ETHERNET /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking
technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan
area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially
introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as
IEEE 802.3 , and
has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link
distances. Over time,
Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired
LAN technologies such as token ring , FDDI and
Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium ,
while the newer
Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic
links in conjunction with hubs or switches . Over the course of its
Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the
original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits
per second (Gbit/s). The
Ethernet standards comprise several wiring
and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet.
Systems communicating over
Ethernet divide a stream of data into
shorter pieces called frames . Each frame contains source and
destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames
can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols
trigger retransmission of lost frames. As per the
OSI model , Ethernet
provides services up to and including the data link layer .
Since its commercial release,
Ethernet has retained a good degree of
backward compatibility . Features such as the 48-bit
MAC address and
Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols. The
primary alternative for some uses of contemporary LANs is
Wi-Fi , a
wireless protocol standardized as
IEEE 802.11 .
* 1 History
* 2 Standardization
* 3 Evolution
* 3.1 Shared media
* 3.2 Repeaters and hubs
* 3.3 Bridging and switching
* 3.4 Advanced networking
* 4 Error conditions
* 4.1 Jabber
* 4.2 Runt frames
* 5 Varieties of
* 6 Frame structure
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
Accton Etherpocket-SP parallel port
Ethernet adapter (circa
1990). Supports both coaxial (
10BASE2 ) and twisted pair (
cables. Power is drawn from a
PS/2 port passthrough cable.
Ethernet was developed at
Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974. It was
ALOHAnet , which
Robert Metcalfe had studied as part of
his PhD dissertation. The idea was first documented in a memo that
Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the disproven
luminiferous ether as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for
the propagation of electromagnetic waves". In 1975,
Xerox filed a
patent application listing Metcalfe,
David Boggs , Chuck Thacker , and
Butler Lampson as inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed
at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper.
Xerox in June 1979 to form
3Com . He convinced
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC),
Intel , and
Xerox to work
together to promote
Ethernet as a standard. The so-called "DIX"
standard, for "Digital/Intel/Xerox", specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet,
with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit
Ethertype -type field. It was published on September 30, 1980 as "The
Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Specifications". Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and
defines what has become known as
Ethernet II . Formal standardization
efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of
IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983.
Ethernet initially competed with two largely proprietary systems,
Token Ring and
Token Bus . Because
Ethernet was able to adapt to
market realities and shift to inexpensive and ubiquitous twisted pair
wiring, these proprietary protocols soon found themselves competing in
a market inundated by
Ethernet products, and, by the end of the 1980s,
Ethernet was clearly the dominant network technology. In the process,
3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
3C100 NIC in March 1981, and that year started selling adapters for
PDP-11s and VAXes , as well as
Intel and Sun
Microsystems computers. :9 This was followed quickly by DEC's Unibus
Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used internally to build its
own corporate network, which reached over 10,000 nodes by 1986, making
it one of the largest computer networks in the world at that time. An
Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC was released in 1982, and, by
3Com had sold 100,000.
Parallel port based
were produced for a time, with drivers for DOS and Windows. By the
Ethernet became so prevalent that it was a must-have
feature for modern computers, and
Ethernet ports began to appear on
some PCs and most workstations . This process was greatly sped up with
the introduction of
10BASE-T and its relatively small modular
connector , at which point
Ethernet ports appeared even on low-end
Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and
market requirements. In addition to computers,
Ethernet is now used
to interconnect appliances and other personal devices . It is used in
industrial applications and is quickly replacing legacy data
transmission systems in the world's telecommunications networks. By
2010, the market for
Ethernet equipment amounted to over $16 billion
Gigabit Ethernet NIC, PCI Express x1 card
In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) started project 802 to standardize local area
networks (LAN). The "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson (DEC), Phil Arst
(Intel), and Bob Printis (Xerox) submitted the so-called "Blue Book"
CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN specification. In
addition to CSMA/CD,
Token Ring (supported by IBM) and Token Bus
(selected and henceforward supported by
General Motors ) were also
considered as candidates for a LAN standard. Competing proposals and
broad interest in the initiative led to strong disagreement over which
technology to standardize. In December 1980, the group was split into
three subgroups, and standardization proceeded separately for each
Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction
Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's
Ethernet LAN products. With
such business implications in mind,
David Liddle (General Manager,
Xerox Office Systems) and Metcalfe (3Com) strongly supported a
proposal of Fritz Röscheisen (
Siemens Private Networks) for an
alliance in the emerging office communication market, including
Siemens' support for the international standardization of Ethernet
(April 10, 1981). Ingrid Fromm, Siemens' representative to IEEE 802,
quickly achieved broader support for
Ethernet beyond IEEE by the
establishment of a competing Task Group "Local Networks" within the
European standards body ECMA TC24. On March 1982, ECMA TC24 with its
corporate members reached an agreement on a standard for CSMA/CD based
IEEE 802 draft. :8 Because the DIX proposal was most
technically complete and because of the speedy action taken by ECMA
which decisively contributed to the conciliation of opinions within
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard was approved in December 1982.
IEEE published the 802.3 standard as a draft in 1983 and as a standard
Ethernet on the international level was achieved by a
similar, cross-partisan action with Fromm as the liaison officer
working to integrate with International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) Technical Committee 83 (TC83) and International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 97 Sub Committee 6
ISO 8802-3 standard was published in 1989.
INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE
Ethernet evolved to include higher bandwidth, improved media access
control methods, and different physical media. The coaxial cable was
replaced with point-to-point links connected by
Ethernet repeaters or
Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets:
blocks of data individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802
Ethernet station is given a 48-bit
MAC address . The MAC
addresses are used to specify both the destination and the source of
each data packet.
Ethernet establishes link level connections, which
can be defined using both the destination and source addresses. On
reception of a transmission, the receiver uses the destination address
to determine whether the transmission is relevant to the station or
should be ignored. A network interface normally does not accept
packets addressed to other
Ethernet stations. Adapters come
programmed with a globally unique address.
EtherType field in each frame is used by the operating system on
the receiving station to select the appropriate protocol module (e.g.,
Internet Protocol version such as
Ethernet frames are said
to be self-identifying, because of the frame type. Self-identifying
frames make it possible to intermix multiple protocols on the same
physical network and allow a single computer to use multiple protocols
together. Despite the evolution of
Ethernet technology, all
Ethernet (excluding early experimental versions) use
the same frame formats. Mixed-speed networks can be built using
Ethernet switches and repeaters supporting the desired Ethernet
Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of the
hardware needed to support it, and the reduced panel space needed by
twisted pair Ethernet, most manufacturers now build Ethernet
interfaces directly into PC motherboards , eliminating the need for
installation of a separate network card.
Ethernet equipment. Clockwise from top-left: An Ethernet
transceiver with an in-line
10BASE2 adapter, a similar model
transceiver with a
10BASE5 adapter, an AUI cable, a different style of
10BASE2 BNC T-connector, two
10BASE5 end fittings (N
connectors ), an orange "vampire tap" installation tool (which
includes a specialized drill bit at one end and a socket wrench at the
other), and an early model
10BASE5 transceiver (h4000) manufactured by
DEC. The short length of yellow
10BASE5 cable has one end fitted with
N connector and the other end prepared to have a
N connector shell
installed; the half-black, half-grey rectangular object through which
the cable passes is an installed vampire tap.
Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating
over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium.
The method used was similar to those used in radio systems, with the
common cable providing the communication channel likened to the
Luminiferous aether in 19th century physics, and it was from this
reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived.
Original Ethernet's shared coaxial cable (the shared medium)
traversed a building or campus to every attached machine. A scheme
known as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) governed the way the computers shared the channel. This
scheme was simpler than competing token ring or token bus
technologies. Computers are connected to an Attachment Unit Interface
(AUI) transceiver , which is in turn connected to the cable (with thin
Ethernet the transceiver is integrated into the network adapter).
While a simple passive wire is highly reliable for small networks, it
is not reliable for large extended networks, where damage to the wire
in a single place, or a single bad connector, can make the whole
Ethernet segment unusable.
Through the first half of the 1980s, Ethernet's 10BASE5
implementation used a coaxial cable 0.375 inches (9.5 mm) in diameter,
later called "thick Ethernet" or "thicknet". Its successor,
called "thin Ethernet" or "thinnet", used the
RG-58 coaxial cable. The
emphasis was on making installation of the cable easier and less
Since all communication happens on the same wire, any information
sent by one computer is received by all, even if that information is
intended for just one destination. The network interface card
interrupts the CPU only when applicable packets are received: the card
ignores information not addressed to it. Use of a single cable also
means that the data bandwidth is shared, such that, for example,
available data bandwidth to each device is halved when two stations
are simultaneously active.
A collision happens when two stations attempt to transmit at the same
time. They corrupt transmitted data and require stations to
re-transmit. The lost data and re-transmission reduces throughput. In
the worst case, where multiple active hosts connected with maximum
allowed cable length attempt to transmit many short frames, excessive
collisions can reduce throughput dramatically. However, a
in 1980 studied performance of an existing
Ethernet installation under
both normal and artificially generated heavy load. The report claimed
that 98% throughput on the LAN was observed. This is in contrast with
token passing LANs (token ring, token bus), all of which suffer
throughput degradation as each new node comes into the LAN, due to
token waits. This report was controversial, as modeling showed that
collision-based networks theoretically became unstable under loads as
low as 37% of nominal capacity. Many early researchers failed to
understand these results. Performance on real networks is
In a modern Ethernet, the stations do not all share one channel
through a shared cable or a simple repeater hub; instead, each station
communicates with a switch, which in turn forwards that traffic to the
destination station. In this topology, collisions are only possible if
station and switch attempt to communicate with each other at the same
time, and collisions are limited to this link. Furthermore, the
10BASE-T standard introduced a full duplex mode of operation which
became common with
Fast Ethernet and the de facto standard with
Gigabit Ethernet . In full duplex, switch and station can send and
receive simultaneously, and therefore modern Ethernets are completely
* Comparison between original
Ethernet and modern Ethernet
Ethernet implementation: shared medium, collision-prone.
All computers trying to communicate share the same cable, and so
compete with each other.
Ethernet implementation: switched connection, collision-free.
Each computer communicates only with its own switch, without
competition for the cable with others.
REPEATERS AND HUBS
A 1990s network interface card supporting both coaxial cable
BNC connector , left) and twisted pair-based 10BASE-T
8P8C connector, right) Main article:
For signal degradation and timing reasons, coaxial
have a restricted size. Somewhat larger networks can be built by using
Ethernet repeater . Early repeaters had only two ports, allowing,
at most, a doubling of network size. Once repeaters with more than two
ports became available, it was possible to wire the network in a star
topology . Early experiments with star topologies (called "Fibernet")
using optical fiber were published by 1978.
Ethernet is always hard to install in offices because
its bus topology is in conflict with the star topology cable plans
designed into buildings for telephony. Modifying
Ethernet to conform
to twisted pair telephone wiring already installed in commercial
buildings provided another opportunity to lower costs, expand the
installed base, and leverage building design, and, thus, twisted-pair
Ethernet was the next logical development in the mid-1980s.
Ethernet on unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP) began with StarLAN
at 1 Mbit/s in the mid-1980s. In 1987
SynOptics introduced the first
Ethernet at 10 Mbit/s in a star-wired cabling topology
with a central hub, later called
LattisNet . These evolved into
10BASE-T, which was designed for point-to-point links only, and all
termination was built into the device. This changed repeaters from a
specialist device used at the center of large networks to a device
that every twisted pair-based network with more than two machines had
to use. The tree structure that resulted from this made Ethernet
networks easier to maintain by preventing most faults with one peer or
its associated cable from affecting other devices on the network.
Despite the physical star topology and the presence of separate
transmit and receive channels in the twisted pair and fiber media,
Ethernet networks still use half-duplex and CSMA/CD,
with only minimal activity by the repeater, primarily generation of
the jam signal in dealing with packet collisions. Every packet is sent
to every other port on the repeater, so bandwidth and security
problems are not addressed. The total throughput of the repeater is
limited to that of a single link, and all links must operate at the
BRIDGING AND SWITCHING
Patch cables with patch fields of two
Ethernet switches Main
Ethernet switch and
While repeaters can isolate some aspects of
Ethernet segments , such
as cable breakages, they still forward all traffic to all Ethernet
devices. This creates practical limits on how many machines can
communicate on an
Ethernet network. The entire network is one
collision domain , and all hosts have to be able to detect collisions
anywhere on the network. This limits the number of repeaters between
the farthest nodes. Segments joined by repeaters have to all operate
at the same speed, making phased-in upgrades impossible.
To alleviate these problems, bridging was created to communicate at
the data link layer while isolating the physical layer. With bridging,
Ethernet packets are forwarded from one Ethernet
segment to another; collisions and packet errors are isolated. At
Ethernet bridges (and switches) work somewhat like
Ethernet repeaters, passing all traffic between segments. By observing
the source addresses of incoming frames, the bridge then builds an
address table associating addresses to segments. Once an address is
learned, the bridge forwards network traffic destined for that address
only to the associated segment, improving overall performance.
Broadcast traffic is still forwarded to all network segments. Bridges
also overcome the limits on total segments between two hosts and allow
the mixing of speeds, both of which are critical to deployment of Fast
In 1989, the networking company Kalpana (acquired by Cisco Systems,
Inc. in 1994) introduced their EtherSwitch, the first
This works somewhat differently from an
Ethernet bridge, where only
the header of the incoming packet is examined before it is either
dropped or forwarded to another segment. This greatly reduces the
forwarding latency and the processing load on the network device. One
drawback of this cut-through switching method is that packets that
have been corrupted are still propagated through the network, so a
jabbering station can continue to disrupt the entire network. The
eventual remedy for this was a return to the original store and
forward approach of bridging, where the packet would be read into a
buffer on the switch in its entirety, verified against its checksum
and then forwarded, but using more powerful application-specific
integrated circuits . Hence, the bridging is then done in hardware,
allowing packets to be forwarded at full wire speed.
When a twisted pair or fiber link segment is used and neither end is
connected to a repeater, full-duplex
Ethernet becomes possible over
that segment. In full-duplex mode, both devices can transmit and
receive to and from each other at the same time, and there is no
collision domain. This doubles the aggregate bandwidth of the link and
is sometimes advertised as double the link speed (for example, 200
Mbit/s). The elimination of the collision domain for these
connections also means that all the link's bandwidth can be used by
the two devices on that segment and that segment length is not limited
by the need for correct collision detection.
Since packets are typically delivered only to the port they are
intended for, traffic on a switched
Ethernet is less public than on
shared-medium Ethernet. Despite this, switched
Ethernet should still
be regarded as an insecure network technology, because it is easy to
Ethernet systems by means such as
ARP spoofing and
MAC flooding .
The bandwidth advantages, the improved isolation of devices from each
other, the ability to easily mix different speeds of devices and the
elimination of the chaining limits inherent in non-switched Ethernet
have made switched
Ethernet the dominant network technology.
Ethernet networks, while a great improvement over
repeater-based Ethernet, suffer from single points of failure, attacks
that trick switches or hosts into sending data to a machine even if it
is not intended for it, scalability and security issues with regard to
switching loops , broadcast radiation and multicast traffic, and
bandwidth choke points where a lot of traffic is forced down a single
Advanced networking features in switches use shortest path bridging
(SPB) or the spanning-tree protocol (STP) to maintain a loop-free,
meshed network, allowing physical loops for redundancy (STP) or
load-balancing (SPB). Advanced networking features also ensure port
security, provide protection features such as MAC lockdown and
broadcast radiation filtering, use virtual LANs to keep different
classes of users separate while using the same physical
infrastructure, employ multilayer switching to route between different
classes, and use link aggregation to add bandwidth to overloaded links
and to provide some redundancy.
IEEE 802.1aq (shortest path bridging ) includes the use of the
link-state routing protocol
IS-IS to allow larger networks with
shortest path routes between devices. In 2012, it was stated by David
Allan and Nigel Bragg, in 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and
Evolution: The Architect's Perspective that shortest path bridging is
one of the most significant enhancements in Ethernet's history.
Ethernet has replaced
InfiniBand as the most popular system
A node that is sending longer than the maximum transmission window
Ethernet packet is considered to be jabbering. Depending on the
physical topology, jabber detection and remedy differ somewhat.
* An MAU is required to detect and stop abnormally long transmission
from the DTE (longer than 20–150 ms) in order to prevent permanent
* On an electrically shared medium (10BASE5, 10BASE2, 1BASE5),
jabber can only be detected by each end node, stopping reception. No
further remedy is possible.
* A repeater/repeater hub uses a jabber timer that ends
retransmission to the other ports when it expires. The timer runs for
25,000 to 50,000 bit times for 1 Mbit/s, 40,000 to 75,000 bit times
for 10 and 100 Mbit/s, and 80,000 to 150,000 bit times for 1 Gbit/s.
Jabbering ports are partitioned off the network until a carrier is no
* End nodes utilizing a MAC layer will usually detect an oversized
Ethernet frame and cease receiving. A bridge/switch will not forward
* A non-uniform frame size configuration in the network using jumbo
frames may be detected as jabber by end nodes.
* A packet detected as jabber by an upstream repeater and
subsequently cut off has an invalid frame check sequence and is
* Runts are packets or frames smaller than the minimum allowed size.
They are dropped and not propagated.
VARIETIES OF ETHERNET
Ethernet physical layer
Ethernet physical layer evolved over a considerable time span and
encompasses coaxial, twisted pair and fiber-optic physical media
interfaces, with speeds from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s, with 400 Gbit/s
expected by 2018. The first introduction of twisted-pair CSMA/CD was
StarLAN , standardized as 802.3 1BASE5; while 1BASE5 had little
market penetration, it defined the physical apparatus (wire,
plug/jack, pin-out, and wiring plan) that would be carried over to
The most common forms used are 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T .
All three utilize twisted pair cables and
8P8C modular connectors .
They run at 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, and 1 Gbit/s, respectively. Fiber
optic variants of
Ethernet are also very common in larger networks,
offering high performance, better electrical isolation and longer
distance (tens of kilometers with some versions). In general, network
protocol stack software will work similarly on all varieties.
A close-up of the SMSC LAN91C110 (SMSC 91x) chip, an embedded
Ethernet chip. Main article:
In IEEE 802.3, a datagram is called a packet or frame. Packet is used
to describe the overall transmission unit and includes the preamble ,
start frame delimiter (SFD) and carrier extension (if present). The
frame begins after the start frame delimiter with a frame header
featuring source and destination MAC addresses and a field giving
either the protocol type for the payload protocol or the length of the
payload. The middle section of the frame consists of payload data
including any headers for other protocols (for example, Internet
Protocol ) carried in the frame. The frame ends with a 32-bit cyclic
redundancy check , which is used to detect corruption of data in
transit . :sections 3.1.1 and 3.2 Notably,
Ethernet packets have no
time-to-live field , leading to possible problems in the presence of a
switching loop .
Autonegotiation is the procedure by which two connected devices
choose common transmission parameters, e.g. speed and duplex mode.
Autonegotiation is an optional feature, first introduced with
100BASE-TX, while it is also backward compatible with 10BASE-T.
Autonegotiation is mandatory for 1000BASE-T.
* Information technology portal
Computer science portal
Ethernet crossover cable
Ethernet crossover cable
Fiber media converter
List of device bit rates
Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
Power over Ethernet
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
* ^ The experimental
Ethernet described in the 1976 paper ran at
2.94 Mbit/s and has eight-bit destination and source address fields,
so the original
Ethernet addresses are not the MAC addresses they are
today. By software convention, the 16 bits after the destination and
source address fields specify a "packet type", but, as the paper says,
"different protocols use disjoint sets of packet types". Thus the
original packet types could vary within each different protocol. This
is in contrast to the
EtherType in the IEEE
Ethernet standard, which
specifies the protocol being used.
* ^ Unless it is put into promiscuous mode .
* ^ In some cases, the factory-assigned address can be overridden,
either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced or to
use locally administered addresses.
* ^ There are fundamental differences between wireless and wired
shared-medium communication, such as the fact that it is much easier
to detect collisions in a wired system than a wireless system.
* ^ In a CSMA/CD system packets must be large enough to guarantee
that the leading edge of the propagating wave of a message gets to all
parts of the medium and back again before the transmitter stops
transmitting, guaranteeing that collisions (two or more packets
initiated within a window of time that forced them to overlap) are
discovered. As a result, the minimum packet size and the physical
medium's total length are closely linked.
* ^ Multipoint systems are also prone to strange failure modes when
an electrical discontinuity reflects the signal in such a manner that
some nodes would work properly, while others work slowly because of
excessive retries or not at all. See standing wave for an explanation.
These could be much more difficult to diagnose than a complete failure
of the segment.
* ^ This "one speaks, all listen" property is a security weakness
of shared-medium Ethernet, since a node on an
Ethernet network can
eavesdrop on all traffic on the wire if it so chooses.
* ^ Unless it is put into promiscuous mode .
* ^ The term switch was invented by device manufacturers and does
not appear in the 802.3 standard.
* ^ This is misleading, as performance will double only if traffic
patterns are symmetrical.
* ^ The carrier extension is defined to assist collision detection
on shared-media gigabit Ethernet.
* ^ Ralph Santitoro (2003). "
Metro Ethernet Services – A
Technical Overview" (PDF). mef.net. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
* ^ A B "
IEEE 802.3 \'Standard for Ethernet\' Marks 30 Years of
Innovation and Global Market Growth" (Press release). IEEE. June 24,
2013. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
Xerox (August 1976). "Alto: A Personal
Computer System Hardware
Manual" (PDF). Xerox. p. 37. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
* ^ Charles M. Kozierok (2005-09-20). "Data Link Layer (Layer 2)".
tcpipguide.com. Retrieved 2016-01-09.
* ^ Joe Jensen (2007-10-26). "802.11 g: Pros & Cons of a Wireless
Network in a Business Environment". networkbits.net. Retrieved
* ^ A B C D E The History of Ethernet. NetEvents.tv. 2006.
Retrieved September 10, 2011.
* ^ "
Ethernet Prototype Circuit Board". Smithsonian National Museum
of American History. 1973. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
* ^ Gerald W. Brock (September 25, 2003). The Second Information
Revolution. Harvard University Press. p. 151. ISBN 0-674-01178-3 .
* ^ Cade Metz (March 13, 2009). "
Ethernet — a networking protocol
name for the ages: Michelson, Morley, and Metcalfe". The Register: 2.
Retrieved March 4, 2013.
* ^ Mary Bellis. "Inventors of the Modern Computer". About.com.
Retrieved September 10, 2011.
* ^ U.S. Patent 4,063,220 "Multipoint data communication system
(with collision detection)"
Robert Metcalfe ;
David Boggs (July 1976). "Ethernet:
Distributed Packet Switching for Local
Computer Networks" (PDF).
Communications of the ACM . 19 (7): 395–405. doi
John F. Shoch ; Yogen K. Dalal; David D. Redell; Ronald C.
Crane (August 1982). "Evolution of the
Ethernet Local Computer
Network" (PDF). IEEE Computer. 15 (8): 14–26. doi
* ^ A B C D E F von Burg, Urs; Kenney, Martin (December 2003).
"Sponsors, Communities, and Standards:
Token Ring in the
Local Area Networking Business" (PDF). Industry ">(PDF) from the
original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
* ^ A B Digital Equipment Corporation;
Intel Corporation; Xerox
Corporation (30 September 1980). "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network.
Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications, Version 1.0" (PDF).
Xerox Corporation. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
* ^ Digital Equipment Corporation;
Intel Corporation; Xerox
Corporation (November 1982). "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data
Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications, Version 2.0" (PDF).
Xerox Corporation. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
* ^ A B Robert Breyer; Sean Riley (1999). Switched, Fast, and
Gigabit Ethernet. Macmillan. ISBN 1-57870-073-6 .
* ^ Jamie Parker Pearson (1992). Digital at Work. Digital Press. p.
163. ISBN 1-55558-092-0 .
* ^ Rick Merritt (December 20, 2010). "Shifts, growth ahead for 10G
Ethernet". E Times. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
* ^ "My oh My –
Ethernet Growth Continues to Soar; Surpasses
Legacy". Telecom News Now. July 29, 2011. Retrieved September 10,
* ^ Jim Duffy (February 22, 2010). "Cisco, Juniper, HP drive
Ethernet switch market in Q4". Network World. Retrieved September 10,
* ^ Vic Hayes (August 27, 2001). "Letter to FCC" (PDF). Retrieved
October 22, 2010.
IEEE 802 has the basic charter to develop and
maintain networking standards...
IEEE 802 was formed in February
* ^ IEEE 802.3-2008, p.iv
* ^ "
ISO . Retrieved 2015-07-08.
* ^ Jim Duffy (2009-04-20). "Evolution of Ethernet". Network World
. Retrieved 2016-01-01.
Douglas E. Comer (2000). Internetworking with TCP/IP –
Principles, Protocols and Architecture (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN
0-13-018380-6 . 2.4.9 –
Ethernet Hardware Addresses, p. 29,
explains the filtering.
* ^ Iljitsch van Beijnum. "Speed matters: how
Ethernet went from
3Mbps to 100Gbps... and beyond".
Ars Technica . Retrieved July 15,
2011. All aspects of
Ethernet were changed: its MAC procedure, the bit
encoding, the wiring... only the packet format has remained the same.
Fast Ethernet Turtorial, Lantronix, retrieved 2016-01-01
* ^ Geetaj Channana (November 1, 2004). "
Roundup". PCQuest. Retrieved October 22, 2010. While comparing
motherboards in the last issue we found that all motherboards support
Ethernet connection on board.
* ^ Charles E. Spurgeon (2000). Ethernet: The Definitive Guide.
O'Reilly. ISBN 978-1-56592-660-8 .
* ^ Heinz-Gerd Hegering; Alfred Lapple (1993). Ethernet: Building a
Communications Infrastructure. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-62405-2 .
Ethernet Tutorial – Part I: Networking Basics, Lantronix,
* ^ Shoch, John F.; Hupp, Jon A. (December 1980). "Measured
performance of an
Ethernet local network". Communications of the ACM.
ACM Press. 23 (12): 711–721. ISSN 0001-0782 . doi
* ^ Boggs, D.R.; Mogul, J.C. ">(PDF). DEC WRL.
* ^ Eric G. Rawson; Robert M. Metcalfe (July 1978). "Fibemet:
Multimode Optical Fibers for Local
Computer Networks" (PDF). IEEE
Transactions on Communications. 26 (7): 983–990. doi
:10.1109/TCOM.1978.1094189 . Retrieved June 11, 2011.
* ^ Spurgeon, Charles E. (2000). Ethernet; The Definitive Guide.
Nutshell Handbook. O'Reilly. p. 29. ISBN 1-56592-660-9 .
* ^ Urs von Burg (2001). The Triumph of Ethernet: technological
communities and the battle for the LAN standard. Stanford University
Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-8047-4094-1 .
* ^ "Token Ring-to-
Ethernet Migration". Cisco. Retrieved October
22, 2010. Respondents were first asked about their current and planned
desktop LAN attachment standards. The results were clear—switched
Fast Ethernet is the dominant choice for desktop connectivity to the
* ^ Allan, David; Bragg, Nigel (2012). 802.1aq Shortest Path
Bridging Design and Evolution : The Architects\' Perspective. New
York: Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-14866-2 .
* ^ "HIGHLIGHTS – JUNE 2016". June 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
InfiniBand technology is now found on 205 systems, down from 235
systems, and is now the second most-used internal system interc