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The ESKIMO are the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia), across Alaska
Alaska
(United States), Canada
Canada
, and Greenland
Greenland
.

The two main peoples known as "Eskimo" are: (1) the Alaskan Iñupiat peoples, Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
, and the mass-grouping Inuit
Inuit
peoples of Canada, and (2) the Yupik of eastern Siberia
Siberia
and Alaska. The Yupik comprise speakers of four distinct Yupik languages: one used in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and the others among people of Western Alaska, Southcentral Alaska
Alaska
and along the Gulf of Alaska
Alaska
coast. A third northern group, the Aleut
Aleut
, is closely related to the Eskimo. They share a relatively recent common ancestor, and a language group (Eskimo- Aleut
Aleut
).

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 History

* 3 Nomenclature

* 3.1 Origin * 3.2 General

* 4 Languages

* 5 Inuit
Inuit

* 5.1 Greenland\'s Inuit
Inuit
* 5.2 Inuit
Inuit
of Canada\'s Eastern Arctic
Arctic
* 5.3 Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
of Canada\'s Western Arctic
Arctic
* 5.4 Alaska\'s Iñupiat
Iñupiat

* 6 Yupik

* 6.1 Alutiiq
Alutiiq
* 6.2 Central Alaskan Yup\'ik * 6.3 Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
* 6.4 Naukan

* 7 Sirenik Eskimos * 8 See also * 9 References

* 10 Additional sources

* 10.1 Cyrillic

* 11 Further reading

DESCRIPTION

In its linguistic origins, the word Eskimo
Eskimo
comes from Innu-aimun (Montagnais) 'ayas̆kimew' meaning "a person who laces a snowshoe" and is related to "husky", so does not have a direct pejorative meaning.

In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, the term "Eskimo" is seen as pejorative and has been widely replaced by the term "Inuit" or terms specific to a particular group or community. This has resulted in a trend whereby some Canadians and Americans believe that they should not use the word "Eskimo" and use the Canadian word "Inuit" instead, even for Yup'ik speakers. The Canadian Constitution Act of 1982 , sections 25 and 35 recognized the Inuit
Inuit
as a distinctive group of aboriginal peoples in Canada
Canada
.

Under U.S. and Alaskan law (as well as the linguistic and cultural traditions of Alaska), " Alaska
Alaska
Native" refers to all indigenous peoples of Alaska. This includes not only the Inupiat and the Yupik, but also groups such as the Aleut, who share a recent ancestor, as well as the largely unrelated indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Dene . As a result, the term Eskimo
Eskimo
is still in use in Alaska. Alternative terms, such as INUIT-YUPIK, have been proposed, but none has gained widespread acceptance.

HISTORY

Several earlier indigenous peoples existed in the region. The earliest positively identified North American Eskimo
Eskimo
cultures (pre-Dorset) date to 5,000 years ago. They appear to have developed in Alaska
Alaska
from people related to the Arctic small tool tradition in eastern Asia, whose ancestors had probably migrated to Alaska
Alaska
at least 3,000 to 5,000 years earlier. Similar artifacts have been found in Siberia
Siberia
that date to perhaps 18,000 years ago.

The Yupik languages and cultures in Alaska
Alaska
evolved in place (and migrated back to Siberia), beginning with the original pre-Dorset indigenous culture developed in Alaska. Approximately 4000 years ago, the Unangan culture of the Aleut
Aleut
became distinct. It is not generally considered an Eskimo
Eskimo
culture.

Approximately 1500–2000 years ago, apparently in Northwestern Alaska, two other distinct variations appeared. Inuit
Inuit
language became distinct and, over a period of several centuries, its speakers migrated across Northern Alaska, through Canada
Canada
and into Greenland
Greenland
. The distinct culture of the Thule people developed in northwestern Alaska
Alaska
and very quickly spread over the entire area occupied by Eskimo people, though it was not necessarily adopted by all of them.

NOMENCLATURE

ORIGIN

Further information: Native American name controversy
Native American name controversy

Look up ESKIMO or ESKIMO in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Two principal competing etymologies have been proposed for the name "Eskimo", both derived from the Innu-aimun (Montagnais) language, an Algonquian language of the Atlantic Ocean coast. The most commonly accepted today appears to be the proposal of Ives Goddard at the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
, who derives the term from the Montagnais word meaning "snowshoe-netter" or "to net snowshoes." The word assime·w means "she laces a snowshoe" in Montagnais. Montagnais speakers refer to the neighbouring Mi\'kmaq people using words that sound very much like eskimo.

In 1978, Jose Mailhot, a Quebec
Quebec
anthropologist who speaks Montagnais, published a paper suggesting that Eskimo
Eskimo
meant "people who speak a different language". French traders who encountered the Montagnais in the eastern areas, adopted their word for the more western peoples and spelled it as Esquimau in a transliteration.

Some people consider Eskimo
Eskimo
derogatory because it is widely perceived to mean "eaters of raw meat" in Algonkian languages common to people along the Atlantic coast. One Cree
Cree
speaker suggested the original word that became corrupted to Eskimo
Eskimo
might have been askamiciw (which means "he eats it raw"); the Inuit
Inuit
are referred to in some Cree
Cree
texts as askipiw (which means "eats something raw").

GENERAL

Laminar armour from hardened leather reinforced by wood and bones worn by native Siberians and Eskimos Lamellar armour
Lamellar armour
worn by native Siberians and Eskimos

In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, the term Eskimo
Eskimo
has largely been supplanted by the term Inuit. While Inuit
Inuit
can be accurately applied to all of the Eskimo
Eskimo
peoples in Canada
Canada
and Greenland, that is not true in Alaska and Siberia. In Alaska
Alaska
the term Eskimo
Eskimo
is commonly used, because it includes both Yupik and Iñupiat. Inuit
Inuit
is not accepted as a collective term and it is not used specifically for Iñupiat
Iñupiat
(although they are related to the Canadian Inuit
Inuit
peoples).

In 1977, the Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Conference (ICC) meeting in Barrow, Alaska, officially adopted Inuit
Inuit
as a designation for all circumpolar native peoples, regardless of their local view on an appropriate term. As a result, the Canadian government usage has replaced the (locally) defunct term Eskimo
Eskimo
with Inuit
Inuit
(Inuk in singular). The preferred term in Canada's Central Arctic
Arctic
is Inuinnaq, and in the eastern Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Inuit. The language is often called Inuktitut, though other local designations are also used. Despite the ICC's 1977 decision to adopt the term Inuit, this was never accepted by the Yupik peoples, likened to calling all Native American Indians Navaho simply because the Navaho felt that that's what all tribes should be called.

The Inuit
Inuit
of Greenland
Greenland
refer to themselves as "Greenlanders" and speak the Greenlandic language
Greenlandic language
.

Because of the linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences between Yupik and Inuit
Inuit
peoples, it seems unlikely that any umbrella term will be acceptable. There has been some movement to use Inuit, and the Inuit Circumpolar Council , representing a circumpolar population of 150,000 Inuit
Inuit
and Yupik people of Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and Siberia, in its charter defines Inuit
Inuit
for use within that ICC document as including "the Inupiat, Yupik (Alaska), Inuit, Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
(Canada), Kalaallit
Kalaallit
(Greenland) and Yupik (Russia)."

But, in Alaska, the Inuit
Inuit
people refer to themselves as Iñupiat, plural, and Iñupiaq, singular (their North Alaskan Inupiatun language is also called Iñupiaq). They do not commonly use the term Inuit. In Alaska, Eskimo
Eskimo
is in common usage.

Alaskans also use the term Alaska
Alaska
Native , which is inclusive of all Eskimo, Aleut
Aleut
and Native American people of Alaska. It does not apply to Inuit
Inuit
or Yupik people originating outside the state. The term Alaska
Alaska
Native has important legal usage in Alaska
Alaska
and the rest of the United States as a result of the Alaska
Alaska
Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.

The term "Eskimo" is also used in linguistic or ethnographic works to denote the larger branch of Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages, the smaller branch being Aleut.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages English ("Welcome to Barrow") and Iñupiaq (Paġlagivsigiñ Utqiaġvigmun), Barrow, Alaska , framed by whale jawbones

The Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
family of languages includes two cognate branches: the Aleut
Aleut
(Unangan) branch and the Eskimo
Eskimo
branch. The Eskimo sub-family consists of the Inuit
Inuit
language and Yupik language sub-groups. The Sirenikski language , which is virtually extinct, is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo
Eskimo
language family. Other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.

Inuit
Inuit
languages comprise a dialect continuum , or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalakleet and Norton Sound in Alaska, across northern Alaska
Alaska
and Canada, and east to Greenland. Changes from western (Iñupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., kumlu, meaning "thumb", changes to kuvlu, changes to kublu, changes to kulluk, changes to kulluq ), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit
Inuit
dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another. Seward Peninsula
Seward Peninsula
dialects in Western Alaska, where much of the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
culture has been in place for perhaps less than 500 years, are greatly affected by phonological influence from the Yupik languages. Eastern Greenlandic, at the opposite end of the Inuit
Inuit
range, has had significant word replacement due to a unique form of ritual name avoidance.

The four Yupik languages , by contrast, including Alutiiq
Alutiiq
(Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik, are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences. They demonstrate limited mutual intelligibility. Additionally, both Alutiiq
Alutiiq
and Central Yup'ik have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik languages – Siberian Yupik and Naukanski Yupik – are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit
Inuit
than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically. Differences of vocabulary between Inuit
Inuit
and any one of the Yupik languages are greater than between any two Yupik languages. Even the dialectal differences within Alutiiq
Alutiiq
and Central Alaskan Yup'ik sometimes are relatively great for locations that are relatively close geographically.

The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo
Eskimo
language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.

An overview of the ESKIMO–ALEUT languages family is given below: ALEUT Aleut
Aleut
language Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers) Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers) ESKIMO (Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit) Yupik Central Alaskan Yup\'ik (10,000 speakers) Alutiiq
Alutiiq
or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers) Central Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers) Naukan (700 speakers) Inuit
Inuit
or Inupik (75,000 speakers) Iñupiaq (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers) Inuvialuktun
Inuvialuktun
(western Canada; together with Siglitun , Natsilingmiutut , Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
and Uummarmiutun 765 speakers) Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(eastern Canada; together with Inuktun and Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
, 30,000 speakers) Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(Greenland, 47,000 speakers) Inuktun (Avanersuarmiutut, Thule dialect or Polar Eskimo, approximately 1,000 speakers) Tunumiit oraasiat (East Greenlandic known as Tunumiisut, 3,500 speakers) SIRENIK ESKIMO LANGUAGE (SIRENIKSKIY) (extinct)

INUIT

Further information: Inuit
Inuit
and Lists of Inuit
Inuit
Not to be confused with the Innu people , a First Nations
First Nations
people in eastern Quebec
Quebec
and Labrador.. A Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
man Iñupiat
Iñupiat
woman, Alaska , circa 1907 An Inuit
Inuit
family, c.1917

The Inuit
Inuit
inhabit the Arctic
Arctic
and northern Bering Sea
Bering Sea
coasts of Alaska in the United States, and Arctic
Arctic
coasts of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, Nunavut
Nunavut
, Quebec
Quebec
, and Labrador
Labrador
in Canada, and Greenland
Greenland
(associated with Denmark). Until fairly recent times, there has been a remarkable homogeneity in the culture throughout this area, which traditionally relied on fish, sea mammals, and land animals for food, heat, light, clothing, and tools. They maintain a unique Inuit
Inuit
culture .

GREENLAND\'S INUIT

Main article: Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
people

Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
people make up 90% of Greenland's population. They belong to three major groups:

* Kalaallit
Kalaallit
of west Greenland, who speak Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
* Tunumiit of east Greenland, who speak Tunumiisut * Inughuit of north Greenland, who speak Inuktun or Polar Eskimo.

INUIT OF CANADA\'S EASTERN ARCTIC

Main article: Inuit
Inuit

Canadian Inuit
Inuit
live primarily in Nunavut
Nunavut
(a territory of Canada
Canada
), Nunavik
Nunavik
(the northern part of Quebec
Quebec
) and in Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
(the Inuit settlement region in Labrador
Labrador
).

INUVIALUIT OF CANADA\'S WESTERN ARCTIC

Main article: Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit

The Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
live in the western Canadian Arctic
Arctic
region. Their homeland – the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Region – covers the Arctic Ocean coastline area from the Alaskan border east to Amundsen Gulf and includes the western Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Islands . The land was demarked in 1984 by the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Final Agreement .

ALASKA\'S IñUPIAT

Main article: Iñupiat
Iñupiat
An Iñupiat
Iñupiat
family from Noatak, Alaska
Alaska
, 1929

The Iñupiat
Iñupiat
are the Inuit
Inuit
of Alaska's Northwest Arctic
Arctic
and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region, including the Seward Peninsula. Barrow , the northernmost city in the United States, is above the Arctic
Arctic
Circle and in the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
region. Their language is known as Iñupiaq .

YUPIK

Main article: Yupik peoples
Yupik peoples

The Yupik are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon -Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River
Kuskokwim River
(Central Alaskan Yup\'ik ); in southern Alaska
Alaska
(the Alutiiq
Alutiiq
); and along the eastern coast of Chukotka in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and St. Lawrence Island in western Alaska
Alaska
(the Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
). The Yupik economy has traditionally been strongly dominated by the harvest of marine mammals , especially seals , walrus , and whales .

ALUTIIQ

Main article: Alutiiq
Alutiiq
Alutiiq
Alutiiq
dancer during the biennial "Celebration" cultural event

The Alutiiq, also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Yupik. They are not to be confused with the Aleut, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands . They traditionally lived a coastal lifestyle, subsisting primarily on ocean resources such as salmon , halibut , and whales, as well as rich land resources such as berries and land mammals. Alutiiq people today live in coastal fishing communities, where they work in all aspects of the modern economy. They also maintain the cultural value of subsistence.

The Alutiiq
Alutiiq
language is relatively close to that spoken by the Yupik in the Bethel, Alaska
Alaska
area. But, it is considered a distinct language with two major dialects: the Koniag dialect, spoken on the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island
Kodiak Island
, and the Chugach dialect, spoken on the southern Kenai Peninsula
Kenai Peninsula
and in Prince William Sound
Prince William Sound
. Residents of Nanwalek , located on southern part of the Kenai Peninsula
Kenai Peninsula
near Seldovia , speak what they call Sugpiaq. They are able to understand those who speak Yupik in Bethel. With a population of approximately 3,000, and the number of speakers in the hundreds, Alutiiq
Alutiiq
communities are working to revitalize their language.

CENTRAL ALASKAN YUP\'IK

Main article: Central Alaskan Yup\'ik people

Yup'ik, with an apostrophe, denotes the speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, who live in western Alaska
Alaska
and southwestern Alaska
Alaska
from southern Norton Sound to the north side of Bristol Bay
Bristol Bay
, on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta
Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta
, and on Nelson Island . The use of the apostrophe in the name Yup'ik is a written convention to denote the long pronunciation of the p sound; but it is spoken the same in other Yupik languages. Of all the Alaska
Alaska
Native languages , Central Alaskan Yup'ik has the most speakers, with about 10,000 of a total Yup'ik population of 21,000 still speaking the language. The five dialects of Central Alaskan Yup'ik include General Central Yup'ik, and the Egegik, Norton Sound, Hooper Bay-Chevak, and Nunivak dialects. In the latter two dialects, both the language and the people are called Cup'ik.

SIBERIAN YUPIK

Main article: Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik

Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
reside along the Bering Sea
Bering Sea
coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia
Siberia
in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and in the villages of Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska. The Central Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
spoken on the Chukchi Peninsula
Chukchi Peninsula
and on St. Lawrence Island is nearly identical. About 1,050 of a total Alaska
Alaska
population of 1,100 Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
people in Alaska
Alaska
speak the language. It is the first language of the home for most St. Lawrence Island children. In Siberia, about 300 of a total of 900 Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
people still learn and study the language, though it is no longer learned as a first language by children.

NAUKAN

Main articles: Naukan people and Naukan language

About 70 of 400 Naukan people still speak Naukanski. The Naukan originate on the Chukot Peninsula in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
in Siberia.

SIRENIK ESKIMOS

Model of an Ice Scoop, Eskimo, 1900–1930, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
Main article: Sirenik Eskimos

Some speakers of Siberian Yupik languages used to speak an Eskimo variant in the past, before they underwent a language shift . These former speakers of Sirenik Eskimo language inhabited the settlements of Sireniki, Imtuk, and some small villages stretching to the west from Sireniki along south-eastern coasts of Chukchi Peninsula. They lived in neighborhoods with Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
and Chukchi peoples .

As early as in 1895, Imtuk was a settlement with a mixed population of Sirenik Eskimos and Ungazigmit (the latter belonging to Siberian Yupik). Sirenik Eskimo
Eskimo
culture has been influenced by that of Chukchi, and the language shows Chukchi language
Chukchi language
influences. Folktale motifs also show the influence of Chuckchi culture.

The above peculiarities of this (already extinct ) Eskimo
Eskimo
language amounted to mutual unintelligibility even with its nearest language relatives: in the past, Sirenik Eskimos had to use the unrelated Chukchi language
Chukchi language
as a lingua franca for communicating with Siberian Yupik.

Many words are formed from entirely different roots than in Siberian Yupik, but even the grammar has several peculiarities distinct not only among Eskimo
Eskimo
languages, but even compared to Aleut. For example, dual number is not known in Sirenik Eskimo, while most Eskimo–Aleut languages have dual, including its neighboring Siberian Yupikax relatives.

Little is known about the origin of this diversity. The peculiarities of this language may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo
Eskimo
groups, and being in contact only with speakers of unrelated languages for many centuries. The influence of the Chukchi language is clear.

Because of all these factors, the classification of Sireniki Eskimo language is not settled yet: Sireniki language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of Eskimo
Eskimo
(at least, its possibility is mentioned). Sometimes it is regarded rather as a group belonging to the Yupik branch. Eskimo
Eskimo
(Yup\'ik of Nelson Island ) fisherman's summer house

SEE ALSO

* Eskimology * Blond Eskimos * Disc number * Eskimo kinship
Eskimo kinship
* Eskimo kissing * Eskimo yo-yo
Eskimo yo-yo
* Inuit
Inuit
mythology * Nanook of the North
Nanook of the North
documentary * Paleo-Eskimo * Seal-oil lamp * Saqqaq culture * Shamanism among Eskimo peoples

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F G Kaplan, Lawrence. " Inuit
Inuit
or Eskimo: Which name to use?" Alaskan Native Language Center, UFA. Retrieved 14 Feb 2015. * ^ "Eskimo: Usage." Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 27 Jan 2014. * ^ "Eskimo." The Free Dictionary Retrieved 27 Jan 2014. * ^ Israel, Mark. "Eskimo". Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. * ^ Maurice Waite (2013). Pocket Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-19-966615-7 . Some people regard the word Eskimo
Eskimo
as offensive, and the peoples inhabiting the regions of northern Canada
Canada
and parts of Greenland
Greenland
and Alaska
Alaska
prefer to call themselves Inuit
Inuit
* ^ Jan Svartvik; Geoffrey Leech (2016). English – One Tongue, Many Voices. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-137-16007-2 . Today, the term “Eskimo” is viewed as the “non preferred term”. Some Inuit
Inuit
find the term offensive or derogatory. * ^ Parrott, Zach. "Eskimo". The word Eskimo
Eskimo
is an offensive term that has been used historically to describe the Inuit
Inuit
throughout their homeland, Inuit
Inuit
Nunangat, in the arctic regions of Alaska, Greenland and Canada, as well as the Yupik of Alaska
Alaska
and northeastern Russia, and the Inupiat of Alaska. * ^ " Inuit
Inuit
or Eskimo? - Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center". Although the name "Eskimo" is commonly used in Alaska
Alaska
to refer to all Inuit
Inuit
and Yupik people of the world, this name is considered derogatory in many other places because it was given by non- Inuit
Inuit
people and was said to mean "eater of raw meat." * ^ "Obama signs measure to get rid of the word \'Eskimo\' in federal laws". 24 May 2016. * ^ "CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012. * ^ "RIGHTS OF THE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES OF CANADA". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012. * ^ "Native American populations descend from three key migrations". * ^ Holton, Gary. "Place-naming strategies in Inuit-Yupik and Dene languages in Alaska.", Academia.edu, Retrieved 27 Jan 2014. * ^ A B Israel, Mark. "Eskimo". Alt-usage-english.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2012-06-13. * ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy," In Arctic, ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 5–7. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Cited in Campbell 1997 * ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America, pg. 394. New York: Oxford University Press * ^ Mailhot, J. (1978). "L'étymologie de «Esquimau» revue et corrigée," Etudes Inuit/ Inuit
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Eskimo
Archived 2001-04-12 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000 * ^ A B Pamela R. Stern. Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13. * ^ A B Robert Peroni and Birgit Veith. "Ostgroenland-Hilfe Project". Ostgroenland-hilfe.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-06-13. * ^ usage note, Inuit, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000 * ^ Ohokak, G.; M. Kadlun; B. Harnum. Inuinnaqtun-English Dictionary. Kitikmeot Heritage Society. * ^ A B "Inuktitut, Greenlandic." Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 Aug 2012. * ^ Inuit
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Wayback Machine
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Eskimo
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Cognates". Alaska
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Native Language Center , University of Alaska
Alaska
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., Alaska Native Language Center , University of Alaska
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Fairbanks . Retrieved on August 30, 2012. * ^ Vakhtin 1998: 162 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 7 * ^ A B C Menovshchikov 1990: 70 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 132 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 6–7 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 42 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 38 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 81 * ^ Меновщиков 1962: 11 * ^ Меновщиков 1964: 9 * ^ A B Vakhtin 1998: 161 * ^ Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is “Н.Б. Вахтин Archived September 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.”. * ^ Языки эскимосов. ICC CHUKOTKA (IN RUSSIAN). INUIT CIRCUMPOLAR COUNCIL . * ^ "Ethnologue Report for Eskimo–Aleut". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13. * ^ Kaplan 1990: 136

ADDITIONAL SOURCES

* Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1990). "The Language of the Alaskan Inuit" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis. Arctic
Arctic
Languages. An Awakening (PDF)format= requires url= (help ). Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 131–158. ISBN 92-3-102661-5 . * Menovshchikov, Georgy (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1990). "Contemporary Studies of the Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
Languages and Dialects: A Progress Report" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis. Arctic
Arctic
Languages. An Awakening (PDF)format= requires url= (help ). Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 69–76. ISBN 92-3-102661-5 . * Nuttall, Mark. Encyclopedia of the Arctic. New York: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 978-1-57958-436-8 . * Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
and other Languages of Chukotka" (PDF). In Erich Kasten. Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples’ Languages and Traditional Knowledge (PDF). Münster: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 159–173. ISBN 978-3-89325-651-8 . * Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik
Siberian Yupik
and other Languages of Chukotka" (PDF). In Erich Kasten. Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples’ Languages and Traditional Knowledge (PDF). Münster: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 159–173. ISBN 978-3-89325-651-8 .

CYRILLIC

* Меновщиков, Г. А. (1964). Язык сиреникских эскимосовref Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь. Москва • Ленинград,: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания. The transliteration of Меновщиков 1964: 38 author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Menovshchikov, G. A. (1964). Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR .

FURTHER READING

* Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western arctic community. Conservation Ecology 5(2) * Canadian Council on Learning, State of Inuit
Inuit
Learning in Canada * Contemporary Food Sharing: A Case Study from Akulivik, PQ. Canada. * Internet Sacred Text Archive: Inuit
Inuit
Religion * Inuit
Inuit
Culture * Inuit
Inuit
Exposure to Organochlorines through the Aquatic Food Chain. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(7) * Inuit
Inuit
Women and Graphic Arts: Female Creativity and Its Cultural Context. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 9(2) * Pauktuuit Inuit
Inuit
Women of Canada, The Inuit
Inuit
Way: A Guide to Inuit Culture * We the People: American Indians and Alaska
Alaska
Natives in the United States. Census 2000 Special
Special
Reports February 2006 * University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Frank H. Nowell Photographs Photographs documenting scenery, towns, businesses, mining activities, Native Americans, and Eskimos in the vicinity of Nome, Alaska
Alaska
from 1901-1909. * University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Alaska and Western Canada
Canada
Collection Images documenting Alaska
Alaska
and Western Canada, primarily the provinces of Yukon Territory and British Columbia depicting scenes of the Gold Rush of 1898, city street scenes, Eskimo
Eskimo
and Native Americans of the region, hunting and fishing, and transportation. * University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Arthur Churchill Warner Photographs Includes images of Eskimos from 1898-1900.

* v * t * e

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the world by continent

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

South America

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES BY GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

* v * t * e

Ethnic slurs

by ethnicity

AFRICANS

BLACKS

* Abeed * Black American princess * Black Buck
Black Buck
* Black Diamonds * Boerehaat
Boerehaat
* Choc ice * Cocolo * Colored
Colored
* Cushi * Golliwog * House Negro * Jim Crow * Kaffir * Macaca * Mammy * Negro
Negro
* Nigga * Nigger
Nigger
* Pickaninny
Pickaninny
* Rastus * Queen/Queenie * Sambo * Tar-Baby * Uncle Tom
Uncle Tom
* Wog

Americans (North border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

HISPANICS

* Beaner (Mexicans) * Greaser * Naco * Pocho (non-Spanish speaking Hispanics) * Spic * Wetback

INDIGENOUS

* Cholo
Cholo
(Mestizos ) * Eskimo
Eskimo
( Inuit
Inuit
) * Half-breed ( Métis ) * Indian (Native American / First Nations
First Nations
) * Redskin (Native American / First Nations
First Nations
) * Squaw
Squaw
(Native American women)

WHITE AMERICANS

* Coonass ( Cajuns ) * Cheesehead
Cheesehead
(Wisconsinite ) * Cracker * Gringo * Haole
Haole
* Hillbilly
Hillbilly
* Peckerwood * Redneck
Redneck
* Swamp Yankee * White trash * Yank / Yankee
Yankee

OTHERS

* Canuck (Canadians) * Coonass ( Cajuns ) * Newfie (Newfoundlander ) * Seppo (Americans)

ASIANS

EAST ASIANS

GENERAL

* Banana (westernized East Asians) * Gook

CHINESE

* Ah Beng * American-born Chinese (ABC) * Chinaman * Chink * Ching chong * Coolie
Coolie
* Jook-sing (overseas /westernized Chinese) * Sangokujin (also Koreans) * Shina

JAPANESE

* Jap
Jap
* Jjokbari * Nip
Nip
* Xiao Riben

KOREANS

* Gaoli bangzi * Sangokujin (also Chinese)

SOUTH ASIANS

GENERAL

* American-Born Confused Desi (ABCD) * Bhaiyya * Chandala * Coolie
Coolie
* Gujju * Keling

BENGALI HINDUS

* Bongal
Bongal
* Dkhar
Dkhar
* Malaun

INDIANS

* Madrassi ( South Indians ) * Coolie
Coolie
* Chinki (Northeast Indians)

PAKISTANIS

* Paki

ROMANI

* Didicoy * Nawar * Zott

TAMILS

* Pariah * Tigala

TELUGU

* Gulte

EUROPEANS

GENERAL

* Ang mo * Bule * Farang
Farang
* Guizi
Guizi
* Gweilo * Honky * Mat Salleh * Redleg * Trailer trash
Trailer trash
* Wasi\'chu * Wigger

ALBANIANS

* Šiptar * Turco- Albanians
Albanians

BALTIC FINNS

* Chukhna

BRITISH

* Limey (English people) * Taffy (Welsh people) * Teuchter ( Scottish Highlanders )

CZECHS

* Bohunk

FRENCH

* Cheese-eating surrender monkeys * Frog

GERMANS

*

* Boche * Jerry

* Kraut

GREEKS

* Grecoman * Wog

IRISH

* Bog-trotter * Fenian
Fenian
(Republicans ) * Knacker ( Irish Travellers
Irish Travellers
) * Mick * Pikey (Irish Travellers) * Shoneen (Anglophile Irish) * Taig (Irish Catholics )

ITALIANS

* Dago * Goombah * Greaseball * Guido * Guinea * Wog * Wop * Terrone (South Italians )

POLES

* Polack

PORTUGUESE

* Wog

RUSSIANS

* Katsap
Katsap
* Moskal * Tibla

SERBS

* Shkije * Vlachs
Vlachs

SPANIARDS

* Wog

UKRAINIANS

* Bohunk * Khokhol

WELSH

* Sheep shagger * Taffy

OTHERS

* Bulgarophiles (Macedonians and Serbs
Serbs
) * Cheesehead
Cheesehead
(Dutch ) * China Swede Finnish * Serbomans (Macedonians and Bulgarians
Bulgarians
) * Yestonians (Russified Estonians
Estonians
)

ARABS

* Rafida (Shi\'ites ) * Raghead * Wog

JEWS

* Christ killer * Falasha
Falasha
( Ethiopian Jews
Ethiopian Jews
) * Jewish-American princess (JAP) * Kafir
Kafir
* Khazar ( Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
) * Kike * Marrano
Marrano
(conversos /crypto-Jews ) * Wog * Yekke ( German Jews
German Jews
) * Yid * Zhyd / Zhydovka * Żydokomuna

OCEANIANS

* Hori (Māori ) * Kanaka ( Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
) * Kanake ( Polynesians
Polynesians
)

OUTSIDERS

* Ajam (non- Arabs
Arabs
) * Barbarian
Barbarian
* Fresh off the boat/F.O.B. (immigrant) * Gaijin
Gaijin
(non-Japanese ) * Goy
Goy
(non-Jew) * Khuzh (non-Armenian) * Kafir
Kafir
* Reffo/Balt (Non-Anglo immigrant to Australia) * Shegetz (non-Jewish boy or man ) (pl. Shkutzim ) * Shiksa (non-Jewish woman )

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* LCCN : sh85044824 * GND : 4015537-7 * NDL

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