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Essaouira
Essaouira
(Arabic: الصويرة‎; Berber languages: ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast. The modern name means "the little rampart", a reference to the fortress walls that still enclose part of the city.

Contents

1 Name and etymology 2 History

2.1 Antiquity 2.2 Early modern period

2.2.1 Portuguese establishment (1506–10) 2.2.2 De Razilly expedition (1629)

2.3 Foundation of modern Essaouira
Essaouira
(1760–70) 2.4 Jewish presence 2.5 European trade and diplomacy 2.6 French interventions and Protectorate 2.7 Recent years

3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Essaouira
Essaouira
today

5.1 Accommodation 5.2 Activities

6 Education 7 Culture 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns—sister cities

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name and etymology[edit] The name of the city is usually spelled Essaouira
Essaouira
in Latin script, and الصويرة in Arabic
Arabic
script. Both spellings represent its name in Moroccan Arabic, ṣ-Ṣwiṛa. This is the diminutive[2] (with definite article) of the noun ṣuṛ which means "wall (as round a yard, city), rampart".[3] The pronunciation with pharyngealized /ṣ/ and /ṛ/ is a typically Moroccan development. In Classical Arabic, the noun is sūr (with plain /s/ and /r/), diminutive suwayrah.[4] Hence the spelling of the name in Arabic
Arabic
script according to the classical pronunciation is السويرة al-Suwayrah (with sīn not ṣād). In the Berber language, which is spoken by a sizeable proportion of the city's inhabitants, it is called "Taṣṣort", meaning 'the small fortress'. In Moroccan Arabic, a single male inhabitant is called ṣwiṛi, plural ṣwiṛiyin, a single female inhabitant is ṣwiṛiya, plural ṣwiṛiyat. In the Berber language, a single male inhabitant is U-Taṣṣort, plural: Ayt Taṣṣuṛt, a single female inhabitant is Ult Taṣṣort, plural 'Ist Taṣṣort. Until the 1960s, Essaouira
Essaouira
was generally known by its Portuguese name, Mogador. This name is probably a corruption of the older Berber name Amaqdūl, which is mentioned by the 11th-century geographer al-Bakrī.[5] History[edit] Archaeological
Archaeological
research shows that Essaouira
Essaouira
has been occupied since prehistoric times. The bay at Essaouira
Essaouira
is partially sheltered by the island of Mogador, making it a peaceful harbor protected against strong marine winds. Antiquity[edit] Essaouira
Essaouira
has long been considered as one of the best anchorages of the Moroccan coast. The Carthaginian
Carthaginian
navigator Hanno visited in the 5th century BC and established the trading post of Arambys. Around the end of the 1st century BCE or early 1st century CE, the Berber king Juba II
Juba II
established a Tyrian purple
Tyrian purple
factory, processing the murex and purpura shells found in the intertidal rocks at Essaouira
Essaouira
and the Iles Purpuraires. This dye colored the purple stripe in Imperial Roman Senatorial togas. A Roman villa was excavated on Mogador island.[6] A Roman vase was found as well as coinage from the 3rd century CE. Most of the artifacts are now visible in the Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum
Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum
and the Rabat
Rabat
Archaeological
Archaeological
Museum.

Phoenician plate with red slip, 7th century BCE, excavated in Mogador island, Essaouira. Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah Museum.

Betica
Betica
amphora found in Essaouira, 1-2nd century CE.

Aegean amphora found in Essaouira, 3-4th century CE.

Roman coins excavated in Essaouira, 3rd century.

Early modern period[edit]

Resting place of Sidi Mogdoul
Sidi Mogdoul
in Essaouira.

During the Middle Ages, a Muslim
Muslim
saint named Sidi Mogdoul
Sidi Mogdoul
was buried in Essaouira, probably giving its origin to the name "Mogador". Portuguese establishment (1506–10)[edit] Main article: Morocco- Portugal
Portugal
relations In 1506, the king of Portugal, D. Manuel I, ordered a fortress to be built there, named Castelo Real
Castelo Real
de Mogador. Altogether, the Portuguese are documented to have seized six Moroccan towns and built six stand-alone fortresses on the Moroccan Atlantic
Atlantic
coast, between the river Loukos in the north and the river of Sous in the south. Four of them only had a short duration: Graciosa (1489), São João da Mamora (1515), Castelo Real
Castelo Real
of Mogador (1506–10) and Aguz (1520–25). Two became permanent urban settlements: Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué
(modern Agadir, founded in 1505–06), and Mazagan, founded in 1514–17. Following the 1541 Fall of Agadir, the Portuguese had to abandon most of their settlements between 1541 and 1550, although they were able to keep Ceuta, Tangier
Tangier
and Mazagan.[7] The fortress of Castelo Real
Castelo Real
of Mogador fell to the local resistance of the Regraga fraternity four years after its establishment, in 1510.

The Portuguese-built Castelo Real
Castelo Real
of Mogador was defended under Abd el-Malek II by a garrison of 100 Moroccans. It was drawn by Adriaen Matham in 1641.

During the 16th century, powers including Spain, England, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and France
France
tried in vain to conquer the locality. Essaouira
Essaouira
remained a haven for the export of sugar, molasses and the anchoring of pirates.[8] De Razilly expedition (1629)[edit] Further information: France- Morocco
Morocco
relations France
France
was involved in an early attempt to colonize Mogador in 1629. As Richelieu and Père Joseph
Père Joseph
were attempting to establish a colonial policy, Admiral Isaac de Razilly
Isaac de Razilly
suggested they occupy Mogador in 1626, which he had reconnoitered in 1619. The objective was to create a base against the Sultan of Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and asphyxiate the harbour of Safi. He departed for Salé
Salé
on 20 July 1629 with a fleet composed of the ships Licorne, Saint-Louis, Griffon, Catherine, Hambourg, Sainte-Anne, Saint-Jean. He bombarded the city the Salé, destroyed three corsair ships, and then sent the Griffon under Captain Treillebois to Mogador. The men of Razilly saw the fortress of Castelo Real
Castelo Real
in Mogador and landed 100 men with wood and supplies on Mogador island, with the agreement of Richelieu. After a few days, however, the Griffon reimbarked the colonists and departed to rejoin the fleet in Salé.[9] After these expeditions, France
France
signed a treaty with Abd el-Malek II in 1631, giving France
France
preferential treatment, known as "capitulations": preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.[10] Foundation of modern Essaouira
Essaouira
(1760–70)[edit]

Map of Essaouira
Essaouira
by Théodore Cornut. When he left in 1767, areas in pink were already built (streets are still recognizable); areas in yellow (harbour front and medina) were only projected.

Harbour
Harbour
fortifications were built by an English renegade named Ahmed El Alj in 1770, as described in the sculptured inscription in Arabic (right).

The present city of Essaouira
Essaouira
was built during the mid-eigtheeth century by the Moroccan King.[11] Mohammed III tried to reorient his kingdom toward the Atlantic
Atlantic
for increased exchanges with European powers, chose Mogador as his key location. One of his objectives was to establish a harbour at the closest possible point from Marrakesh.[12] The other was to cut off trade from Agadir
Agadir
in the south, which had been favouring political rival of Mohammed III, and the inhabitants of Agadir
Agadir
were forced to relocate to Essaouira.[12] For 12 years, Mohammed III directed a French engineer, Théodore Cornut, and several other European architects and technicians to build the fortress and city along modern lines.[12][13] Originally called "Souira" ("the small fortress"), the name became "Es-Saouira" ("the beautifully designed"). Thédore Cornut designed and built the city itself, particularly the Kasbah area, corresponding to the royal quarters and the buildings for Christian merchants and diplomats. Other parts were built by other foreigners. The harbour entrance, with the "Porte de la Marine", was built by an English renegade by the names of Ahmed el Inglizi
Ahmed el Inglizi
("Ahmed the English") or Ahmed El Alj ("Ahmed the Renegade").[13] The two "scalas" with their fortifications (the Harbour
Harbour
scala and the Northern scala) were built by Genoese engineers. Mohammed III took numerous steps to encourage the development of Essaouira: the harbour of Agadir
Agadir
to the south was closed off in 1767, so that southern trade should be redirected through Essaouira. European communities in the northern harbour of Rabat- Salé
Salé
were ordered to move to Essaouira
Essaouira
through an ordinance of 21 January 1765. From the time of its rebuilding by Muhammad III until the end of the nineteenth century, Essaouira
Essaouira
served as Morocco's principal port, offering the goods of the caravan trade to the world. The route brought goods from sub-Saharan Africa to Timbuktu, then through the desert and over the Atlas mountains
Atlas mountains
to Marrakech. The road from Marrakech
Marrakech
to Essaouira
Essaouira
is a straight line, explaining the king's choice of this port among the many that the Moroccan coast offers.

City
City
walls.

The ramparts from the Medina.

The Genoese-built citadel by the harbour.

Harbour
Harbour
scala.

tower and walls

Dutch cannon made by Adrianus Crans in The Hague
The Hague
in 1744, installed in Essaouira.

Jewish presence[edit] Further information: Jews in Morocco

A Jewish house in Mogador, by Darondeau (1807–1841).

Mohammed ben Abdallah encouraged Moroccan Jews to settle in the town and handle the trade with Europe. Jews once comprised 40% of the population, and the Jewish quarter (or mellah) contains many old synagogues. The town also has a large Jewish cemetery. The city flourished until the caravan trade died, superseded by direct European shipping trade with sub-Saharan Africa.[14] Changes in trade, the founding of Israel and resulting wars with Arab states, and the independence of Morocco
Morocco
all resulted in Sephardic Jews leaving the country. As of 2017, Essaouira
Essaouira
has only three Jewish inhabitants.[15]

Old Jewish quarter in Essaouira.

Jewish cemetery in Essaouira.

European trade and diplomacy[edit]

Essaouira
Essaouira
in 1809.

Further information: Morocco– Netherlands
Netherlands
relations and Morocco
Morocco
– United Kingdom relations In the 19th century, Essaouira
Essaouira
became the first seaport of Morocco, with trade volumes about double those of Rabat.[16] The city functioned as the harbour for Marrakesh, as it was only a few days from the inland city.[17] Diplomatic and trade representations were established by European powers in Essouira.[18] In the 1820, European diplomats were concentrated in either Tangiers
Tangiers
or Essaouira.[19]

Remains of the 19th-century Dutch Consulate in Essaouira.

Remains of the 19th-century Portuguese Consulate in Essaouira.

Former Essaouira
Essaouira
English Consulate.

Former French Consulate in Essaouira.

French interventions and Protectorate[edit]

The attack of Mogador by the French fleet in August 1844, Serkis Diranian.

Main articles: Bombardment of Mogador
Bombardment of Mogador
and French protectorate of Morocco

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Following Morocco's alliance with Algeria's Abd-El-Kader against France, Essaouira
Essaouira
was bombarded and briefly occupied by the French Navy under the Prince de Joinville
Prince de Joinville
on 16 August 1844, in the Bombardment of Mogador, an important battle of the First Franco-Moroccan War. From 1912 to 1956, Essaouira
Essaouira
was part of the French protectorate of Morocco. Mogador was used as a base for a military expedition against Dar Anflous, when 8,000 French troops were located outside of the city under the orders of Generals Franchet d'Esperey and Brulard. The Kasbah of Dar Anflous was taken on 25 January 1913. In 1930, brothers, Michel and Jean Vieuchange used Essaouira
Essaouira
as a base before Michel set off into the Western Sahara
Western Sahara
to try to find Smara. France
France
had an important administrative, military and economic presence. Essaouira
Essaouira
had a Franco-Moroccan school, still visible in Derb Dharb street. Linguistically, many Moroccans of Essaouira
Essaouira
speak French fluently today. Recent years[edit]

Bas relief of Orson Welles

In the early 1950s film director and actor Orson Welles
Orson Welles
stayed at the Hotel des Iles just south of the town walls during the filming of his 1952 classic version of "Othello" which contains several memorable scenes shot in the labyrinthine streets and alleyways of the medina. Legend has it that during Welles's sojourn in the town he met Winston Churchill, another guest at the Hotel des Iles. A bas-relief of Orson Welles is located in a small square just outside the medina walls close to the sea. It is in a neglected state being covered in bird droppings, graffiti and with a broken nose. In addition, the dedication plaque below it has been stolen (as of Dec 2008). Several other film directors have utilised Essaouira's photogenic and atmospheric qualities. Beginning in the late 1960s, Essaouira
Essaouira
became something of a hippie hangout. Despite common misconception,[20] Jimi Hendrix's song "Castles Made of Sand" was written in 1967, two years before he visited the castles of Essaouira.[21][22] Geography[edit]

Iles Purpuraires, with Mogador island
Mogador island
in the background seen from the ramparts of Essaouira.

Essaouira
Essaouira
is protected by a natural bay partially shielded from wave action by the Iles Purpuraires. A broad sandy beach extends from the harbour south of Essaourira, at which point the Oued Ksob
Oued Ksob
discharges to the ocean; south of the discharge lies the archaeological ruin, the Bordj El Berod.[23] The Canary Current is responsible for the generally southward movement of ocean circulation and has led to enhancement of the local fishery.[24] The village of Diabat
Diabat
lies about five kilometres (3.1 miles) south of Essaouira, immediately south of the Oued Ksob. Essaouira
Essaouira
connects to Safi to the north and to Agadir
Agadir
to the south via the N1 road and to Marrakech
Marrakech
to the east via the R 207 road. There is a small airport some 7 to 8 km (4 to 5 mi) away from the town, which schedules several flights a week to Paris-Orly, London-Luton and Brussels-South (Charleroi) and daily to Casablanca.

Essaouira
Essaouira
viewed from space.

The desert road between Marrakesh
Marrakesh
and Essaouira.

Argan
Argan
tree near Essaouira.

Essaouira
Essaouira
beach.

Climate[edit] Essaouira's climate is mild semi-arid (BSn) bordering a warm summer Mediterranean one (Csb). The gap between highs and lows is small and summers are warm while winters are mild. Annual rainfall is usually 300 to 500 millimetres (12 to 20 in). Essaouira's climate is akin to coastal Los Angeles, specifically Santa Monica
Santa Monica
in California.

Climate data for Essaouira, Morocco
Morocco
(1961–1990, extremes 1941–1992)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.5 (86.9) 31.0 (87.8) 34.6 (94.3) 35.0 (95) 33.0 (91.4) 38.7 (101.7) 39.0 (102.2) 40.0 (104) 39.5 (103.1) 38.5 (101.3) 35.0 (95) 31.0 (87.8) 40.0 (104)

Average high °C (°F) 18.1 (64.6) 18.2 (64.8) 18.7 (65.7) 18.7 (65.7) 19.5 (67.1) 20.6 (69.1) 21.3 (70.3) 21.6 (70.9) 22.1 (71.8) 21.7 (71.1) 20.3 (68.5) 18.7 (65.7) 20.0 (68)

Daily mean °C (°F) 14.6 (58.3) 15.1 (59.2) 15.8 (60.4) 16.0 (60.8) 17.2 (63) 18.6 (65.5) 19.2 (66.6) 19.5 (67.1) 19.8 (67.6) 19.0 (66.2) 17.3 (63.1) 15.2 (59.4) 17.3 (63.1)

Average low °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 11.9 (53.4) 12.8 (55) 13.4 (56.1) 14.9 (58.8) 16.5 (61.7) 17.2 (63) 17.4 (63.3) 17.4 (63.3) 16.4 (61.5) 14.4 (57.9) 11.8 (53.2) 14.6 (58.3)

Record low °C (°F) 3.0 (37.4) 2.0 (35.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.0 (44.6) 9.0 (48.2) 11.8 (53.2) 14.0 (57.2) 13.5 (56.3) 12.7 (54.9) 9.0 (48.2) 6.0 (42.8) 2.0 (35.6) 2.0 (35.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.5 (2.028) 37.4 (1.472) 39.5 (1.555) 34.9 (1.374) 8.5 (0.335) 1.6 (0.063) 0.1 (0.004) 1.0 (0.039) 3.1 (0.122) 25.3 (0.996) 72.7 (2.862) 65.0 (2.559) 340.6 (13.409)

Average precipitation days 8.3 7.8 7.9 6.9 3.5 1.0 0.1 0.3 1.2 5.2 8.6 8.4 59.2

Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 81 82 82 84 86 86 84 83 80 81 83

Mean monthly sunshine hours 208.5 204.9 247.2 264.0 289.5 290.9 301.6 291.4 251.8 234.1 197.0 197.6 2,978.5

Source #1: NOAA[25]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(extremes and humidity)[26]

Essaouira
Essaouira
today[edit]

Essaouira
Essaouira
harbour docks

Faience
Faience
in Essaouira.

The Medina
Medina
of Essaouira
Essaouira
(formerly "Mogador") is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage listed city, an example of a late 18th-century fortified town, as transferred to North Africa
North Africa
by European colonists.

Xiphias gladius, Essaouira

Fishmarket in Essaouira

Funfair in Essaouira

Clock tower in Essaouira

Essaouira
Essaouira
book market.

Saidi-Souiri type Essaouira
Essaouira
carpet.

Accommodation[edit] There are only a handful of modern purpose-built hotels within the walls of the old city. Newer international hotels have been built along the sea front – the local planning regulations restrict buildings to 4 storeys high to help preserve the stunning views. There are also many privately owned riads, also known as dars, that may be rented on a daily or weekly basis. Activities[edit] The medina is home to many small arts and crafts businesses, notably cabinet making and 'thuya' wood-carving (using roots of the Tetraclinis
Tetraclinis
tree), both of which have been practised in Essaouira
Essaouira
for centuries. The fishing harbour, suffering from the competition of Agadir
Agadir
and Safi remains rather small, although the catches (sardines, conger eels) are surprisingly abundant due to the coastal upwelling generated by the powerful trade winds and the Canaries Current. Essaouira
Essaouira
remains one of the major fishing harbours of Morocco. Further information: Fishing industry in Morocco Essaouira
Essaouira
is also renowned for its kitesurfing and windsurfing, with the powerful trade wind blowing almost constantly onto the protected, almost waveless, bay. Several world-class clubs rent top-notch material on a weekly basis. The township of Sidi Kaouki is located 25 km south of Essaouira
Essaouira
and is becoming one of the best locations in Morcco for surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing.[27] There are several businesses in Sidi Kaouki which offer gear rental. Essaouira
Essaouira
is also a center of argan oil production. It has become a tourist attraction due to the tree-climbing goats who are unique to the region, as argan trees are the only type the goats climb.[28] Culinary classes can also be offered.[29] Education[edit]

Former Franco-Moroccan school in Derb Dharb street, Essaouira.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2016)

There is a French international school in Essaouira, Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly.[30] Culture[edit]

Gnaoua
Gnaoua
(Gnawa) musicians performing during the 2010 Gnaoua
Gnaoua
World Music Festival in the city of Essaouira, Morocco

Essaouira
Essaouira
presents itself as a city full of culture: several small art galleries are found all over the town. Since 1998, the Gnaoua
Gnaoua
Festival of World Music is held in Essaouira, normally in the last week of June. It brings together artists from all over the world. Although focussed on gnaoua music, it includes rock, jazz and reggae. Dubbed as the "Moroccan Woodstock" it lasts four days and attracts annually around 450,000 spectators.[31] International relations[edit] Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Morocco Twin towns—sister cities[edit] Essaouira
Essaouira
is twinned with:

La Rochelle, France
France
(since 1999)[32]

Notable people[edit]

Albert Almoznino, hand shadow artist Jacques Amir, politician André Azoulay, adviser to the King David Bensoussan, author of memoir, Le fils de Mogador,[33][34] Meir Cohen, politician Victor Elmaleh, businessman and national champion handball and squash player. Edmond Amran El Maleh, writer

See also[edit]

Haha Regraga Tensift River Souira Guedima André Jodin William Willshire Mogador class destroyer

Notes[edit]

^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic
Arabic
and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.  ^ On the formation of diminutive nouns in Moroccan Arabic, see R.S. Harrell, A short reference grammar of Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
(Washington, D.C., 1962), p. 81. ^ See T. Fox and M. Abu-Talib, A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic (Washington, D.C., 1966), p. 148. ^ The form sūr, with plain /s/, is the only form cited in all dictionaries of Classical Arabic. ^ Mac Guckin de Slane (ed. and transl.), Description de l'Afrique septentrionale par el-Bekri (Alger 1913), Arabic
Arabic
text p. 86 مرسى امقدول marsá Ameqdūl "the port of Ameqdūl", translation p. 175 Amegdoul (Amegdul), with footnote: "Le tombeau ou chapelle de Sîdi Megdoul est situé tout auprès de Mogador; ce dernier est une altération de Megdoul". ^ Marokko Ingeborg Lehmann, Rita Henss p.243 ^ City
City
walls: the urban enceinte in global perspective, James D. Tracy, p.352 ^ Notes to The History and Description of Africa and of the Notable Things Therein by Leo Africanus p.338 ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 9 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, p.549 ^ France
France
in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu by Victor Lucien Tapié p.259 ^ Goldberg, Harvey E. (1996). Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253210410.  ^ a b c The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.521 ^ a b Of Essaouira: "He employed European architects to design it, one a Frenchman said to be his prisoner, and the other an Englishman, converted to Islam and known as Ahmed el-Inglizi— otherwise Ahmed the Englishman." in Morocco, Dorothy Hales Gary, Baron Patrick Balfour Kinross, Viking Press, 1971, p.35 ^ The Sultan's Jew: Morocco
Morocco
and the Sephardi World by Daniel J. Schroeter, pp. 17 ff ^ "Morocco's little idyll of Jewish- Muslim
Muslim
coexistence". The Economist. 2 November 2017.  ^ The Anglo American, Volume 3 by Alexander D. Paterson p.520 ff ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco
Morocco
and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroete,r p.125 ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco
Morocco
and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter p.17 ^ The sultan's Jew: Morocco
Morocco
and the Sephardi world by Daniel J. Schroeter, p.121 ^ http://www.univibes.com/Moroccofake.html ^ "Castles in the Sand". Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Kulleraugen – Visuelle Kommunikation Nr. 40, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5 ^ C.Michael Hogan, Mogador: promontory fort, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham, 2 November 2007 [1] ^ William Adams Hance, The Geography of Modern Africa, Columbia University Press, 1975 ISBN 0-231-03869-0 ^ " Essaouira
Essaouira
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ "Klimatafel von Essaouira
Essaouira
(Mogador) / Marokko" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 26 January 2016.  ^ Planet, Lonely. "Sidi Kaouki, Morocco
Morocco
– Lonely Planet". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ "Essaouira: Home of the Argan
Argan
Tree, Hardworking Berber Women, and Amusing Goats". Essence of Argan. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ [Www.essaouirataste.com Essaouira
Essaouira
taste] ^ "Groupe scolaire Eric-Tabarly – OSUI." AEFE. Retrieved on 12 May 2016. "25 rue Princesse Lalla Hasna, Quartier des Dunes, 44000 Essaouira" ^ Gnaoua
Gnaoua
Festival Press Kit Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^ ""La Rosace du Roi Salomon", nouveau roman de David Bensoussan". Le Mag. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "Le judaïsme marocain est "bien vivant"". Atlas. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

David Bensoussan & Asher Knafo, "Mariage juif à Mogador" Éditions Du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2004 (ISBN 2-922505-15-4) David Bensoussan, Le fils de Mogador, www.editionsdulys.com,Éditions Du Lys, Montréal, 2002 (ISBN 978-2-922505-21-4) David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc : témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2010 (ISBN 2-922505-14-6); Deuxième édition : www.iuniverse.com, ISBN 978-1-4759-2608-8, 620p. ebook ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5, Prix Haïm Zafrani de l'Institut universitaire Élie Wiesel, Paris 2012. David Bensoussan, La rosace du roi Salomon, Les Éditions Du Lys,www.editionsdulys.com, 2011, ISBN 978-2-922505-23-8. Hamza Ben Driss Ottmani, Une cité sous les alizés, MOGADOR, Des origines à 1939, Éditions La Porte, Rabat, 1997 ISBN 9981889180 Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Consuls et vice-consuls de France
France
à Mogador (Maroc), L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr Jean-Marie Thiébaud, Les Inscriptions du cimetière [chrétien] de Mogador (Essaouira, Maroc) – étude épigraphique et généalogique, L'Harmattan, 2010 Harmattan.fr Doris Byer: Essaouira, endlich, Wien 2004, ISBN 978-3-8542-0651-4 Brigitte Tast, Hans-Juergen Tast: And the wind cries Jimi. Hendrix in Marokko, Schellerten 2012, ISBN 978-3-88842-040-5 Brigitte Tast, Hans-Jürgen Tast: Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Othello
Othello
– Mogador. Aufenthalte in Essaouira, Kulleraugen Vis.Komm. Nr. 42, Schellerten 2013, ISBN 978-3-88842-042-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Essaouira.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Essaouira.

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site: Medina
Medina
of Essaouira
Essaouira
(formerly Mogador) Website of the Urban Agency of Essaouira

v t e

Essaouira
Essaouira
Province

Capital: Essaouira

Municipalities

Ait Daoud El Hanchane Essaouira Talmest Tamanar

Rural communes

Adaghas Aglif Aguerd Ait Aissi Ihahane Ait Said Aquermoud Assais Bizdad Bouzemmour Ezzaouite Had Dra Ida Ou Aazza Ida Ou Guelloul Ida Ou Kazzou Imgrade Imi N'Tlit Kechoula Korimate Lagdadra Lahsinate M'Khalif M'Ramer Mejji Meskala Mouarid Moulay Bouzarqtoune Mzilate Oulad M'Rabet Ounagha Sidi Abdeljalil Sidi Ahmed Essayeh Sidi Aissa Regragui Sidi Ali El Korati Sidi Boulaalam Sidi El Jazouli Sidi Ghaneme Sidi H'Mad Ou M'Barek Sidi Hmad Ou Hamed Sidi Ishaq Sidi Kaouki Sidi Laaroussi Sidi M'Hamed Ou Marzouq Smimou Tafedna Tafetachte Tahelouante Takate Takoucht Targante Tidzi Timizguida Ouftas Zaouiat Ben Hmida

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Morocco

Northern

Medina
Medina
of Fez Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage Medina
Medina
of Tétouan
Tétouan
(formerly known as Titawin) Archaeological
Archaeological
Site of Volubilis Historic City
City
of Meknes

Central

Medina
Medina
of Essaouira
Essaouira
(formerly Mogador) Medina
Medina
of Marrakech Portuguese City
City
of Mazagan
Mazagan
(El Jadida)

Southern

Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan
Mazagan
(El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué
Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué
(Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan
Mazagan
(El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [ Atlantic
Atlantic
islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

Coordinates: 31°30′47″N 9°46′11″W / 31.51306°N 9.76972°W / 31.51306; -9.76972

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140674598 GN

.