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ESPOO (Finnish pronunciation: ; Swedish : Esbo, ) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland
Finland
. The population of the city of Espoo
Espoo
was 270,416 as of 31 March 2016 . It is part of the Finnish Capital Region , and most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area , along with the cities of Helsinki
Helsinki
, Vantaa
Vantaa
, and Kauniainen . Espoo
Espoo
shares its eastern border with Helsinki
Helsinki
and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. The city is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
, in the region of Uusimaa .

Other bordering municipalities of Espoo
Espoo
are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, and Kirkkonummi in the west. The national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo.

Espoo
Espoo
encompasses 312 square kilometres (120 sq mi), of which 312 km2 (120 sq mi) is land.

Espoo
Espoo
doesn't have a traditional city center at all, but it has several local regional centers. Espoo
Espoo
is thus divided into seven major areas (Finnish : suuralueet, Swedish : storområden): Vanha-Espoo (with administrative center ), Suur-Espoonlahti , Pohjois-Espoo , Suur-Kauklahti , Suur- Leppävaara , Suur-Matinkylä , and Suur-Tapiola .

Aalto University is based in Otaniemi , Espoo, along with a thriving science community that includes numerous startups and organizations such as VTT – the Technical Research Center of Finland. Several major companies are based in Espoo, including Nokia Networks , KONE
KONE
, Neste Oil , Fortum , Orion Corporation , and Outokumpu , as well as video game developers Rovio and Remedy Entertainment .

The city of Espoo
Espoo
is officially bilingual . The majority of the population, 83.6%, speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, while a minority of 8.3% speaks Swedish . 8% of Espoo's population has a first language other than Finnish or Swedish.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Location * 3.2 Subdivision * 3.3 Features

* 4 Demographics * 5 Culture * 6 Sports * 7 Politics

* 8 International relations

* 8.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 9 Notable people * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name Espoo
Espoo
probably comes from the Swedish name for the River Espoo, Espå (or Espåå), which in turn comes from the old Swedish word äspe, meaning a border of aspen , and the Swedish word for "river", å, thus "a river bordered by aspen". The name was first mentioned in 1431. The banks of the River Espoo
Espoo
are even today heavily populated with aspen.

HISTORY

VR Class Vk3 steam locomotive at Kauklahti railway station in the 1920s Anti-aircraft searchlight in Haukilahti in 1940

The first inhabitants in the area arrived about 9,000 years ago. Physical evidence (pollen grains) indicates agriculture from ca. 1000 AD, but there are no historical records. Up to the 13th century, the area was a borderland between the hunting grounds of Finnish Proper and Tavastian Finns , with a sparse population. Immigrants
Immigrants
from Sweden established permanent agricultural settlements during the 12th and 13th centuries, assimilating the sparse local Finnish-speaking population. Espoo
Espoo
was a subdivision of the Kirkkonummi congregation until 1486-7. The oldest known document referring to Kirkkonummi is from 1330; Espoo
Espoo
as a subchapter has been dated to the 1380s, although the first document directly referring to Espoo
Espoo
is from as late as 1431. The construction of the Espoo Cathedral , the oldest preserved building in Espoo, marks the independence of Espoo. Administratively, Espoo
Espoo
was a part of Uusimaa . When the province was split to Eastern and Western provinces governed from the Porvoo and Raasepori castles , respectively, the eastern border of the Raasepori province was in Espoo. The 13th century road connecting the most important cities in Finland
Finland
at that time, the King\'s Road , passes through Espoo
Espoo
on its way from Stockholm
Stockholm
via Turku
Turku
and Porvoo to Viipuri .

In 1557, King Gustaf Wasa decided to stabilize and develop the region by founding a royal mansion in Espoo. The government bought the villages of Espåby and Mankby (Finnish: Mankki) and transferred the population elsewhere, and built the royal mansion in Espåby. (Mankby was eventually abandoned and was never repopulated.) The royal mansion housed the king's local plenipotentiary (vogt ), and collected royal tax in kind paid by labor on the mansion's farm. The administrative center Espoon keskus has grown around the church and the Espoo
Espoo
railway station , but the municipality has retained a network-like structure to the modern day.

In 1920, Espoo
Espoo
was only a rural municipality of about 9,000 inhabitants, of whom 70% were Swedish speaking. Agriculture was the primary source of income, with 75% of the population making their living from farming. Kauniainen was separated from Espoo
Espoo
in 1920, and it gained city rights the same year as Espoo, in 1972.

Espoo
Espoo
started to grow rapidly in the 1940s and '50s. It quickly developed from a rural municipality into a fully-fledged industrial city, gaining city rights in 1972. Due to its proximity to Helsinki, Espoo
Espoo
soon became popular amongst people working in the capital. In the fifty years from 1950 to 2000, the population of Espoo
Espoo
grew from 22,000 to 210,000. Since 1945, the majority of people in Espoo
Espoo
have been Finnish speaking. In 2006, the Swedish speaking inhabitants represented barely 9% of the total population. The population growth is still continuing, but at a slower rate.

GEOGRAPHY

The districts and major areas of Espoo
Espoo

LOCATION

Espoo
Espoo
is located in southern Finland, along the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
, and in the region of Uusimaa and the Helsinki
Helsinki
sub-region . Prior to the abolition of Finnish provinces in 2009, Espoo
Espoo
was a part of the Southern Finland
Finland
Province .

The city borders Helsinki
Helsinki
, the Finnish capital, which is to the east. Other neighbouring municipalities are Vantaa
Vantaa
to the east and northeast, Nurmijärvi to the north, Vihti to the northwest, and Kirkkonummi to the west and southwest. Espoo
Espoo
is a part of the Finnish Capital Region, which is the inner core of the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area.

SUBDIVISION

Main article: Districts of Espoo

Espoo
Espoo
is divided into seven major areas (Finnish : suuralueet, Swedish : storområden): Vanha-Espoo (with administrative center ), Suur-Espoonlahti , Pohjois-Espoo , Suur-Kauklahti , Suur- Leppävaara , Suur-Matinkylä , and Suur-Tapiola . These major areas are then divided into a total of 56 districts .

FEATURES

Although Espoo
Espoo
is relatively highly populated, it has large amounts of natural wilderness, particularly in the city's western and northern portions. The city has a total of 71 lakes, the largest of which are Lake Bodom , Nuuksion Pitkäjärvi, Vanhankylän Pitkäjärvi, Loojärvi, Velskolan Pitkäjärvi, Saarijärvi, Matalajärvi, Siikajärvi, and Lippajärvi. The city has a large coastline on the Gulf of Finland
Finland
.

Espoo
Espoo
has six Natura 2000 protected areas : Bånberget forests, Espoonlahti–Saunalahti bay area (partially in Kirkkonummi ), Laajalahti bay, Matalajärvi lake, Nuuksio National Park (partially in Kirkkonummi and Vihti ), as well as forests in Vestra (partially in Vantaa
Vantaa
).

The official animal of Espoo
Espoo
is the Siberian flying squirrel , the official bird is the common blackbird , and the official plant is Anemone nemorosa .

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION OF ESPOO

YEAR POPULATION YEAR POPULATION

1901 5,888 1985 156,778

1910 7,891 1990 172,629

1920 8,817 1995 191,247

1930 11,370 2000 213,271

1940 13,378 2005 231,704

1950 22,878 2010 247,970

1960 53,042 2013 260,753

1970 92,655 2020 (est.) 281,970

1975 120,632 2030 (est.) 306,965

1980 137,409 2040 (est.) 323,875

POPULATION BY GRAND DISTRICT (IN 2006)

AREA POPULATION AREA POPULATION

Leppävaara 58,048 Vanha-Espoo 33,613

Espoonlahti 48,649 Pohjois-Espoo 9,754

Tapiola 41,905 Kauklahti 6,191

Matinkylä 33,613

The population by nationality 1 January 2007 was 95.1% Finnish and 4.9% other nationalities. Religious affiliation was 77.4% Lutheran, 1.3% Orthodox, 1.3% other, and 19.9% no religious affiliation.

Espoo
Espoo
contains many high income suburbs, and six out of the ten highest average income postal code areas in Finland
Finland
are in Espoo.

CULTURE

The Espoo Cultural Centre

Espoo
Espoo
hosts a Museum of Modern Art called EMMA ( Espoo
Espoo
Museum of Modern Art), built in a renovated old print house, the WeeGee house , named after an old book print company Weilin "> Espoo
Espoo
Metro Areena in Tapiola Tapiolan Urheilupuisto
Tapiolan Urheilupuisto
stadium in Tapiola

At the 1952 Summer Olympics , the city's Westend Tennis Hall hosted the fencing events.

Espoo
Espoo
is home to several sports teams. Espoo Blues were an ice hockey team which played at highest level SM-liiga between 1998 and 2016 before the team went bankrupt. Between 1984 and 1998 the team was known as Kiekko-Espoo. A new team called Espoo
Espoo
United was established to replace Espoo Blues and United now play ice hockey at the second highest level Mestis . The Espoo
Espoo
United women's hockey team play at the highest level, women's SM-liiga. Espoo
Espoo
United are also active in basketball and the male basketball team play at the second highest level and the women's basketball team play at the highest level, Naisten korisliiga.

FC Honka (also known as Esport Honka) is a football club that was promoted into the Finnish premier division ( Veikkausliiga ) for the first time in its history at the end of the 2005 season. Honka currently plays at the second highest level Ykkönen . They play their home matches at Tapiolan urheilupuisto
Tapiolan urheilupuisto
. Espoo
Espoo
also has two floorball teams playing at highest level Salibandyliiga . The two teams are Esport Oilers and Westend Indians.

Espoo
Espoo
is the birthplace of 2007 Formula One
Formula One
World Champion Kimi Räikkönen , former Dallas Stars forward Jere Lehtinen (three time NHL Selke Trophy winner), former Formula One
Formula One
driver JJ Lehto , professional downhill mountain biker Matti Lehikoinen , professional ten-pin bowling star Osku Palermaa and 2009 European Figure Skating Champion Laura Lepistö
Laura Lepistö
.

POLITICS

The city hall of Espoo, located in Espoon keskus

Espoo's city council has 75 members. Following the municipal election of 2017 the council seats are allocated in the following way: National Coalition Party 26 seats, Greens 17, Social Democrats 10, True Finns 7, Swedish People's Party 6, Centre Party 3, Left Alliance 3, Christian Democrats 2 and Liberal Party 1.

Support for the center-right National Coalition Party is high in Espoo. Results of the Finnish parliamentary election, 2011 in Espoo:

* National Coalition Party 40.4% * True Finns 14.6% * Social Democratic Party 14.4% * Green League 11.6% * Swedish People\'s Party 6.7% * Centre Party 4.3% * Left Alliance 3.6% * Christian Democrats 2.7%

Espoo
Espoo
is the home for True Finns chairman Timo Soini .

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Nuuksio National Park in the autumn View from Kasavuori in Soukka

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Espoo
Espoo
is twinned with:

* Esztergom
Esztergom
, Hungary * Gatchina
Gatchina
, Russia * Irving, Texas , United States
United States
* Køge
Køge
, Denmark * Kongsberg , Norway

* Kristianstad , Sweden * Nõmme , Estonia * Sauðárkrókur , Iceland * Shanghai
Shanghai
, China * Sochi
Sochi
, Russia

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Gösta Sundqvist (1957-2003), bandleader of Leevi and the Leavings

* Marten Mickos (born 1962), entrepreneur * JJ Lehto (born 1966), racing driver * Jere Lehtinen (born 1973), ice hockey player * Susan Aho (born 1974), singer and member of the band Värttinä * Kirsi Heikkinen (born 1978), football referee * Charly Wegelius (born 1978), British cyclist * Heidi Parviainen (born 1979), lyric soprano, metal - singer * Alexi Laiho (born 1979), guitarist and vocalist, co-founder of the metal band Children of Bodom * Janne Wirman (born 1979), keyboardist of metal bands Children of Bodom and Warm * Kimi Räikkönen (born 1979), racing driver and Formula 1
Formula 1
- World Champion * Aki Hakala
Aki Hakala
(born 1979), drummer of the band The Rasmus * Petri Lindroos (born 1980), member of the metal bands Norther and Ensiferum * Eero Ettala (born 1984), snowboarder * Marcus Sandell
Marcus Sandell
(born 1987), alpine skier * Laura Lepistö
Laura Lepistö
(born 1988), figure skater

SEE ALSO

* The UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context , signed in Espoo
Espoo
1991 (text of Convention) * Districts of Espoo * Pakankylä * Postipuu School * Sello mall shooting * List of European regions by GDP

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ A B "Population density by area 1.1.2016". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 12 February 2017. * ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, maaliskuu.2016" (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 31 March 2016. * ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009. * ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009. * ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. * ^ Tilastokeskus. "Population statistics", Tilastokeskus , Retrieved on 9 June 2014. * ^ "Espoo: Tulos puolueittain ja yhteislistoittain". Ministry of Justice. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017. * ^ "Twin towns". Espoo. Retrieved 28 April 2014. * ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International . Retrieved 12 March 2014.

SOURCES

* Espoon kaupungin taskutilasto 2007, issued by the City of Espoo, 2007

EXTERNAL LINKS

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