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Ethnic democracy is a political system that combines a structured ethnic dominance with democratic, political and civil rights for all. Both the dominant ethnic group and the minority ethnic groups have citizenship and are able to fully participate in the political process. Ethnic democracy differs from ethnocracy in that elements of it are more purely democratic. It provides the non-core groups with more political participation, influence and improvement of status than ethnocracy supposedly does. Nor is an ethnic democracy a Herrenvolk democracy which is by definition a democracy officially limited to the core ethnic nation only.[1] The term "ethnic democracy" was introduced by University of Haifa sociologist Sammy Smooha in a book published in 1989.[2] He considers Israel
Israel
to be an example of an ethnic democracy.[3]

Contents

1 Model definition 2 Applicability of the model

2.1 Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia 2.2 Malaysia 2.3 Slovakia

3 References

Model definition[edit] Smooha defines eight features that are the core elements of his model of an ethnic democracy:[4]

Ethnic nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
installs a single core ethnic nation in the state. The state separates membership in the single core ethnic nation from citizenship. The state is owned and ruled by the core ethnic nation. The state mobilises the core ethnic nation. Non-core groups are accorded incomplete individual and collective rights. The state allows non-core groups to conduct parliamentary and extra-parliamentary struggle for change. The state perceives non-core groups as a threat. The state imposes some control on non-core groups.

Smooha also defines ten conditions that can lead to the establishment of an ethnic democracy:[4]

The core ethnic nation constitutes a solid numerical majority. The non-core population constitutes a significant minority. The core ethnic nation has a commitment to democracy. The core ethnic nation is an indigenous group. The non-core groups are immigrant. The non-core group is divided into more than one ethnic group. The core ethnic nation has a sizeable, supportive Diaspora. The homelands of the non-core groups are involved. There is international involvement. Transition from a non-democratic ethnic state has taken place.

Applicability of the model[edit] The model has been applied by researchers to several countries, with various levels of fit. Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia[edit] There is a spectrum of opinion among authors as to the classification of Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia, spanning from Liberal or Civic Democracy[5][6] through Ethnic democracy[7] to Ethnocracy. Will Kymlicka regards Estonia
Estonia
as a civic democracy, stressing the peculiar status of Russian-speakers, stemming from being at once partly transients, partly immigrants and partly natives.[8] British researcher Neil Melvin concludes that Estonia
Estonia
is moving towards a genuinely pluralist democratic society through its liberalization of citizenship and actively drawing of leaders of the Russian settler communities into the political process.[9] James Hughes, in the United Nations Development Programme's Development and Transition, contends Latvia and Estonia
Estonia
are cases of ‘ethnic democracy’ where the state has been captured by the titular ethnic group and then used to promote ‘nationalising’ policies and alleged discrimination against Russophone
Russophone
minorities.[7] (Development and Transition has also published papers disputing Hughes' contentions.) Israeli researchers Oren Yiftachel and As’ad Ghanem consider Estonia
Estonia
as an ethnocracy.[10][11] Israeli sociologist Sammy Smooha, of the University of Haifa, disagrees with Yiftachel, contending that the ethnocratic model developed by Yiftachel does not fit the case of Latvia
Latvia
and Estonia; it is not a settler society as its core ethnic group is indigenous, nor did it expand territorially or have a diaspora intervening in its internal affairs as in the case of Israel for which Yiftachel originally developed his model.[12] However the notion that Estonia
Estonia
or Latvia
Latvia
are ethnic democracies has been rejected by some commentators.[13] On the one hand, the citizenship laws of these countries are not based on ethnic criteria, treating citizens of Russian extract, including a number of people who automatically became citizens because their families have resided there since before 1940, with the same rights as the ethnic majorities.[14][15] Moreover, non-citizens enjoy social rights on a par with citizens.[16] On the other hand, given the proportion of non-citizen minorities without certain political rights (7.5% in the case of Estonia[17]), Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
may not yet even qualify as ethnic democracies: in Smooha's definition of ethnic democracy, minority groups should enjoy full rights as citizens of the country.[18] Malaysia[edit] Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia
Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia
gives more rights to the Bumiputra
Bumiputra
than to other people. Slovakia[edit] Slovak nationalism is grounded in ethnicity and language. "State-building and nation-building in Slovakia are designed to install ethnic Slovaks as the sole nation and to prevent any sign of binationalism. This objective is made clear in the preamble of the Slovak constitution which begins with the following words: “We, the Slovak nation, bearing in mind the political and cultural heritage of our predecessors, the experience gained through centuries of struggle for our national existence and statehood…”[19] References[edit]

^ Smooha, S. 'The model of ethnic democracy: Israel
Israel
as a Jewish and democratic state', Nations and Nationalism, p. 475. Volume 8 Issue s4, 2002. ^ Smooha, S. The model of ethnic democracy Archived June 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., European Centre for Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 13, 2001, p24. ^ S Smooha, Ethnic democracy: Israel
Israel
as an archetype Israel, 1997 ^ a b Priit Järve. Ethnic Democracy
Democracy
and Estonia, European Centre for Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 13, 2000. ^ Pickles, John; Smith, Adrian (1998). Theorising transition: the political economy of post-Communist transformations. Taylor & Francis. p. 284.  ^ Jubulis, M. (2001). "Nationalism and Democratic Transition". The Politics of Citizenship and Language in Post-Soviet Latvia. Lanham, New York and Oxford: University Press of America. pp. 201–208.  ^ a b Discrimination against the Russophone
Russophone
Minority in Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
Archived 2008-05-04 at the Wayback Machine. — synopsis of article published in the Journal of Common Market Studies (November 2005) ^ Kymlicka, Will (2000). "Estonia's Integration Policies in a Comparative Perspective". Estonia’s Integration Landscape: From Apathy to Harmony. pp. 29–57.  ^ Melvin, N. J. (2000). "Post imperial Ethnocracy and the Russophone Minorities of Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia". In Stein, J. P. The Policies of National Minority Participation Post-Communist Europe. State-Building, Democracy
Democracy
and Ethnic Mobilisation. EastWest Institute (EWI). p. 160.  ^ Yiftachel, Oren; As’ad Ghanem (August 2004). "Understanding 'ethnocratic' regimes: the politics of seizing contested territories". Political Geography. 23 (6): 647–676. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.04.003.  ^ Yiftachel, Oren (23 January 2004). "Ethnocratic States and Spaces". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 2009-10-18.  ^ Smooha, S. The model of ethnic democracy Archived June 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., European Centre for Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 13, 2001, p23. ^ E.g., regarding Latvia: Smith-Sivertsen, Herman (2006). " Latvia
Latvia
— meir enn etnopolitikk" [Latvia: More than Ethnopolitics]. In Bakke, Elisabeth. Sentral-Europa og Baltikum etter 1989 [Central Europe and the Baltic States after 1989] (in Norwegian) (2nd ed.). Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget. p. 63. ISBN 82-521-6786-1. OCLC 162357834.  ^ Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Estonia ^ Amnesty takes on Estonia
Estonia
(reprint) ^ Human Rights and Social Integration in the Republic of Latvia: a General Survey’, Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs/Latvia's Naturalisation Board, 1998 [1] ^ " Estonia
Estonia
Today: Citizenship (Fact Sheet September 2009)" (PDF). 2009-09-02. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 2009-09-22.  ^ Smooha S. and P. Järve, eds., The Fate of Ethnic Democracy
Democracy
in Post-Communist Europe (ECMI, 2005), pp. 61-114.[2] ^ Smooha, S. The model of ethnic democracy Archived June 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., European Centre for Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 13, 2001, pp 64-70.

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Ethnicity

Related concepts

Clan Ethnic group

Ethnolinguistic group Ethnoreligious group

Indigenous peoples Ingroups and outgroups Meta-ethnicity Metroethnicity Minority group Monoethnicity Nation Nationality Panethnicity Polyethnicity Population Race Symbolic ethnicity Tribe

Ethnology

Anthropology Ethnic studies Ethnoarchaeology Ethnobiology

Ethnobotany Ethnozoology Ethnoecology

Ethnocinema Ethnogeology Ethnography

Autoethnography Clinical Critical Cyber- Netnography Online Person-centered Salvage Transidioethnography Video

Ethnohistory Ethnolinguistics Ethnology Ethnomathematics Ethnomethodology Ethnomuseology Ethnomusicology Ethnophilosophy Ethnopoetics Ethnoscience Ethnosemiotics Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

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Americas

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Asia

Central Asia East Asia Northern Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia

Australia

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Europe Oceania

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Identity and ethnogenesis

Cross-race effect Cultural assimilation Cultural identity Demonym Development Endonym Ethnic flag Ethnic option Ethnic origin Ethnic religion Ethnicity in census Ethnofiction Ethnonym Folk religion Historical Imagined community Kinship Legendary progenitor Lineage-bonded society Mythomoteur Mores Nation-building Nation state National language National myth Origin myth Pantribal sodality Tribal name Tribalism Urheimat

Multiethnic society

Consociationalism Diaspora
Diaspora
politics Dominant minority Ethnic democracy Ethnic enclave Ethnic interest group Ethnic majority Ethnic media Ethnic pornography Ethnic theme park Ethnoburb Ethnocracy Indigenous rights Middleman minority Minority rights Model minority Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

Ethnic bioweapon Ethnic cleansing Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnic nationalism Ethnic nepotism Ethnic penalty Ethnic slur Ethnic stereotype Ethnic violence Ethnocentrism Ethnocide Ethnosymbolism Indigenism Separatist mo

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