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Espoo
Espoo
(Finnish pronunciation: [ˈespoː]; Swedish: Esbo, [ˈɛsbo]) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. The population of the city of Espoo
Espoo
was 270,416 as of 31 March 2016[update].[6] It is part of the Finnish Capital Region, and most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area, along with the cities of Helsinki, Vantaa, and Kauniainen. Espoo
Espoo
shares its eastern border with Helsinki
Helsinki
and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. The city is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, in the region of Uusimaa. Other bordering municipalities of Espoo
Espoo
are Nurmijärvi
Nurmijärvi
and Vihti
Vihti
in the north, and Kirkkonummi
Kirkkonummi
in the west. The national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo. Espoo
Espoo
encompasses 528 square kilometres (204 sq mi), of which 312 km2 (120 sq mi) is land.[1] Espoo
Espoo
doesn't have a traditional city center at all, but it has several local regional centers. Espoo
Espoo
is thus divided into seven major areas (Finnish: suuralueet, Swedish: storområden): Vanha-Espoo
Vanha-Espoo
(with administrative center), Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, and Suur-Tapiola. Aalto University
Aalto University
is based in Otaniemi, Espoo, along with a thriving science community that includes numerous startups and organizations such as VTT – the Technical Research Center of Finland. Several major companies are based in Espoo, including Nokia, HMD Global, Tieto, KONE, Neste Oil, Fortum, Orion Corporation, and Outokumpu, as well as video game developers Rovio and Remedy Entertainment. The city of Espoo
Espoo
is officially bilingual. The majority of the population, 83.6%, speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, while a minority of 8.3% speaks Swedish. 8% of Espoo's population has a first language other than Finnish or Swedish.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Location 3.2 Subdivision 3.3 Features

4 Demographics 5 Culture 6 Sports 7 Politics 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

9 Notable people 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Espoo
Espoo
probably comes from the Swedish name for the River Espoo, Espå (or Espåå), which in turn comes from the old Swedish word äspe, meaning a border of aspen, and the Swedish word for "river", å, thus "a river bordered by aspen". The name was first mentioned in 1431. The banks of the River Espoo
Espoo
are even today heavily populated with aspen. History[edit]

VR Class Vk3
VR Class Vk3
steam locomotive at Kauklahti railway station
Kauklahti railway station
in the 1920s

Anti-aircraft searchlight in Haukilahti
Haukilahti
in 1940

The first inhabitants in the area arrived about 9,000 years ago. Physical evidence (pollen grains) indicates agriculture from ca. 1000 AD, but there are no historical records. Up to the 13th century, the area was a borderland between the hunting grounds of Finnish Proper and Tavastian Finns, with a sparse population. Immigrants
Immigrants
from Sweden established permanent agricultural settlements to the area from late 13th century onwards after the so-called Second Crusade to Finland. Espoo
Espoo
was a subdivision of the Kirkkonummi
Kirkkonummi
congregation until 1486-7. The oldest known document referring to Kirkkonummi
Kirkkonummi
is from 1330; Espoo as a subchapter has been dated to the 1380s, although the first document directly referring to Espoo
Espoo
is from as late as 1431. The construction of the Espoo
Espoo
Cathedral, the oldest preserved building in Espoo, marks the independence of Espoo. Administratively, Espoo
Espoo
was a part of Uusimaa. When the province was split to Eastern and Western provinces governed from the Porvoo
Porvoo
and Raasepori castles, respectively, the eastern border of the Raasepori province was in Espoo. The 13th century road connecting the most important cities in Finland
Finland
at that time, the King's Road, passes through Espoo
Espoo
on its way from Stockholm
Stockholm
via Turku
Turku
and Porvoo
Porvoo
to Viipuri. In 1557, King Gustaf Wasa
Gustaf Wasa
decided to stabilize and develop the region by founding a royal mansion in Espoo. The government bought the villages of Espåby and Mankby (Finnish: Mankki) and transferred the population elsewhere, and built the royal mansion in Espåby. (Mankby was eventually abandoned and was never repopulated.) The royal mansion housed the king's local plenipotentiary (vogt), and collected royal tax in kind paid by labor on the mansion's farm. The administrative center Espoon keskus
Espoon keskus
has grown around the church and the Espoo
Espoo
railway station, but the municipality has retained a network-like structure to the modern day. In 1920, Espoo
Espoo
was only a rural municipality of about 9,000 inhabitants, of whom 70% were Swedish speaking. Agriculture was the primary source of income, with 75% of the population making their living from farming. Kauniainen
Kauniainen
was separated from Espoo
Espoo
in 1920, and it gained city rights the same year as Espoo, in 1972. Espoo
Espoo
started to grow rapidly in the 1940s and '50s. It quickly developed from a rural municipality into a fully-fledged industrial city, gaining city rights in 1972. Due to its proximity to Helsinki, Espoo
Espoo
soon became popular amongst people working in the capital. In the fifty years from 1950 to 2000, the population of Espoo
Espoo
grew from 22,000 to 210,000. Since 1945, the majority of people in Espoo
Espoo
have been Finnish speaking. In 2006, the Swedish speaking inhabitants represented barely 9% of the total population. The population growth is still continuing, but at a slower rate. Geography[edit]

The districts and major areas of Espoo

Location[edit] Espoo
Espoo
is located in southern Finland, along the shore of the Gulf of Finland, and in the region of Uusimaa
Uusimaa
and the Helsinki
Helsinki
sub-region. Prior to the abolition of Finnish provinces in 2009, Espoo
Espoo
was a part of the Southern Finland
Finland
Province. The city borders Helsinki, the Finnish capital, which is to the east. Other neighbouring municipalities are Vantaa
Vantaa
to the east and northeast, Nurmijärvi
Nurmijärvi
to the north, Vihti
Vihti
to the northwest, and Kirkkonummi
Kirkkonummi
to the west and southwest. Espoo
Espoo
is a part of the Finnish Capital Region, which is the inner core of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Subdivision[edit] Main article: Districts of Espoo Espoo
Espoo
is divided into seven major areas (Finnish: suuralueet, Swedish: storområden): Vanha-Espoo
Vanha-Espoo
(with administrative center), Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä, and Suur-Tapiola. These major areas are then divided into a total of 56 districts. Features[edit] Although Espoo
Espoo
is relatively highly populated, it has large amounts of natural wilderness, particularly in the city's western and northern portions. The city has a total of 71 lakes, the largest of which are Lake Bodom, Nuuksion Pitkäjärvi, Vanhankylän Pitkäjärvi, Loojärvi, Velskolan Pitkäjärvi, Saarijärvi, Matalajärvi, Siikajärvi, and Lippajärvi. The city has a large coastline on the Gulf of Finland. Espoo
Espoo
has six Natura 2000
Natura 2000
protected areas: Bånberget forests, Espoonlahti–Saunalahti bay area (partially in Kirkkonummi), Laajalahti
Laajalahti
bay, Matalajärvi lake, Nuuksio National Park
Nuuksio National Park
(partially in Kirkkonummi
Kirkkonummi
and Vihti), as well as forests in Vestra (partially in Vantaa). The official animal of Espoo
Espoo
is the Siberian flying squirrel, the official bird is the common blackbird, and the official plant is Anemone nemorosa. Demographics[edit]

Historical population of Espoo[7]

Year Population Year Population

1901 5,888 1985 156,778

1910 7,891 1990 172,629

1920 8,817 1995 191,247

1930 11,370 2000 213,271

1940 13,378 2005 231,704

1950 22,878 2010 247,970

1960 53,042 2013 260,753

1970 92,655 2020 (est.) 281,970

1975 120,632 2030 (est.) 306,965

1980 137,409 2040 (est.) 323,875

Population by grand district (in 2006)

Area Population Area Population

Leppävaara 58,048 Vanha-Espoo 33,613

Espoonlahti 48,649 Pohjois-Espoo 9,754

Tapiola 41,905 Kauklahti 6,191

Matinkylä 33,613

The population by nationality 1 January 2007 was 95.1% Finnish and 4.9% other nationalities. Religious affiliation was 77.4% Lutheran, 1.3% Orthodox, 1.3% other, and 19.9% no religious affiliation. Espoo
Espoo
contains many high income suburbs, and six out of the ten highest average income postal code areas in Finland
Finland
are in Espoo.[citation needed] Culture[edit]

The Espoo
Espoo
Cultural Centre

Espoo
Espoo
hosts a Museum of Modern Art called EMMA ( Espoo
Espoo
Museum of Modern Art), built in a renovated old print house, the WeeGee house, named after an old book print company Weilin & Göös. The same building hosts also Finland's only Museum of Horology
Horology
(Finnish: Kellomuseo, Swedish: Urmuseum) and a Toy Museum. Glims Farmstead Museum
Glims Farmstead Museum
is also located in the city. The Espoo
Espoo
cultural centre, home of the world-renowned Tapiola
Tapiola
Sinfonietta, where numerous concerts and theater performances are held, is located in Tapiola
Tapiola
(Swedish: Hagalund). Espoo
Espoo
has several old manors of which two are open to the general public. The most important is Espoon kartano (Swedish: Esbo gård, Espoo
Espoo
Manor), first mentioned in maps in 1495, and belonging to the noble Ramsay family since 1756. The current main building dates back to 1914, but a mill dates from the 1750s and Finland
Finland
oldest walved stone bridge from 1777 is on the King's Road (Finnish: Kuninkaantie, Swedish: Kungsvägen) which passes by the manor. The main building can be rented for weddings and similar occasions. Guided tours are available on request for groups. The other manor open to public is Pakankylän kartano, located on the northern shore of Lake Bodom. The manor hosts a restaurant and club rooms, partly with original furniture open to the public, but meant originally to Kaisankoti sanatory and old people's home located on ground of the manor. The Metal
Metal
band Children of Bodom
Children of Bodom
comes from Espoo, Finland. They are named after the unsolved murder known as the Lake Bodom
Lake Bodom
murders which took place at the shore of Lake Bodom, a lake in northern Espoo, in 1960. The bands Norther
Norther
and Kiuas
Kiuas
also come from Espoo. The educational department took part in Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 in Finland. Sports[edit]

Espoo Metro Areena
Espoo Metro Areena
in Tapiola

Tapiolan Urheilupuisto
Tapiolan Urheilupuisto
stadium in Tapiola

At the 1952 Summer Olympics, the city's Westend Tennis Hall hosted the fencing events. Espoo
Espoo
is home to several sports teams. Espoo Blues
Espoo Blues
were an ice hockey team which played at highest level SM-liiga
SM-liiga
between 1998 and 2016 before the team went bankrupt. Between 1984 and 1998 the team was known as Kiekko-Espoo. A new team called Espoo
Espoo
United was established to replace Espoo Blues
Espoo Blues
and United now play ice hockey at the second highest level Mestis. The Espoo
Espoo
United women's hockey team play at the highest level, women's SM-liiga. Espoo
Espoo
United are also active in basketball and the male basketball team play at the second highest level and the women's basketball team play at the highest level, Naisten korisliiga. FC Honka
FC Honka
(also known as Esport Honka) is a football club that was promoted into the Finnish premier division (Veikkausliiga) for the first time in its history at the end of the 2005 season. Honka currently plays at the second highest level Ykkönen. They play their home matches at Tapiolan urheilupuisto. Espoo
Espoo
also has two floorball teams playing at highest level Salibandyliiga. The two teams are Esport Oilers and Westend Indians. Espoo
Espoo
is the birthplace of 2007 Formula One
Formula One
World Champion Kimi Räikkönen, former Dallas Stars
Dallas Stars
forward Jere Lehtinen
Jere Lehtinen
(three time NHL Selke Trophy
Selke Trophy
winner), former Formula One
Formula One
driver JJ Lehto, professional downhill mountain biker Matti Lehikoinen, professional ten-pin bowling star Osku Palermaa and 2009 European Figure Skating Champion Laura Lepistö. Politics[edit]

The city hall of Espoo, located in Espoon keskus

Espoo's city council has 75 members. Following the municipal election of 2017 the council seats are allocated in the following way: National Coalition Party 26 seats, Greens 17, Social Democrats 10, True Finns 7, Swedish People's Party
Swedish People's Party
6, Centre Party 3, Left Alliance 3, Christian Democrats 2 and Liberal Party 1.[8] Support for the center-right National Coalition Party
National Coalition Party
is high in Espoo. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011
Finnish parliamentary election, 2011
in Espoo:

National Coalition Party
National Coalition Party
40.4% True Finns
True Finns
14.6% Social Democratic Party 14.4% Green League
Green League
11.6% Swedish People's Party
Swedish People's Party
6.7% Centre Party 4.3% Left Alliance 3.6% Christian Democrats 2.7%

Espoo
Espoo
is the home for True Finns
True Finns
chairman Timo Soini. International relations[edit]

Nuuksio National Park
Nuuksio National Park
in autumn

View from Kasavuori in Soukka

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Espoo
Espoo
is twinned with:[9]

Esztergom, Hungary Gatchina, Russia Irving, Texas, United States[10] Køge, Denmark Kongsberg, Norway

Kristianstad, Sweden Nõmme, Estonia Sauðárkrókur, Iceland Shanghai, China Sochi, Russia

Notable people[edit]

Gösta Sundqvist (1957-2003), bandleader of Leevi and the Leavings Marten Mickos
Marten Mickos
(born 1962), entrepreneur JJ Lehto
JJ Lehto
(born 1966), racing driver Jere Lehtinen
Jere Lehtinen
(born 1973), ice hockey player Susan Aho
Susan Aho
(born 1974), singer and member of the band Värttinä Kirsi Heikkinen
Kirsi Heikkinen
(born 1978), football referee Charly Wegelius
Charly Wegelius
(born 1978), British cyclist Heidi Parviainen
Heidi Parviainen
(born 1979), lyric soprano, metal - singer Alexi Laiho
Alexi Laiho
(born 1979), guitarist and vocalist, co-founder of the metal band Children of Bodom Janne Wirman
Janne Wirman
(born 1979), keyboardist of metal bands Children of Bodom and Warm Kimi Räikkönen
Kimi Räikkönen
(born 1979), racing driver and Formula 1
Formula 1
- World Champion Aki Hakala
Aki Hakala
(born 1979), drummer of the band The Rasmus Petri Lindroos
Petri Lindroos
(born 1980), member of the metal bands Norther
Norther
and Ensiferum Eero Ettala (born 1984), snowboarder Marcus Sandell
Marcus Sandell
(born 1987), alpine skier Laura Lepistö
Laura Lepistö
(born 1988), figure skater

See also[edit]

The UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, signed in Espoo
Espoo
1991 (text of Convention) Districts of Espoo Pakankylä Postipuu School Sello mall shooting List of European regions by GDP

References[edit] Notes

^ a b "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, elokuu 2017" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 18 October 2017.  ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.  ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009.  ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.  ^ Tilastokeskus. "Population statistics", Tilastokeskus, Retrieved on 9 June 2014. ^ "Espoo: Tulos puolueittain ja yhteislistoittain". Ministry of Justice. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.  ^ "Twin towns". Espoo. Retrieved 28 April 2014.  ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 

Sources

Espoon kaupungin taskutilasto 2007, issued by the City of Espoo, 2007

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Espoo.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Espoo.

1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
official report. p. 50. City of Espoo
Espoo
– Official website (in Finnish) City of Espoo
Espoo
(Esbo) – Official website (in Swedish) City of Espoo
Espoo
– Official website (in English) Visit Espoo
Espoo
Espoo
Espoo
for travellers (in Finnish) (in Swedish) (in English) Helsinki
Helsinki
University of Technology – located in Espoo
Espoo
(in Finnish) (in Swedish) (in English) Helsinki.fi – Helsinki
Helsinki
region in a nutshell (in Finnish) (in Swedish) (in English)

Articles and topics related to Espoo

v t e

The major districts and districts of Espoo

Pohjois-Espoo
Pohjois-Espoo
(Norra Esbo)

Bodom Kalajärvi Lahnus Lakisto Luukki (Luk) Niipperi (Nipert) Perusmäki (Grundbacka) Röylä (Rödskog) Vanhakartano (Gammelgård) Velskola (Vällskog)

Suur-Espoonlahti
Suur-Espoonlahti
(Stor-Esboviken)

Espoonlahti
Espoonlahti
(Esboviken) Kaitaa
Kaitaa
(Kaitans) Latokaski (Ladusved) Nöykkiö
Nöykkiö
(Nöykis) Saunalahti (Bastvik) Soukka
Soukka
(Sökö) Suvisaaristo
Suvisaaristo
(Sommaröarna)

Suur-Kauklahti
Suur-Kauklahti
(Stor-Köklax)

Espoonkartano (Esbogård) Kauklahti
Kauklahti
(Köklax) Kurttila (Kurtby) Vanttila (Fantsby)

Suur- Leppävaara
Leppävaara
(Stor-Alberga)

Karakallio
Karakallio
(Karabacka) Kilo Laaksolahti
Laaksolahti
(Dalsvik) Leppävaara
Leppävaara
(Alberga) Lintuvaara
Lintuvaara
(Fågelberga) Lippajärvi
Lippajärvi
(Klappträsk) Sepänkylä
Sepänkylä
(Smedsby) Viherlaakso
Viherlaakso
(Gröndal)

Suur-Matinkylä
Suur-Matinkylä
(Stor-Mattby)

Henttaa
Henttaa
(Hemtans) Matinkylä
Matinkylä
(Mattby) Olari (Olars)

Suur-Tapiola
Suur-Tapiola
(Stor-Hagalund)

Haukilahti
Haukilahti
(Gäddvik) Laajalahti
Laajalahti
(Bredvik) Mankkaa
Mankkaa
(Mankans) Niittykumpu
Niittykumpu
(Ängskulla) Otaniemi
Otaniemi
(Otnäs) Pohjois- Tapiola
Tapiola
(Norra Hagalund) Tapiola
Tapiola
(Hagalund) Westend

Vanha-Espoo
Vanha-Espoo
(Gamla Esbo)

Espoon keskus
Espoon keskus
(Esbo centrum) Gumböle Högnäs Järvenperä (Träskända) Karhusuo (Björnkärr) Karvasmäki (Karvasbacka) Kaupunginkallio (Stadsberget) Kolmperä (Kolmpers) Kunnarla (Gunnars) Kuurinniitty (Kurängen) Muurala (Morby) Nupuri (Nupurböle) Nuuksio
Nuuksio
(Noux) Siikajärvi Vanha- Nuuksio
Nuuksio
(Gamla Noux)

v t e

Municipalities of Uusimaa

Municipalities

Askola Espoo Hanko Helsinki Hyvinkää Ingå Järvenpää Karkkila Kauniainen Kerava Kirkkonummi Lapinjärvi Lohja Loviisa Mäntsälä Myrskylä Nurmijärvi Pornainen Porvoo Pukkila Raseborg Sipoo Siuntio Tuusula Vantaa Vihti

Former municipalities

Bromarv Degerby Ekenäs Ekenäs landskommun Haaga Huopalahti Hyvinkään maalaiskunta Karis Karjalohja Kulosaari Liljendal Lohjan kunta Nummi Nummi-Pusula Oulunkylä Pernå Pohja Porvoon maalaiskunta Pusula Ruotsinpyhtää Sammatti Snappertuna Tenala

Uusimaa Finland

v t e

Venues of the 1952 Summer Olympics

Hämeenlinna Harmaja Helsinki
Helsinki
Football Grounds Huopalahti Käpylä Kotka Laakso Lahti Liuskasaari Malmi Rifle Range Maunula Meilahti Messuhalli Olympic Stadium Pakila Ruskeasuo
Ruskeasuo
Equestrian Hall Swimming Stadium Taivallahti Tali Race Track Tampere Tennis Palace Turku Velodrome Westend Tennis Hall

v t e

Olympic venues in fencing

1896: Zappeion 1900: Tuileries Garden 1904: Francis Gymnasium 1908: Franco-British Exhibition Fencing Grounds 1912: Östermalms IP 1920: Gardens of the Egmont Palace 1924: Stade de Colombes 1928: Schermzaal 1932: 160th Regiment State Armory 1936: Haus des Deutschen Sports, Tennis Courts 1948: Wembley Palace of Engineering 1952: Westend Tennis Hall 1956: St Kilda Town Hall 1960: Palazzo dei Congressi 1964: Waseda Memorial Hall 1968: Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall 1972: Messegelände, Fechthalle 1, Messegelände Fechthalle 2 1976: Winter Stadium, Université de Montréal 1980: CSKA Football Fieldhouse 1984: Long Beach Convention Center 1988: Olympic Fencing Gymnasium 1992: Palau de la Metal·lúrgia 1996: Georgia World Congress Center 2000: Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre 2004: Fencing Hall 2008: Olympic Green Convention Center 2012: ExCeL, Copper Box 2016: Carioca Arena 3 2020: Makuhari Messe 2024: Grand Palais 2028: Los Angeles

.