Ethernet /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking
technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan
area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was
commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE
802.3, and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and
longer link distances. Over time,
Ethernet has largely replaced
competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.
Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium,
while the newer
Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic
links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Over the course of its
Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the
original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest
400 gigabits per second (Gbit/s). The
Ethernet standards comprise
several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use
Systems communicating over
Ethernet divide a stream of data into
shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and
destination addresses, and error-checking data so that damaged frames
can be detected and discarded; most often, higher-layer protocols
trigger retransmission of lost frames. As per the OSI model, Ethernet
provides services up to and including the data link layer.
Since its commercial release,
Ethernet has retained a good degree of
backward compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit
MAC address and
Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols. The
primary alternative for some uses of contemporary LANs is Wi-Fi, a
wireless protocol standardized as IEEE 802.11.
3.1 Shared media
3.2 Repeaters and hubs
3.3 Bridging and switching
3.4 Advanced networking
4 Error conditions
4.2 Runt frames
5 Varieties of Ethernet
6 Frame structure
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Accton Etherpocket-SP parallel port
Ethernet adapter (circa 1990).
Supports both coaxial (10BASE2) and twisted pair (10BASE-T) cables.
Power is drawn from a
PS/2 port passthrough cable.
Ethernet was developed at
Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974. It
was inspired by ALOHAnet, which
Robert Metcalfe had studied as part of
his PhD dissertation. The idea was first documented in a memo that
Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the
luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent,
completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic
waves". In 1975,
Xerox filed a patent application listing
Metcalfe, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, and
Butler Lampson as
inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC,
Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper.[a]
Xerox in June 1979 to form 3Com. He convinced
Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), Intel, and
Xerox to work together
Ethernet as a standard. The so-called "DIX" standard, for
"Digital/Intel/Xerox", specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, with 48-bit
destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ethertype-type
field. It was published on September 30, 1980 as "The Ethernet, A
Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Specifications". Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and
defines what has become known as
Ethernet II. Formal standardization
efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of
IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983.
Ethernet initially competed with two largely proprietary systems,
Token Ring and Token Bus. Because
Ethernet was able to adapt to market
realities and shift to inexpensive and ubiquitous twisted pair wiring,
these proprietary protocols soon found themselves competing in a
market inundated by
Ethernet products, and, by the end of the 1980s,
Ethernet was clearly the dominant network technology. In the
3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first
Ethernet 3C100 NIC in March 1981, and that year started
selling adapters for PDP-11s and VAXes, as well as Multibus-based
Sun Microsystems computers.:9 This was followed quickly
Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used
internally to build its own corporate network, which reached over
10,000 nodes by 1986, making it one of the largest computer networks
in the world at that time. An
Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC
was released in 1982, and, by 1985,
3Com had sold 100,000.
Parallel port based
Ethernet adapters were produced for a time, with
drivers for DOS and Windows. By the early 1990s,
Ethernet became so
prevalent that it was a must-have feature for modern computers, and
Ethernet ports began to appear on some PCs and most workstations. This
process was greatly sped up with the introduction of
10BASE-T and its
relatively small modular connector, at which point
appeared even on low-end motherboards.
Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and
market requirements. In addition to computers,
Ethernet is now
used to interconnect appliances and other personal devices. As
Industrial Ethernet it is used in industrial applications and is
quickly replacing legacy data transmission systems in the world's
telecommunications networks. By 2010, the market for Ethernet
equipment amounted to over $16 billion per year.
Gigabit Ethernet NIC, PCI Express ×1 card
In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) started project 802 to standardize local area
networks (LAN). The "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson (DEC), Phil
Arst (Intel), and Bob Printis (Xerox) submitted the so-called "Blue
Book" CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN
specification. In addition to CSMA/CD,
Token Ring (supported by
Token Bus (selected and henceforward supported by General
Motors) were also considered as candidates for a LAN standard.
Competing proposals and broad interest in the initiative led to strong
disagreement over which technology to standardize. In December 1980,
the group was split into three subgroups, and standardization
proceeded separately for each proposal.
Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction of
Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's
Ethernet LAN products. With such
business implications in mind,
David Liddle (General Manager, Xerox
Office Systems) and Metcalfe (3Com) strongly supported a proposal of
Fritz Röscheisen (
Siemens Private Networks) for an alliance in the
emerging office communication market, including Siemens' support for
the international standardization of
Ethernet (April 10, 1981). Ingrid
Fromm, Siemens' representative to IEEE 802, quickly achieved broader
Ethernet beyond IEEE by the establishment of a competing
Task Group "Local Networks" within the European standards body ECMA
TC24. On March 1982, ECMA TC24 with its corporate members reached an
agreement on a standard for CSMA/CD based on the
IEEE 802 draft.:8
Because the DIX proposal was most technically complete and because of
the speedy action taken by ECMA which decisively contributed to the
conciliation of opinions within IEEE, the
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard
was approved in December 1982. IEEE published the 802.3 standard
as a draft in 1983 and as a standard in 1985.
Ethernet on the international level was achieved by a
similar, cross-partisan action with Fromm as the liaison officer
working to integrate with International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) Technical Committee 83 (TC83) and International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 97 Sub Committee 6
ISO 8802-3 standard was published in 1989.
Internet protocol suite
Ethernet has evolved to include higher bandwidth, improved medium
access control methods, and different physical media. The coaxial
cable was replaced with point-to-point links connected by Ethernet
repeaters or switches.
Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets:
blocks of data individually sent and delivered. As with other IEEE 802
Ethernet station is given a 48-bit MAC address. The MAC
addresses are used to specify both the destination and the source of
each data packet.
Ethernet establishes link-level connections, which
can be defined using both the destination and source addresses. On
reception of a transmission, the receiver uses the destination address
to determine whether the transmission is relevant to the station or
should be ignored. A network interface normally does not accept
packets addressed to other
Ethernet stations.[b] Adapters come
programmed with a globally unique address.[c]
EtherType field in each frame is used by the operating system on
the receiving station to select the appropriate protocol module (e.g.,
Internet Protocol version such as IPv4).
Ethernet frames are said
to be self-identifying, because of the
Self-identifying frames make it possible to intermix multiple
protocols on the same physical network and allow a single computer to
use multiple protocols together. Despite the evolution of Ethernet
technology, all generations of
Ethernet (excluding early experimental
versions) use the same frame formats. Mixed-speed networks can be
Ethernet switches and repeaters supporting the desired
Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of the
hardware needed to support it, and the reduced panel space needed by
twisted pair Ethernet, most manufacturers now build Ethernet
interfaces directly into PC motherboards, eliminating the need for
installation of a separate network card.
Ethernet equipment. Clockwise from top-left: An Ethernet
transceiver with an in-line
10BASE2 adapter, a similar model
transceiver with a
10BASE5 adapter, an AUI cable, a different style of
10BASE2 BNC T-connector, two
10BASE5 end fittings (N
connectors), an orange "vampire tap" installation tool (which includes
a specialized drill bit at one end and a socket wrench at the other),
and an early model
10BASE5 transceiver (h4000) manufactured by DEC.
The short length of yellow
10BASE5 cable has one end fitted with a N
connector and the other end prepared to have a
N connector shell
installed; the half-black, half-grey rectangular object through which
the cable passes is an installed vampire tap.
Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating
over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium.
The method used was similar to those used in radio systems,[d] with
the common cable providing the communication channel likened to the
Luminiferous aether in 19th century physics, and it was from this
reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived.
Original Ethernet's shared coaxial cable (the shared medium) traversed
a building or campus to every attached machine. A scheme known as
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
governed the way the computers shared the channel. This scheme was
simpler than competing
Token Ring or
Token Bus technologies.[e]
Computers are connected to an
Attachment Unit Interface
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI)
transceiver, which is in turn connected to the cable (with thin
Ethernet the transceiver is integrated into the network adapter).
While a simple passive wire is highly reliable for small networks, it
is not reliable for large extended networks, where damage to the wire
in a single place, or a single bad connector, can make the whole
Ethernet segment unusable.[f]
Through the first half of the 1980s, Ethernet's
used a coaxial cable 0.375 inches (9.5 mm) in diameter, later
called "thick Ethernet" or "thicknet". Its successor, 10BASE2, called
"thin Ethernet" or "thinnet", used the
RG-58 coaxial cable. The
emphasis was on making installation of the cable easier and less
Since all communication happens on the same wire, any information sent
by one computer is received by all, even if that information is
intended for just one destination.[g] The network interface card
interrupts the CPU only when applicable packets are received: the card
ignores information not addressed to it.[h] Use of a single cable also
means that the data bandwidth is shared, such that, for example,
available data bandwidth to each device is halved when two stations
are simultaneously active.
A collision happens when two stations attempt to transmit at the same
time. They corrupt transmitted data and require stations to
re-transmit. The lost data and re-transmission reduces throughput. In
the worst case, where multiple active hosts connected with maximum
allowed cable length attempt to transmit many short frames, excessive
collisions can reduce throughput dramatically. However, a
in 1980 studied performance of an existing
Ethernet installation under
both normal and artificially generated heavy load. The report claimed
that 98% throughput on the LAN was observed. This is in contrast
with token passing LANs (Token Ring, Token Bus), all of which suffer
throughput degradation as each new node comes into the LAN, due to
token waits. This report was controversial, as modeling showed that
collision-based networks theoretically became unstable under loads as
low as 37% of nominal capacity. Many early researchers failed to
understand these results. Performance on real networks is
In a modern Ethernet, the stations do not all share one channel
through a shared cable or a simple repeater hub; instead, each station
communicates with a switch, which in turn forwards that traffic to the
destination station. In this topology, collisions are only possible if
station and switch attempt to communicate with each other at the same
time, and collisions are limited to this link. Furthermore, the
10BASE-T standard introduced a full duplex mode of operation which
became common with
Fast Ethernet and the de facto standard with
Gigabit Ethernet. In full duplex, switch and station can send and
receive simultaneously, and therefore modern Ethernets are completely
Comparison between original
Ethernet and modern Ethernet
Ethernet implementation: shared medium, collision-prone.
All computers trying to communicate share the same cable, and so
compete with each other.
Ethernet implementation: switched connection, collision-free.
Each computer communicates only with its own switch, without
competition for the cable with others.
Repeaters and hubs
A 1990s ISA network interface card supporting both coaxial-cable-based
10BASE2 (BNC connector, left) and twisted pair-based
For signal degradation and timing reasons, coaxial
have a restricted size. Somewhat larger networks can be built by
Ethernet repeater. Early repeaters had only two ports,
allowing, at most, a doubling of network size. Once repeaters with
more than two ports became available, it was possible to wire the
network in a star topology. Early experiments with star topologies
(called "Fibernet") using optical fiber were published by 1978.
Ethernet is always hard to install in offices because its
bus topology is in conflict with the star topology cable plans
designed into buildings for telephony. Modifying
Ethernet to conform
to twisted pair telephone wiring already installed in commercial
buildings provided another opportunity to lower costs, expand the
installed base, and leverage building design, and, thus, twisted-pair
Ethernet was the next logical development in the mid-1980s.
Ethernet on unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP) began with
1 Mbit/s in the mid-1980s. In 1987
SynOptics introduced the first
Ethernet at 10 Mbit/s in a star-wired cabling
topology with a central hub, later called LattisNet. These
evolved into 10BASE-T, which was designed for point-to-point links
only, and all termination was built into the device. This changed
repeaters from a specialist device used at the center of large
networks to a device that every twisted pair-based network with more
than two machines had to use. The tree structure that resulted from
Ethernet networks easier to maintain by preventing most
faults with one peer or its associated cable from affecting other
devices on the network.
Despite the physical star topology and the presence of separate
transmit and receive channels in the twisted pair and fiber media,
Ethernet networks still use half-duplex and CSMA/CD,
with only minimal activity by the repeater, primarily generation of
the jam signal in dealing with packet collisions. Every packet is sent
to every other port on the repeater, so bandwidth and security
problems are not addressed. The total throughput of the repeater is
limited to that of a single link, and all links must operate at the
Bridging and switching
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Patch cables with patch fields of two
Network switch and Bridging (networking)
While repeaters can isolate some aspects of
Ethernet segments, such as
cable breakages, they still forward all traffic to all Ethernet
devices. This creates practical limits on how many machines can
communicate on an
Ethernet network. The entire network is one
collision domain, and all hosts have to be able to detect collisions
anywhere on the network. This limits the number of repeaters between
the farthest nodes. Segments joined by repeaters have to all operate
at the same speed, making phased-in upgrades impossible.
To alleviate these problems, bridging was created to communicate at
the data link layer while isolating the physical layer. With bridging,
Ethernet packets are forwarded from one Ethernet
segment to another; collisions and packet errors are isolated. At
Ethernet bridges (and switches) work somewhat like
Ethernet repeaters, passing all traffic between segments. By observing
the source addresses of incoming frames, the bridge then builds an
address table associating addresses to segments. Once an address is
learned, the bridge forwards network traffic destined for that address
only to the associated segment, improving overall performance.
Broadcast traffic is still forwarded to all network segments. Bridges
also overcome the limits on total segments between two hosts and allow
the mixing of speeds, both of which are critical to deployment of Fast
In 1989, the networking company Kalpana (acquired by Cisco Systems,
Inc. in 1994) introduced their EtherSwitch, the first Ethernet
switch.[i] This works somewhat differently from an
where only the header of the incoming packet is examined before it is
either dropped or forwarded to another segment. This greatly reduces
the forwarding latency and the processing load on the network device.
One drawback of this cut-through switching method is that packets that
have been corrupted are still propagated through the network, so a
jabbering station can continue to disrupt the entire network. The
eventual remedy for this was a return to the original store and
forward approach of bridging, where the packet would be read into a
buffer on the switch in its entirety, verified against its checksum
and then forwarded, but using more powerful application-specific
integrated circuits. Hence, the bridging is then done in hardware,
allowing packets to be forwarded at full wire speed.
When a twisted pair or fiber link segment is used and neither end is
connected to a repeater, full-duplex
Ethernet becomes possible over
that segment. In full-duplex mode, both devices can transmit and
receive to and from each other at the same time, and there is no
collision domain. This doubles the aggregate bandwidth of the link and
is sometimes advertised as double the link speed (for example,
200 Mbit/s).[j] The elimination of the collision domain for these
connections also means that all the link's bandwidth can be used by
the two devices on that segment and that segment length is not limited
by the need for correct collision detection.
Since packets are typically delivered only to the port they are
intended for, traffic on a switched
Ethernet is less public than on
shared-medium Ethernet. Despite this, switched
Ethernet should still
be regarded as an insecure network technology, because it is easy to
Ethernet systems by means such as
ARP spoofing and
The bandwidth advantages, the improved isolation of devices from each
other, the ability to easily mix different speeds of devices and the
elimination of the chaining limits inherent in non-switched Ethernet
have made switched
Ethernet the dominant network technology.
Ethernet networks, while a great improvement over
repeater-based Ethernet, suffer from single points of failure, attacks
that trick switches or hosts into sending data to a machine even if it
is not intended for it, scalability and security issues with regard to
switching loops, broadcast radiation and multicast traffic, and
bandwidth choke points where a lot of traffic is forced down a single
Advanced networking features in switches use shortest path bridging
(SPB) or the spanning-tree protocol (STP) to maintain a loop-free,
meshed network, allowing physical loops for redundancy (STP) or
load-balancing (SPB). Advanced networking features also ensure port
security, provide protection features such as MAC lockdown and
broadcast radiation filtering, use virtual LANs to keep different
classes of users separate while using the same physical
infrastructure, employ multilayer switching to route between different
classes, and use link aggregation to add bandwidth to overloaded links
and to provide some redundancy.
Shortest path bridging
Shortest path bridging includes the use of the link-state routing
IS-IS to allow larger networks with shortest path routes
between devices. In 2012, it was stated by David Allan and Nigel
Bragg, in 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging Design and Evolution: The
Architect's Perspective that shortest path bridging is one of the most
significant enhancements in Ethernet's history.
Ethernet has replaced
InfiniBand as the most popular system
A node that is sending longer than the maximum transmission window for
Ethernet packet is considered to be jabbering. Depending on the
physical topology, jabber detection and remedy differ somewhat.
An MAU is required to detect and stop abnormally long transmission
from the DTE (longer than 20–150 ms) in order to prevent
permanent network disruption.
On an electrically shared medium (10BASE5, 10BASE2, 1BASE5), jabber
can only be detected by each end node, stopping reception. No further
remedy is possible.
A repeater/repeater hub uses a jabber timer that ends retransmission
to the other ports when it expires. The timer runs for 25,000 to
50,000 bit times for 1 Mbit/s, 40,000 to 75,000 bit times for 10
and 100 Mbit/s, and 80,000 to 150,000 bit times for 1
Gbit/s. Jabbering ports are partitioned off the network until a
carrier is no longer detected.
End nodes utilizing a MAC layer will usually detect an oversized
Ethernet frame and cease receiving. A bridge/switch will not forward
A non-uniform frame size configuration in the network using jumbo
frames may be detected as jabber by end nodes.
A packet detected as jabber by an upstream repeater and subsequently
cut off has an invalid frame check sequence and is dropped.
Runts are packets or frames smaller than the minimum allowed size.
They are dropped and not propagated.
Varieties of Ethernet
Ethernet physical layer
Ethernet physical layer
Ethernet physical layer evolved over a considerable time span and
encompasses coaxial, twisted pair and fiber-optic physical media
interfaces, with speeds from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s, with 400 Gbit/s
expected by 2018. The first introduction of twisted-pair CSMA/CD
was StarLAN, standardized as 802.3 1BASE5; while 1BASE5 had little
market penetration, it defined the physical apparatus (wire,
plug/jack, pin-out, and wiring plan) that would be carried over to
The most common forms used are 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T.
All three use twisted pair cables and
8P8C modular connectors. They
run at 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, and 1 Gbit/s, respectively. Fiber optic
Ethernet are also very common in larger networks, offering
high performance, better electrical isolation and longer distance
(tens of kilometers with some versions). In general, network protocol
stack software will work similarly on all varieties.
A close-up of the SMSC LAN91C110 (SMSC 91x) chip, an embedded Ethernet
In IEEE 802.3, a datagram is called a packet or frame. Packet is used
to describe the overall transmission unit and includes the preamble,
start frame delimiter (SFD) and carrier extension (if present).[k] The
frame begins after the start frame delimiter with a frame header
featuring source and destination MAC addresses and the
giving either the protocol type for the payload protocol or the length
of the payload. The middle section of the frame consists of payload
data including any headers for other protocols (for example, Internet
Protocol) carried in the frame. The frame ends with a 32-bit cyclic
redundancy check, which is used to detect corruption of data in
transit.:sections 3.1.1 and 3.2 Notably,
Ethernet packets have no
time-to-live field, leading to possible problems in the presence of a
Main article: Autonegotiation
Autonegotiation is the procedure by which two connected devices choose
common transmission parameters, e.g. speed and duplex mode.
Autonegotiation is an optional feature, first introduced with
100BASE-TX, while it is also backward compatible with 10BASE-T.
Autonegotiation is mandatory for 1000BASE-T.
Information technology portal
Computer science portal
Ethernet crossover cable
Fiber media converter
List of device bit rates
Point-to-point protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE)
Power over Ethernet
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
^ The experimental
Ethernet described in the 1976 paper ran at
2.94 Mbit/s and has eight-bit destination and source address
fields, so the original
Ethernet addresses are not the MAC addresses
they are today. By software convention, the 16 bits after the
destination and source address fields specify a "packet type", but, as
the paper says, "different protocols use disjoint sets of packet
types". Thus the original packet types could vary within each
different protocol. This is in contrast to the
EtherType in the IEEE
Ethernet standard, which specifies the protocol being used.
^ Unless it is put into promiscuous mode.
^ In some cases, the factory-assigned address can be overridden,
either to avoid an address change when an adapter is replaced or to
use locally administered addresses.
^ There are fundamental differences between wireless and wired
shared-medium communication, such as the fact that it is much easier
to detect collisions in a wired system than a wireless system.
^ In a CSMA/CD system packets must be large enough to guarantee that
the leading edge of the propagating wave of a message gets to all
parts of the medium and back again before the transmitter stops
transmitting, guaranteeing that collisions (two or more packets
initiated within a window of time that forced them to overlap) are
discovered. As a result, the minimum packet size and the physical
medium's total length are closely linked.
^ Multipoint systems are also prone to strange failure modes when an
electrical discontinuity reflects the signal in such a manner that
some nodes would work properly, while others work slowly because of
excessive retries or not at all. See standing wave for an explanation.
These could be much more difficult to diagnose than a complete failure
of the segment.
^ This "one speaks, all listen" property is a security weakness of
shared-medium Ethernet, since a node on an
Ethernet network can
eavesdrop on all traffic on the wire if it so chooses.
^ Unless it is put into promiscuous mode.
^ The term switch was invented by device manufacturers and does not
appear in the 802.3 standard.
^ This is misleading, as performance will double only if traffic
patterns are symmetrical.
^ The carrier extension is defined to assist collision detection on
shared-media gigabit Ethernet.
^ Ralph Santitoro (2003). "
Metro Ethernet Services – A Technical
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IEEE 802 was formed in February
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^ Geetaj Channana (November 1, 2004). "
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PCQuest. Retrieved October 22, 2010. While comparing motherboards in
the last issue we found that all motherboards support Ethernet
connection on board.
^ Charles E. Spurgeon (2000). Ethernet: The Definitive Guide.
O'Reilly. ISBN 978-1-56592-660-8.
^ Heinz-Gerd Hegering; Alfred Lapple (1993). Ethernet: Building a
Communications Infrastructure. Addison-Wesley.
Ethernet Tutorial – Part I: Networking Basics, Lantronix,
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Ethernet local network". Communications of the ACM. ACM Press.
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^ Boggs, D.R.; Mogul, J.C. & Kent, C.A. (September 1988).
"Measured capacity of an Ethernet: myths and reality" (PDF). DEC
Ethernet Media Standards and Distances". kb.wisc.edu. Retrieved
^ Eric G. Rawson; Robert M. Metcalfe (July 1978). "Fibemet: Multimode
Optical Fibers for Local
Computer Networks" (PDF). IEEE Transactions
on Communications. 26 (7): 983–990. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1978.1094189.
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^ Spurgeon, Charles E. (2000). Ethernet; The Definitive Guide.
Nutshell Handbook. O'Reilly. p. 29.
^ Urs von Burg (2001). The Triumph of Ethernet: technological
communities and the battle for the LAN standard. Stanford University
Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-8047-4094-1.
^ "Token Ring-to-
Ethernet Migration". Cisco. Retrieved October 22,
2010. Respondents were first asked about their current and planned
desktop LAN attachment standards. The results were clear—switched
Fast Ethernet is the dominant choice for desktop connectivity to the
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Design and Evolution : The Architects' Perspective. New York:
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^ "HIGHLIGHTS – JUNE 2016". June 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
InfiniBand technology is now found on 205 systems, down from 235
systems, and is now the second most-used internal system interconnect
Gigabit Ethernet has risen to 218 systems up from 182
systems, in large part thanks to 176 systems now using 10G
IEEE 802.3 8.2 MAU functional specifications
IEEE 802.3 184.108.40.206 Jabber function requirements
IEEE 802.3 220.127.116.11.3 Jabber function
IEEE 802.3 9.6.5 MAU Jabber Lockup Protection
IEEE 802.3 18.104.22.168.4 Timers
IEEE 802.3 22.214.171.124.4 Timers
IEEE 802.3 126.96.36.199 Receive jabber functional requirements
^ IEEE 802.1 Table C-1—Largest frame base values
^ "Adopted Timeline" (PDF). IEEE 802.3bs Task Force. 2015-09-18.
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