the domain of what qualifying factors that classify a respective ethnic media outlet as an alternative media outlet is also, at play. Thus, ethnic media is not by definitional default alternative media. Again, the work of academics and grassroots practitioners, such as John D.H. Downing, Yu Shi, Clemencia Rodriguez, and Inga Buchbinder of New America Media provide definitional assistance for this complex and overdetermined zone. Discernment of whether or not a respective ethnic media outlet qualifies as an alternative media outlet is dependent upon the outstanding contextual information, and should be assessed on a case by case evaluation. Yu Shi’s work puts forth a seven-pronged test for evaluating the “alternative media role” of ethnic media in the United States: “reference has to be made to their (1) individual place of origin, (2) historical evolution, (3) production process, (4) distribution pattern, (5) ownership, (6) self-identity (non-profit or for-profit; alternative or commercial; or in between), and (7) connection to power groups in local and transnational settings.”[6] Examples of ethnic media[edit]

Black Enterprise Magazine Black Entertainment Television Ebony Essence Magazine Jet Magazine Latina Magazine Telemundo Television Network Univision Television Network My own media I-Italy Italian American Voice Jewish Daily Forward

Examples of ethnic alternative media[edit]

Chicago Defender Freedom's Journal New Pittsburgh Courier North Star Philadelphia Tribune The New York Amsterdam News

See also[edit]

The Abolitionist Movement The Black Power Movement Clemencia Rodriguez Citizens' Media German American journalism Irish American journalism John DH Downing New America Media The Pittsburgh Courier's Double V Campaign

References[edit]

^ Shi, Yu. (2009, p. 599). Re-evaluating the 'alternative' role of ethnic media in the US: the case of Chinese-language press and working-class women readers. Sage Publications. ^ Shi, Yu. (2010). Audio Interview. ^ Buchbinder, Inga. (2010). Audio Interview. ^ Downing, John. (2001, p. 82). Radical Media: Rebellious communication and social movements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ^ Downing, John. (2001, p. 81). Radical Media: Rebellious communication and social movements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ^ Shi, Yu. (2009, p. 600). Re-evaluating the 'alternative' role of ethnic media in the US: the case of Chinese-language press and working-class women readers. Sage Publications.

Further reading[edit]

Jaroszyńska-Kirchmann, Anna D. The Polish Hearst: Ameryka-Echo and the Public Role of the Immigrant Press (University of Illinois Press, 2015) Johnson, Melissa A. "How ethnic are US ethnic media: The case of Latina magazines." Mass Communication & Society 3#2-3 (2000): 229-248. Kent, Robert B., and Maura E. Huntz. "Spanish-language newspapers in the United States." Geographical Review (1996): 446-456. in JSTOR Ma, Yan. "Chinese American newspapers and periodicals in the United States and their web presence." Serials Review 29#3 (2003): 179-198. Mahtani, Minelle. "Representing minorities: Canadian media and minority identities." Canadian ethnic studies 33#3 (2001): 99-133. online Miller, Sally M., ed. The ethnic press in the United States: A historical analysis and handbook (Greenwood, 1987) online Ogunyemi, Ola, ed. Journalism, audiences and diaspora (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) Prentoulis, Marina. "The construction of the black British community in The Voice and the New Nation." Journalism 13#6 (2012): 731-749. Pride, Armistead Scott, and Clint C. Wilson. A history of the Black press (Howard University Press, 1997) Razi, Alpen. "'Coloured Citizens of the World': The Networks of Empire loyalism in Emancipation-Era Jamaica and the Rise of the Transnational Black Press." American Periodicals: A Journal of History, Criticism, and Bibliography 23#2 (2013): 105-124. Thomas, Eric. "Canadian broadcasting and multiculturalism: Attempts to accommodate ethnic minorities." Canadian Journal of Communication 17.3 (1992). online Viswanath, Kasisomayajula, and Pamela Arora. "Ethnic media in the United States: An essay on their role in integration, assimilation, and social control." Mass Communication & Society 3#1 (2000): 39-56.

External links[edit]

Can African-Americans Find Their Voice in Cyberspace?: A Conversation with Dayna Cunningham (Part One of Four) Can African-Americans Find Their Voice in Cyberspace?: A Conversation with Dayna Cunningham (Part Two of Four) Can African-Americans Find Their Voice in Cyberspace?: A Conversation with Dayna Cunningham (Part Three of Four) Can African-Americans Find Their Voice in Cyberspace?: A Conversation with Dayna Cunningham (Part Four of Four)

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Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

Africa

Arab League

Americas

Indigenous Canada Mexico United States Central America South America

Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

Indigenous

Europe Oceania

Indigenous European

Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist mo

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