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Eskimo
Eskimo
is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region stretching from eastern Siberia
Siberia
(Russia), across Alaska
Alaska
(of the United States) and Canada, to Greenland.[1] The two main peoples known as "Eskimo" are: (1) the Alaskan Iñupiat
Iñupiat
peoples, Eskimo
Eskimo
Inuit, and the mass-grouping Inuit
Inuit
peoples of Canada, and (2) the Yupik
Yupik
of eastern Siberia
Siberia
and Alaska. The Yupik
Yupik
comprise speakers of four distinct Yupik languages: one used in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and the others among people of Western Alaska, Southcentral Alaska
Alaska
and along the Gulf of Alaska
Alaska
coast. A third northern group, the Aleut, is closely related to these two. They share a relatively recent common ancestor, and a language group (Eskimo-Aleut). The word "Eskimo" derives from phrases that Algonquin tribes used for their northern neighbors. The Inuit
Inuit
and Yupik
Yupik
peoples generally do not use it to refer to themselves, and the governments in Canada
Canada
and Greenland
Greenland
have ceased using it in official documents.[2]

Contents

1 Description 2 History 3 Nomenclature

3.1 Origin 3.2 General

4 Languages 5 Inuit

5.1 Greenland's Inuit 5.2 Inuit
Inuit
of Canada's Eastern Arctic 5.3 Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
of Canada's Western Arctic 5.4 Alaska's Iñupiat

6 Yupik

6.1 Alutiiq 6.2 Central Alaskan Yup'ik 6.3 Siberian Yupik 6.4 Naukan

7 Sirenik Eskimos 8 See also 9 References 10 Additional sources

10.1 Cyrillic

11 Further reading

Description[edit]

Illustration of a Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
man

In its linguistic origins,[3] the word Eskimo
Eskimo
comes from Innu-aimun (Montagnais) 'ayas̆kimew' meaning "a person who laces a snowshoe" and is related to "husky", so does not have a direct pejorative meaning.[4] In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, the term "Eskimo" is predominately seen as pejorative and has been widely replaced by the term "Inuit" or terms specific to a particular group or community.[2][5][6] This has resulted in a trend whereby some Canadians and Americans believe that they should not use the word "Eskimo" and use the Canadian word "Inuit" instead, even for Yupik
Yupik
speakers.[7] In section 25[8] of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
and section 35[9] of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982, recognized the Inuit
Inuit
as a distinctive group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Under U.S. and Alaskan law (as well as the linguistic and cultural traditions of Alaska), " Alaska
Alaska
Native" refers to all indigenous peoples of Alaska.[10] This includes not only the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
and the Yupik, but also groups such as the Aleut, who share a recent ancestor, as well as the largely unrelated[11] indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Alaskan Athabaskans. As a result, the term Eskimo
Eskimo
is still in use in Alaska.[1] Alternative terms, such as Inuit-Yupik, have been proposed,[12] but none has gained widespread acceptance. History[edit]

Inuit
Inuit
building an igloo, by George Francis Lyon, 1824

Several earlier indigenous peoples existed in the region. The earliest positively identified Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures (Early Paleo-Eskimo) date to 5,000 years ago. They appear to have developed in Alaska
Alaska
from people related to the Arctic small tool tradition
Arctic small tool tradition
in eastern Asia, whose ancestors had probably migrated to Alaska
Alaska
at least 3,000 to 5,000 years earlier. Similar artifacts have been found in Siberia
Siberia
that date to perhaps 18,000 years ago. The Yupik
Yupik
languages and cultures in Alaska
Alaska
evolved in place (and migrated back to Siberia), beginning with the original pre-Dorset indigenous culture developed in Alaska. Approximately 4000 years ago, the Unangan culture of the Aleut
Aleut
became distinct. It is not generally considered an Eskimo
Eskimo
culture. Approximately 1,500–2,000 years ago, apparently in northwestern Alaska, two other distinct variations appeared. Inuit
Inuit
language became distinct and, over a period of several centuries, its speakers migrated across northern Alaska, through Canada
Canada
and into Greenland. The distinct culture of the Thule people
Thule people
developed in northwestern Alaska
Alaska
and very quickly spread over the entire area occupied by Eskimo people, though it was not necessarily adopted by all of them. Nomenclature[edit] Origin[edit] Further information: Native American name controversy

Look up eskimo or Eskimo
Eskimo
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Two principal competing etymologies have been proposed for the name "Eskimo", both derived from the Innu-aimun (Montagnais) language, an Algonquian language of the Atlantic Ocean coast. The most commonly accepted today appears to be the proposal of Ives Goddard at the Smithsonian Institution, who derives the term from the Montagnais word meaning "snowshoe-netter"[4] or "to net snowshoes."[3] The word assime·w means "she laces a snowshoe" in Montagnais. Montagnais speakers refer to the neighbouring Mi'kmaq
Mi'kmaq
people using words that sound very much like eskimo.[13][14] In 1978, Jose Mailhot, a Quebec
Quebec
anthropologist who speaks Montagnais, published a paper suggesting that Eskimo
Eskimo
meant "people who speak a different language".[15][16] French traders who encountered the Montagnais in the eastern areas, adopted their word for the more western peoples and spelled it as Esquimau in a transliteration. Some people consider Eskimo
Eskimo
derogatory because it is widely perceived to mean[4][16][17][18] "eaters of raw meat" in Algonquian languages common to people along the Atlantic coast.[3][19][20] One Cree
Cree
speaker suggested the original word that became corrupted to Eskimo
Eskimo
might have been askamiciw (which means "he eats it raw"); the Inuit
Inuit
are referred to in some Cree
Cree
texts as askipiw (which means "eats something raw").[19][20][21][22] General[edit]

Laminar armour
Laminar armour
from hardened leather reinforced by wood and bones worn by native Siberians and Eskimos

Lamellar armour
Lamellar armour
worn by native Siberians and Eskimos

In Canada
Canada
and Greenland, the term Eskimo
Eskimo
has largely been supplanted by the term Inuit.[3][21][22][23] While Inuit
Inuit
can be accurately applied to all of the Eskimo
Eskimo
peoples in Canada
Canada
and Greenland, that is not true in Alaska
Alaska
and Siberia. In Alaska
Alaska
the term Eskimo
Eskimo
is commonly used, because it includes both Yupik
Yupik
and Iñupiat. Inuit
Inuit
is not accepted as a collective term and it is not used specifically for Iñupiat
Iñupiat
(although they are related to the Canadian Inuit
Inuit
peoples).[3] In 1977, the Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Conference (ICC) meeting in Barrow, Alaska, officially adopted Inuit
Inuit
as a designation for all circumpolar native peoples, regardless of their local view on an appropriate term. As a result, the Canadian government usage has replaced the (locally) defunct term Eskimo
Eskimo
with Inuit
Inuit
(Inuk in singular). The preferred term in Canada's Central Arctic
Arctic
is Inuinnaq,[24] and in the eastern Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Inuit. The language is often called Inuktitut, though other local designations are also used. Despite the ICC's 1977 decision to adopt the term Inuit, this was never accepted by the Yupik peoples, who likened it to calling all Native American Indians Navajo simply because the Navajo
Navajo
felt that that's what all tribes should be called. The Inuit
Inuit
of Greenland
Greenland
refer to themselves as "Greenlanders" and speak the Greenlandic language.[25] Because of the linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences between Yupik
Yupik
and Inuit
Inuit
peoples, it seems unlikely that any umbrella term will be acceptable. There has been some movement to use Inuit, and the Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Council, representing a circumpolar population of 150,000 Inuit
Inuit
and Yupik
Yupik
people of Greenland, Northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia, in its charter defines Inuit
Inuit
for use within that ICC document as including "the Inupiat, Yupik
Yupik
(Alaska), Inuit, Inuvialuit (Canada), Kalaallit
Kalaallit
(Greenland) and Yupik
Yupik
(Russia)."[26] In 2010, the ICC passed a resolution in which they implored scientists to use "Inuit" and "Paleo-Inuit" instead of "Eskimo" or "Paleo-Eskimo".[27] American linguist Lenore Grenoble has explicitly deferred to this resolution and used "Inuit–Yupik" instead of "Eskimo" with regards to the language branch.[28] In a 2015 commentary in the journal Arctic, Canadian archaeologist Max Friesen argued fellow Arctic
Arctic
archaeologists should follow the ICC and use "Paleo-Inuit" instead of "Paleo-Eskimo".[29] The Inuit
Inuit
people of Alaska
Alaska
refer to themselves as Iñupiat, plural, and Iñupiaq, singular (their North Alaskan Inupiatun language is also called Iñupiaq). They do not commonly use the term Inuit. In Alaska, Eskimo
Eskimo
is in common usage.[3] Alaskans also use the term Alaska
Alaska
Native, which is inclusive of all Eskimo, Aleut
Aleut
and Native American people of Alaska. It does not apply to Inuit
Inuit
or Yupik
Yupik
people originating outside the state. The term Alaska
Alaska
Native has important legal usage in Alaska
Alaska
and the rest of the United States as a result of the Alaska
Alaska
Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. The term "Eskimo" is also used in linguistic or ethnographic works to denote the larger branch of Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages, the smaller branch being Aleut. Languages[edit] Main article: Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages

English ("Welcome to Barrow") and Iñupiaq (Paġlagivsigiñ Utqiaġvigmun), Barrow, Alaska, framed by whale jawbones

The Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
family of languages includes two cognate branches: the Aleut
Aleut
(Unangan) branch and the Eskimo
Eskimo
branch. The number of cases varies, with Aleut
Aleut
languages having a greatly reduced case system compared to those of the Eskimo
Eskimo
subfamily. Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages possess voiceless plosives at the bilabial, coronal, velar and uvular positions in all languages except Aleut, which has lost the bilabial stops but retained the nasal. In the Eskimo
Eskimo
subfamily a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is also present. The Eskimo
Eskimo
sub-family consists of the Inuit
Inuit
language and Yupik language sub-groups.[30] The Sirenikski language, which is virtually extinct, is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family. Other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik
Yupik
branch.[30][31] Inuit
Inuit
languages comprise a dialect continuum, or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalakleet and Norton Sound
Norton Sound
in Alaska, across northern Alaska
Alaska
and Canada, and east to Greenland. Changes from western (Iñupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., kumlu, meaning "thumb", changes to kuvlu, changes to kublu,[32] changes to kulluk,[32] changes to kulluq[32]), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another.[31] Seward Peninsula dialects in western Alaska, where much of the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
culture has been in place for perhaps less than 500 years, are greatly affected by phonological influence from the Yupik
Yupik
languages. Eastern Greenlandic, at the opposite end of the Inuit
Inuit
range, has had significant word replacement due to a unique form of ritual name avoidance.[30][31] The four Yupik
Yupik
languages, by contrast, including Alutiiq
Alutiiq
(Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik, are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences. They demonstrate limited mutual intelligibility.[30] Additionally, both Alutiiq
Alutiiq
and Central Yup'ik
Yup'ik
have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik
Yupik
languages – Siberian Yupik and Naukan Yupik
Yupik
– are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik
Yupik
languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik
Yupik
and Inuit
Inuit
languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically. Differences of vocabulary between Inuit
Inuit
and any one of the Yupik
Yupik
languages are greater than between any two Yupik
Yupik
languages.[31] Even the dialectal differences within Alutiiq
Alutiiq
and Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Yup'ik
sometimes are relatively great for locations that are relatively close geographically.[31] The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo
Eskimo
language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik
Yupik
branch.[31]

Iñupiat
Iñupiat
woman, Alaska, circa 1907

An Inuit
Inuit
family, c.1917

An overview of the Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
languages family is given below:

Aleut

Aleut
Aleut
language

Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers) Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)

Eskimo
Eskimo
(Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit)

Yupik

Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Yup'ik
(10,000 speakers) Alutiiq
Alutiiq
or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik
Yup'ik
(400 speakers) Central Siberian Yupik
Yupik
or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers) Naukan (700 speakers)

Inuit
Inuit
or Inupik (75,000 speakers)

Iñupiaq (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers) Inuvialuktun
Inuvialuktun
(western Canada; together with Siglitun, Natsilingmiutut, Inuinnaqtun
Inuinnaqtun
and Uummarmiutun
Uummarmiutun
765 speakers) Inuktitut
Inuktitut
(eastern Canada; together with Inuktun
Inuktun
and Inuinnaqtun, 30,000 speakers) Kalaallisut
Kalaallisut
(Greenlandic (Greenland, 47,000 speakers)

Inuktun
Inuktun
(Avanersuarmiutut, Thule dialect or Polar Eskimo, approximately 1,000 speakers) Tunumiit
Tunumiit
oraasiat (East Greenlandic known as Tunumiisut, 3,500 speakers)

Sirenik Eskimo language
Sirenik Eskimo language
(Sirenikskiy) (extinct)

Inuit[edit]

Eskimo
Eskimo
( Yup'ik
Yup'ik
of Nelson Island) fisherman's summer house

Further information: Inuit
Inuit
and Lists of Inuit Not to be confused with the Innu, a First Nations
First Nations
people in eastern Quebec
Quebec
and Labrador.. The Inuit
Inuit
inhabit the Arctic
Arctic
and northern Bering Sea
Bering Sea
coasts of Alaska in the United States, and Arctic
Arctic
coasts of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, and Labrador
Labrador
in Canada, and Greenland
Greenland
(associated with Denmark). Until fairly recent times, there has been a remarkable homogeneity in the culture throughout this area, which traditionally relied on fish, marine mammals, and land animals for food, heat, light, clothing, and tools. They maintain a unique Inuit
Inuit
culture. Greenland's Inuit[edit] Main article: Greenlandic Inuit Greenlandic Inuit
Inuit
make up 90% of Greenland's population.[33] They belong to three major groups:

Kalaallit
Kalaallit
of west Greenland, who speak Kalaallisut Tunumiit
Tunumiit
of east Greenland, who speak Tunumiisut Inughuit
Inughuit
of north Greenland, who speak Inuktun
Inuktun
or Polar Eskimo.[25]

Inuit
Inuit
of Canada's Eastern Arctic[edit] Main article: Inuit Canadian Inuit
Inuit
live primarily in Nunavut
Nunavut
(a territory of Canada), Nunavik
Nunavik
(the northern part of Quebec) and in Nunatsiavut
Nunatsiavut
(the Inuit settlement region in Labrador). Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
of Canada's Western Arctic[edit]

An Iñupiat
Iñupiat
family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929

Main article: Inuvialuit The Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
live in the western Canadian Arctic
Arctic
region. Their homeland – the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Settlement Region – covers the Arctic Ocean coastline area from the Alaskan border east to Amundsen Gulf
Amundsen Gulf
and includes the western Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Islands. The land was demarked in 1984 by the Inuvialuit
Inuvialuit
Final Agreement. Alaska's Iñupiat[edit] Main article: Iñupiat The Iñupiat
Iñupiat
are the Inuit
Inuit
of Alaska's Northwest Arctic
Arctic
and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region, including the Seward Peninsula. Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States, is above the Arctic
Arctic
Circle and in the Iñupiat
Iñupiat
region. Their language is known as Iñupiaq.

Yupik[edit]

Alutiiq
Alutiiq
dancer during the biennial "Celebration" cultural event

Main article: Yupik The Yupik
Yupik
are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River
Kuskokwim River
(Central Alaskan Yup'ik); in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq); and along the eastern coast of Chukotka in the Russian Far East and St. Lawrence Island
St. Lawrence Island
in western Alaska
Alaska
(the Siberian Yupik). The Yupik
Yupik
economy has traditionally been strongly dominated by the harvest of marine mammals, especially seals, walrus, and whales.[34] Alutiiq[edit] Main article: Alutiiq The Alutiiq, also called Pacific Yupik
Yupik
or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Yupik. They are not to be confused with the Aleut, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands. They traditionally lived a coastal lifestyle, subsisting primarily on ocean resources such as salmon, halibut, and whales, as well as rich land resources such as berries and land mammals. Alutiiq people today live in coastal fishing communities, where they work in all aspects of the modern economy. They also maintain the cultural value of a subsistence lifestyle. The Alutiiq language is relatively close to that spoken by the Yupik in the Bethel, Alaska
Alaska
area. But, it is considered a distinct language with two major dialects: the Koniag dialect, spoken on the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island, and the Chugach dialect, spoken on the southern Kenai Peninsula
Kenai Peninsula
and in Prince William Sound. Residents of Nanwalek, located on southern part of the Kenai Peninsula
Kenai Peninsula
near Seldovia, speak what they call Sugpiaq. They are able to understand those who speak Yupik
Yupik
in Bethel. With a population of approximately 3,000, and the number of speakers in the hundreds, Alutiiq
Alutiiq
communities are working to revitalize their language.[citation needed] Central Alaskan Yup'ik[edit] Main article: Yup'ik Yup'ik, with an apostrophe, denotes the speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Yup'ik
language, who live in western Alaska
Alaska
and southwestern Alaska
Alaska
from southern Norton Sound
Norton Sound
to the north side of Bristol Bay, on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, and on Nelson Island. The use of the apostrophe in the name Yup'ik
Yup'ik
is a written convention to denote the long pronunciation of the p sound; but it is spoken the same in other Yupik
Yupik
languages. Of all the Alaska
Alaska
Native languages, Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Yup'ik
has the most speakers, with about 10,000 of a total Yup'ik population of 21,000 still speaking the language. The five dialects of Central Alaskan Yup'ik
Yup'ik
include General Central Yup'ik, and the Egegik, Norton Sound, Hooper Bay-Chevak, and Nunivak dialects. In the latter two dialects, both the language and the people are called Cup'ik.[35] Siberian Yupik[edit]

Siberian Yupik
Yupik
aboard the steamer Bowhead

Main article: Siberian Yupik Siberian Yupik
Yupik
reside along the Bering Sea
Bering Sea
coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia
Siberia
in the Russian Far East[31] and in the villages of Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island
St. Lawrence Island
in Alaska.[36] The Central Siberian Yupik
Yupik
spoken on the Chukchi Peninsula
Chukchi Peninsula
and on St. Lawrence Island is nearly identical. About 1,050 of a total Alaska population of 1,100 Siberian Yupik
Yupik
people in Alaska
Alaska
speak the language. It is the first language of the home for most St. Lawrence Island children. In Siberia, about 300 of a total of 900 Siberian Yupik
Yupik
people still learn and study the language, though it is no longer learned as a first language by children.[36] Naukan[edit] Main articles: Naukan people
Naukan people
and Naukan Yupik
Yupik
language About 70 of 400 Naukan people
Naukan people
still speak Naukanski. The Naukan originate on the Chukot Peninsula in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
in Siberia.[31] Sirenik Eskimos[edit]

Model of an Ice Scoop, Eskimo, 1900–1930, Brooklyn Museum

Main article: Sirenik Eskimos Some speakers of Siberian Yupik
Yupik
languages used to speak an Eskimo variant in the past, before they underwent a language shift. These former speakers of Sirenik Eskimo language
Sirenik Eskimo language
inhabited the settlements of Sireniki, Imtuk, and some small villages stretching to the west from Sireniki
Sireniki
along south-eastern coasts of Chukchi Peninsula.[37] They lived in neighborhoods with Siberian Yupik
Yupik
and Chukchi peoples. As early as in 1895, Imtuk was a settlement with a mixed population of Sirenik Eskimos and Ungazigmit[38] (the latter belonging to Siberian Yupik). Sirenik Eskimo
Eskimo
culture has been influenced by that of Chukchi, and the language shows Chukchi language
Chukchi language
influences.[39] Folktale motifs also show the influence of Chuckchi culture.[40] The above peculiarities of this (already extinct) Eskimo
Eskimo
language amounted to mutual unintelligibility even with its nearest language relatives:[41] in the past, Sirenik Eskimos had to use the unrelated Chukchi language
Chukchi language
as a lingua franca for communicating with Siberian Yupik.[39] Many words are formed from entirely different roots than in Siberian Yupik,[42] but even the grammar has several peculiarities distinct not only among Eskimo
Eskimo
languages, but even compared to Aleut. For example, dual number is not known in Sirenik Eskimo, while most Eskimo–Aleut languages have dual,[43] including its neighboring Siberian Yupikax relatives.[44] Little is known about the origin of this diversity. The peculiarities of this language may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo
Eskimo
groups,[45][46] and being in contact only with speakers of unrelated languages for many centuries. The influence of the Chukchi language
Chukchi language
is clear.[39] Because of all these factors, the classification of Sireniki
Sireniki
Eskimo language is not settled yet:[47] Sireniki
Sireniki
language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of Eskimo
Eskimo
(at least, its possibility is mentioned).[47][48][49] Sometimes it is regarded rather as a group belonging to the Yupik
Yupik
branch.[50][51] See also[edit]

Eskimology Blond Eskimos Disc number Eskimo
Eskimo
kinship Eskimo
Eskimo
kissing Eskimo
Eskimo
yo-yo Inuit
Inuit
religion Nanook of the North
Nanook of the North
documentary Kudlik Saqqaq culture Alaska
Alaska
Native religion

References[edit]

^ a b Pamela R. Stern (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Scarecrow Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8108-7912-6.  ^ a b Maurice Waite (2013). Pocket Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-19-966615-7. Some people regard the word Eskimo
Eskimo
as offensive, and the peoples inhabiting the regions of northern Canada
Canada
and parts of Greenland
Greenland
and Alaska
Alaska
prefer to call themselves Inuit  ^ a b c d e f Kaplan, Lawrence. " Inuit
Inuit
or Eskimo: Which name to use?" Alaskan Native Language Center, UFA. Retrieved 14 Feb 2015. ^ a b c Israel, Mark. "Eskimo". Alt-usage-english.org. Archived from the original on 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ Jan Svartvik; Geoffrey Leech (2016). English – One Tongue, Many Voices. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-137-16007-2. Today, the term “Eskimo” is viewed as the “non preferred term”. Some Inuit
Inuit
find the term offensive or derogatory.  ^ " Inuit
Inuit
or Eskimo? - Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center". Although the name "Eskimo" is commonly used in Alaska
Alaska
to refer to all Inuit
Inuit
and Yupik
Yupik
people of the world, this name is considered derogatory in many other places because it was given by non- Inuit
Inuit
people and was said to mean "eater of raw meat."  ^ "Obama signs measure to get rid of the word 'Eskimo' in federal laws". 24 May 2016.  ^ "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012.  ^ "Rights of the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada". Department of Justice Canada. Retrieved August 30, 2012.  ^ Houghton Mifflin Company (2005). The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 313. ISBN 0-618-60499-5.  ^ "Native American populations descend from three key migrations".  ^ Holton, Gary. "Place-naming strategies in Inuit- Yupik
Yupik
and Dene languages in Alaska.", Academia.edu, Retrieved 27 Jan 2014. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy," In Arctic, ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 5–7. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Cited in Campbell 1997 ^ Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America, pg. 394. New York: Oxford University Press ^ Mailhot, J. (1978). "L'étymologie de «Esquimau» revue et corrigée," Etudes Inuit/ Inuit
Inuit
Studies 2-2:59–70. ^ a b " Cree
Cree
Mailing List Digest November 1997". Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ Mailhot, Jose (1978). "L'etymologie de "esquimau" revue et corrigée". Etudes/Inuit/Studies. 2 (. 2).  ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 5 (Arctic). Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-0-16-004580-6.  ^ a b "Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?". Native-languages.org. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ a b "Eskimo". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000. Bartleby. Archived from the original on 2001-04-12.  ^ a b Pamela R. Stern. Historical Dictionary of the Inuit. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ a b Robert Peroni and Birgit Veith. "Ostgroenland-Hilfe Project". Ostgroenland-hilfe.de. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ Usage note, Inuit, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000 ^ Ohokak, G.; M. Kadlun; B. Harnum. Inuinnaqtun-English Dictionary. Kitikmeot Heritage Society.  ^ a b "Inuktitut, Greenlandic." Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 Aug 2012. ^ Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Council. (2006). Charter Archived March 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2007-04-06. ^ Inuit Circumpolar Council
Inuit Circumpolar Council
(2010). "On the use of the term Inuit
Inuit
in scientific and other circles" (PDF) (Resolution 2010-01).  ^ Grenoble, Lenore A. (2016). "Kalaallisut: The Language of Greenland". In Day, Delyn; Rewi, Poia; Higgins, Rawinia. The Journeys of Besieged Languages. Cambridge Scholars. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-4438-9943-7.  ^ Friesen, T. Max (2015). "On the Naming of Arctic
Arctic
Archaeological Traditions: The Case for Paleo-Inuit". Arctic. 68 (3): iii–iv. doi:10.14430/arctic4504 . hdl:10515/sy5sj1b75 .  ^ a b c d Michael Fortescue; Steven Jacobson; Lawance Kaplan. Comparative Eskimo
Eskimo
Dictionary with Aleut
Aleut
Cognates. Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center, University of Alaska
Alaska
Fairbanks.  ^ a b c d e f g h Kaplan, Lawrence. (2001-12-10). "Comparative Yupik and Inuit". Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on August 30, 2012. ^ a b c "thumb". Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-11-25.  ^ "Greenland." CIA World Factbook. Accessed 14 May 2014. ^ "Yupik". (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 13, 2008, from: Encyclopædia Britannica Online Retrieved August 30, 2012. ^ "Central Alaskan Yup'ik". Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center. University of Alaska
Alaska
Fairbanks. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-06.  ^ a b Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center. (2001-12-07).St. Lawrence Island Yupik
Yupik
(Siberian Yupik). Alaska
Alaska
Native Language Center, University of Alaska
Alaska
Fairbanks. Retrieved on August 30, 2012. ^ Vakhtin 1998: 162 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 7 ^ a b c Menovshchikov 1990: 70 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 132 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 6–7 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 42 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 38 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 81 ^ Меновщиков 1962: 11 ^ Меновщиков 1964: 9 ^ a b Vakhtin 1998: 161 ^ Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is “Н.Б. Вахтин Archived September 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.”. ^ Языки эскимосов. ICC Chukotka (in Russian). Inuit Circumpolar Council. Archived from the original on 2014-10-26.  ^ "Ethnologue Report for Eskimo–Aleut". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ Kaplan 1990: 136

Additional sources[edit]

Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1990). "The Language of the Alaskan Inuit" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis. Arctic
Arctic
Languages. An Awakening (PDF)format= requires url= (help). Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 131–158. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.  Menovshchikov, Georgy (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1990). "Contemporary Studies of the Eskimo– Aleut
Aleut
Languages and Dialects: A Progress Report" (PDF). In Dirmid R. F. Collis. Arctic
Arctic
Languages. An Awakening (PDF)format= requires url= (help). Vendôme: UNESCO. pp. 69–76. ISBN 92-3-102661-5.  Nuttall, Mark. Encyclopedia of the Arctic. New York: Routledge, 2005. ISBN 978-1-57958-436-8. Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik
Yupik
and other Languages of Chukotka" (PDF). In Erich Kasten. Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples’ Languages and Traditional Knowledge (PDF). Münster: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 159–173. ISBN 978-3-89325-651-8. 

Cyrillic[edit]

Меновщиков, Г. А. (1964). Язык сиреникских эскимосовref Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь. Москва • Ленинград,: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания.  The transliteration of Меновщиков 1964: 38 author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Menovshchikov, G. A. (1964). Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eskimo.

Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western arctic community. Conservation Ecology 5(2) Canadian Council on Learning, State of Inuit
Inuit
Learning in Canada Contemporary Food Sharing: A Case Study from Akulivik, PQ. Canada. Internet Sacred Text Archive: Inuit
Inuit
Religion Inuit
Inuit
Culture Inuit
Inuit
Exposure to Organochlorines through the Aquatic Food Chain. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(7) Inuit
Inuit
Women and Graphic Arts: Female Creativity and Its Cultural Context. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies 9(2) We the People: American Indians and Alaska
Alaska
Natives in the United States. Census 2000 Special
Special
Reports February 2006 University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Frank H. Nowell Photographs Photographs documenting scenery, towns, businesses, mining activities, Native Americans, and Eskimos in the vicinity of Nome, Alaska
Alaska
from 1901-1909. University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Alaska
Alaska
and Western Canada
Canada
Collection Images documenting Alaska
Alaska
and Western Canada, primarily Yukon and British Columbia, depicting scenes of the Gold Rush of 1898, city street scenes, Eskimo
Eskimo
and Native Americans of the region, hunting and fishing, and transportation. University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Arthur Churchill Warner Photographs Includes images of Eskimos from 1898-1900.

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