HOME
The Info List - Escherichia Coli



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i)

_ Bacillus coli communis_ Escherich 1885

_ESCHERICHIA COLI_ (/ˌɛʃᵻˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/ ; also known as _E. COLI_) is a gram-negative , facultatively anaerobic , rod-shaped , coliform bacterium of the genus _ Escherichia
Escherichia
_ that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most _E. coli_ strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination . The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut , and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 , and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria , having a symbiotic relationship. _E. coli_ is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

_E. coli_ and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut flora , and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination . A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent _E. coli_ which can survive for extended periods outside of a host.

The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. _E. coli_ is a chemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbon and energy. _E. coli_ is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism , and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology , where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA
DNA
. Under favorable conditions, it takes only 20 minutes to reproduce.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biology and biochemistry

* 1.1 Type and morphology * 1.2 Metabolism * 1.3 Culture growth * 1.4 Cell cycle * 1.5 Genetic adaptation

* 2 Diversity

* 2.1 Serotypes * 2.2 Genome
Genome
plasticity and evolution * 2.3 Neotype strain * 2.4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
of _E. coli_ strains

* 3 Genomics * 4 Gene nomenclature

* 5 Proteomics

* 5.1 Proteome * 5.2 Interactome

* 6 Normal microbiota

* 6.1 Therapeutic use

* 7 Role in disease

* 7.1 Incubation period * 7.2 Treatment * 7.3 Prevention * 7.4 Causes and risk factors

* 8 Model organism in life science research

* 8.1 Role in biotechnology * 8.2 Model organism

* 9 History * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading

* 13 External links

* 13.1 Databases * 13.2 General databases with _E. coli_-related information

BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

_ Model of successive binary fission in E. coli_ _ A colony of E. coli_ growing

TYPE AND MORPHOLOGY

_E. coli_ is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic (that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent) and nonsporulating bacterium. Cells are typically rod-shaped, and are about 2.0 μm long and 0.25–1.0 μm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6–0.7 μm3.

_E. coli_ stains Gram-negative because its cell wall is composed of a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane. During the staining process, _E. coli_ picks up the color of the counterstain safranin and stains pink. The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that _E. coli_ is not damaged by penicillin.

Strains that possess flagella are motile . The flagella have a peritrichous arrangement.

METABOLISM

_E. coli_ can live on a wide variety of substrates and uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate , succinate , ethanol , acetate , and carbon dioxide . Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when _E. coli_ lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria .

CULTURE GROWTH

Optimum growth of _E. coli_ occurs at 37 °C (98.6 °F), but some laboratory strains can multiply at temperatures up to 49 °C (120 °F). _E. coli_ grows in a variety of defined laboratory media, such as lysogeny broth , or any medium that contains glucose, ammonium phosphate, monobasic, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate, dibasic, and water. Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration , using a large variety of redox pairs , including the oxidation of pyruvic acid , formic acid , hydrogen , and amino acids , and the reduction of substrates such as oxygen , nitrate , fumarate , dimethyl sulfoxide , and trimethylamine N-oxide . _E. coli_ is classified as a facultative anaerobe. It uses oxygen when it is present and available. It can, however, continue to grow in the absence of oxygen using fermentation or anaerobic respiration. The ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen is an advantage to bacteria because their survival is increased in environments where water predominates.

CELL CYCLE

Main article: Cell cycle

The bacterial cell cycle is divided into three stages. The B period occurs between the completion of cell division and the beginning of DNA
DNA
replication. The C period encompasses the time it takes to replicate the chromosomal DNA. The D period refers to the stage between the conclusion of DNA
DNA
replication and the end of cell division. The doubling rate of _E. coli_ is higher when more nutrients are available. However, the length of the C and D periods do not change, even when the doubling time becomes less than the sum of the C and D periods. At the fastest growth rates, replication begins before the previous round of replication has completed, resulting in multiple replication forks along the DNA
DNA
and overlapping cell cycles.

Unlike eukaryotes, prokaryotes do not rely upon either changes in gene expression or changes in protein synthesis to control the cell cycle. This probably explains why they do not have similar proteins to those used by eukaryotes to control their cell cycle, such as cdk1 . This has led to research on what the control mechanism is in prokaryotes. Recent evidence suggests that it may be membrane- or lipid-based.

GENETIC ADAPTATION

_E. coli_ and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation or transduction , which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population. The process of transduction, which uses the bacterial virus called a bacteriophage , is where the spread of the gene encoding for the Shiga toxin from the _ Shigella
Shigella
_ bacteria to _E. coli_ helped produce _E. coli_ O157:H7 , the Shiga toxin-producing strain of _E. coli._

DIVERSITY

_ Scanning electron micrograph of an E. coli_ colony.

_E. coli_ encompasses an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a very high degree of both genetic and phenotypic diversity. Genome sequencing of a large number of isolates of _E. coli_ and related bacteria shows that a taxonomic reclassification would be desirable. However, this has not been done, largely due to its medical importance, and _E. coli_ remains one of the most diverse bacterial species: only 20% of the genes in a typical _E. coli_ genome is shared among all strains.

In fact, from the evolutionary point of view, the members of genus _Shigella_ (_S. dysenteriae_, _S. flexneri_, _S. boydii_, and _S. sonnei_) should be classified as _E. coli_ strains, a phenomenon termed taxa in disguise . Similarly, other strains of _E. coli_ (e.g. the K-12 strain commonly used in recombinant DNA
DNA
work) are sufficiently different that they would merit reclassification.

A strain is a subgroup within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other strains. These differences are often detectable only at the molecular level; however, they may result in changes to the physiology or lifecycle of the bacterium. For example, a strain may gain pathogenic capacity , the ability to use a unique carbon source, the ability to take upon a particular ecological niche , or the ability to resist antimicrobial agents. Different strains of _E. coli_ are often host-specific, making it possible to determine the source of fecal contamination in environmental samples. For example, knowing which _E. coli_ strains are present in a water sample allows researchers to make assumptions about whether the contamination originated from a human, another mammal , or a bird .

SEROTYPES

Main article: Pathogenic Escherichia coli § Serotypes

A common subdivision system of _E. coli_, but not based on evolutionary relatedness, is by serotype, which is based on major surface antigens (O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer; H: flagellin ; K antigen: capsule), e.g. O157:H7). It is, however, common to cite only the serogroup, i.e. the O-antigen. At present, about 190 serogroups are known. The common laboratory strain has a mutation that prevents the formation of an O-antigen and is thus not typeable.

GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION

Like all lifeforms, new strains of _E. coli_ evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation , gene duplication , and horizontal gene transfer ; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from _ Salmonella _. _E. coli_ K-12 and _E. coli_ B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. More virulent strains, such as O157:H7 , cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised .

The genera _ Escherichia
Escherichia
_ and _ Salmonella _ diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. This was followed by a split of an _Escherichia_ ancestor into five species (_E. albertii_, _E. coli_, _E. fergusonii_, _E. hermannii_, and _E. vulneris_). The last _E. coli_ ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.

The long-term evolution experiments using _E. coli_ , begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of major evolutionary shifts in the laboratory. In this experiment, one population of _E. coli_ unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate , which is extremely rare in _E. coli_. As the inability to grow aerobically is normally used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate _E. coli_ from other, closely related bacteria, such as _Salmonella_, this innovation may mark a speciation event observed in the laboratory.

NEOTYPE STRAIN

_E. coli_ is the type species of the genus (_Escherichia_) and in turn _Escherichia_ is the type genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae, where the family name does not stem from the genus _Enterobacter_ + "i" (sic.) + "aceae ", but from "enterobacterium" + "aceae" (enterobacterium being not a genus, but an alternative trivial name to enteric bacterium).

The original strain described by Escherich is believed to be lost, consequently a new type strain (neotype) was chosen as a representative: the neotype strain is U5/41T, also known under the deposit names DSM 30083 , ATCC 11775 , and NCTC 9001, which is pathogenic to chickens and has an O1:K1:H7 serotype. However, in most studies, either O157:H7, K-12 MG1655, or K-12 W3110 were used as a representative _E. coli_. The genome of the type strain has only lately been sequenced.

PHYLOGENY OF _E. COLI_ STRAINS

A large number of strains belonging to this species have been isolated and characterised. In addition to serotype (_vide supra_), they can be classified according to their phylogeny , i.e. the inferred evolutionary history, as shown below where the species is divided into six groups. Particularly the use of whole genome sequences yields highly supported phylogenies. Based on such data, five subspecies of _E. coli_ were distinguished.

The link between phylogenetic distance ("relatedness") and pathology is small, _e.g._ the O157:H7 serotype strains, which form a clade ("an exclusive group")—group E below—are all enterohaemorragic strains (EHEC), but not all EHEC strains are closely related. In fact, four different species of _Shigella_ are nested among _E. coli_ strains (_vide supra_), while _E. albertii_ and _E. fergusonii_ are outside of this group. Indeed, all _Shigella_ species were placed within a single subspecies of _E. coli_ in a phylogenomic study that included the type strain, and for this reason an according reclassification is difficult. All commonly used research strains of _E. coli_ belong to group A and are derived mainly from Clifton's K-12 strain (λ⁺ F⁺; O16) and to a lesser degree from d\'Herelle 's _ Bacillus coli _ strain (B strain)(O7).

_ Salmonella enterica _

_E. albertii_

_E. fergusonii_

Group B2

_E. coli_ SE15 (O150:H5. Commensal)

_E. coli_ E2348/69 (O127:H6. Enteropathogenic)

_E. coli_ ED1a O81 (Commensal)

_E. coli_CFT083 (O6:K2:H1. UPEC)

_E. coli_ APEC O1 (O1:K12:H7. APEC

_E. coli_ UTI89 O18:K1:H7. UPEC)

_E. coli_ S88 (O45:K1. Extracellular pathogenic)

_E. coli_ F11

_E. coli_ 536

Group D

_E. coli_ UMN026 (O17:K52:H18. Extracellular pathogenic)

_E. coli_ (O19:H34. Extracellular pathogenic)

_E. coli_ (O7:K1. Extracellular pathogenic)

group E

_E. coli_ EDL933 (O157:H7 EHEC)

_E. coli_ Sakai (O157:H7 EHEC)

_E. coli_ EC4115 (O157:H7 EHEC)

_E. coli_ TW14359 (O157:H7 EHEC)

Shigella

_ Shigella
Shigella
dysenteriae _

_ Shigella
Shigella
sonnei _

_ Shigella
Shigella
boydii _

_ Shigella
Shigella
flexneri _

Group B1

_E. coli_ E24377A (O139:H28. Enterotoxigenic)

_E. coli_ E110019

_E. coli_ 11368 (O26:H11. EHEC)

_E. coli_ 11128 (O111:H-. EHEC)

_E. coli_ IAI1 O8 (Commensal)

_E. coli_ 53638 (EIEC)

_E. coli_ SE11 (O152:H28. Commensal)

_E. coli_ B7A

_E. coli_ 12009 (O103:H2. EHEC)

_E. coli_ GOS1 (O104:H4 EAHEC) German 2011 outbreak

_E. coli_ E22

_E. coli_ Olso O103

_E. coli_ 55989 (O128:H2. Enteroaggressive)

Group A

_E. coli_ HS (O9:H4. Commensal)

_E. coli_ ATCC8739 (O146. Crook's E.coli used in phage work in the 1950s)

K-12 strain derivatives

_E. coli_ K-12 W3110 (O16. λ⁻ F⁻ "wild type" molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ K-12 DH10b (O16. high electrocompetency molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ K-12 DH1 (O16. high chemical competency molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ K-12 MG1655 (O16. λ⁻ F⁻ "wild type" molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ BW2952 (O16. competent molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ 101-1 (O? H?. EAEC)

B strain derivatives

_E. coli_ B REL606 (O7. high competency molecular biology strain)

_E. coli_ BL21-DE3 (O7. expression molecular biology strain with T7 polymerase for pET system)

GENOMICS

Early electron microscopy

The first complete DNA
DNA
sequence of an _E. coli_ genome (laboratory strain K-12 derivative MG1655) was published in 1997. It was found to be a circular DNA
DNA
molecule 4.6 million base pairs in length, containing 4288 annotated protein-coding genes (organized into 2584 operons ), seven ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons, and 86 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Despite having been the subject of intensive genetic analysis for about 40 years, a large number of these genes were previously unknown. The coding density was found to be very high, with a mean distance between genes of only 118 base pairs. The genome was observed to contain a significant number of transposable genetic elements , repeat elements, cryptic prophages , and bacteriophage remnants.

Today, several hundred complete genomic sequences of _Escherichia_ and _Shigella_ species are available. The genome sequence of the type strain of _E. coli_ has been added to this collection not before 2014. Comparison of these sequences shows a remarkable amount of diversity; only about 20% of each genome represents sequences present in every one of the isolates, while around 80% of each genome can vary among isolates. Each individual genome contains between 4,000 and 5,500 genes, but the total number of different genes among all of the sequenced _E. coli_ strains (the pangenome) exceeds 16,000. This very large variety of component genes has been interpreted to mean that two-thirds of the _E. coli_ pangenome originated in other species and arrived through the process of horizontal gene transfer.

GENE NOMENCLATURE

Genes in _E. coli_ are usually named by 4-letter acronyms that derive from their function (when known) and italicized. For instance, _recA_ is named after its role in homologous recombination plus the letter A. Functionally related genes are named _recB_, _recC_, _recD_ etc. The proteins are named by uppercase acronyms, e.g. RecA , RecB , etc. When the genome of _E. coli_ was sequenced, all genes were numbered (more or less) in their order on the genome and abbreviated by b numbers, such as b2819 (= _recD_). The "b" names were created after Fred Blattner, who led the genome sequence effort. Another numbering system was introduced with the sequence of another _E. coli_ strain, W3110, which was sequenced in Japan and hence uses numbers starting by JW... (Japanese W3110), e.g. JW2787 (= _recD_). Hence, _recD_ = b2819 = JW2787. Note, however, that most databases have their own numbering system, e.g. the EcoGene database uses EG10826 for _recD_. Finally, ECK numbers are specifically used for alleles in the MG1655 strain of _E. coli_ K-12. Complete lists of genes and their synonyms can be obtained from databases such as EcoGene or Uniprot .

PROTEOMICS

PROTEOME

Several studies have investigated the proteome of _E. coli_. By 2006, 1,627 (38%) of the 4,237 open reading frames (ORFs) had been identified experimentally.

INTERACTOME

The interactome of _E. coli_ has been studied by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (AP/MS) and by analyzing the binary interactions among its proteins.

PROTEIN COMPLEXES. A 2006 study purified 4,339 proteins from cultures of strain K-12 and found interacting partners for 2,667 proteins, many of which had unknown functions at the time. A 2009 study found 5,993 interactions between proteins of the same _E. coli_ strain, though these data showed little overlap with those of the 2006 publication.

BINARY INTERACTIONS. Rajagopala _et al._ (2014) have carried out systematic yeast two-hybrid screens with most _E. coli_ proteins, and found a total of 2,234 protein-protein interactions. This study also integrated genetic interactions and protein structures and mapped 458 interactions within 227 protein complexes .

NORMAL MICROBIOTA

_E. coli_ belongs to a group of bacteria informally known as coliforms that are found in the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals . _E. coli_ normally colonizes an infant's gastrointestinal tract within 40 hours of birth, arriving with food or water or from the individuals handling the child. In the bowel, _E. coli_ adheres to the mucus of the large intestine . It is the primary facultative anaerobe of the human gastrointestinal tract. (Facultative anaerobes are organisms that can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen.) As long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors , they remain benign commensals .

THERAPEUTIC USE

Nonpathogenic _E. coli_ strain Nissle 1917, also known as Mutaflor , and _E. coli_ O83:K24:H31 (known as Colinfant ) are used as probiotic agents in medicine, mainly for the treatment of various gastroenterological diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease .

ROLE IN DISEASE

Main article: Pathogenic Escherichia coli

Most _E. coli_ strains do not cause disease, but virulent strains can cause gastroenteritis , urinary tract infections , neonatal meningitis , hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohn\'s disease . Common signs and symptoms include severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, vomiting, and sometimes fever. In rarer cases, virulent strains are also responsible for bowel necrosis (tissue death) and perforation without progressing to hemolytic-uremic syndrome , peritonitis , mastitis , septicemia , and gram-negative pneumonia . Very young children are more susceptible to develop severe illness, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, however, healthy individuals of all ages are at risk to the severe consequences that may arise as a result of being infected with _E. coli_.

There is one strain, _E. coli_ 0157:H7, that produces the Shiga toxin (classified as a bioterrorism agent). This toxin causes premature destruction of the red blood cells, which then clog the body's filtering system, the kidneys, causing hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Signs of hemolytic uremic syndrome, include decreased frequency of urination, lethargy, and paleness of cheeks and inside the lower eyelids. In 25% of HUS patients, complications of nervous system occur, which in turn causes strokes due to small clots of blood which lodge in capillaries in the brain. This causes the body parts controlled by this region of the brain not to work properly. In addition, this strain causes the buildup of fluid (since the kidneys do not work), leading to edema around the lungs and legs and arms. This increase in fluid buildup especially around the lungs impedes the functioning of the heart, causing an increase in blood pressure.

Uropathogenic _E. coli_ (UPEC) is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections . It is part of the normal flora in the gut and can be introduced in many ways. In particular for females, the direction of wiping after defecation (wiping back to front) can lead to fecal contamination of the urogenital orifices. Anal intercourse can also introduce this bacterium into the male urethra, and in switching from anal to vaginal intercourse, the male can also introduce UPEC to the female urogenital system. For more information, see the databases at the end of the article or UPEC pathogenicity .

In May 2011, one _E. coli_ strain, O104:H4 , was the subject of a bacterial outbreak that began in Germany
Germany
. Certain strains of _E. coli_ are a major cause of foodborne illness . The outbreak started when several people in Germany
Germany
were infected with enterohemorrhagic _E. coli_ (EHEC) bacteria, leading to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), a medical emergency that requires urgent treatment. The outbreak did not only concern Germany, but also 11 other countries, including regions in North America. On 30 June 2011, the German _Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR)_ (Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, a federal institute within the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection ) announced that seeds of fenugreek from Egypt
Egypt
were likely the cause of the EHEC outbreak.

INCUBATION PERIOD

The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the "incubation period". The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

TREATMENT

The mainstay of treatment is the assessment of dehydration and replacement of fluid and electrolytes. Administration of antibiotics has been shown to shorten the course of illness and duration of excretion of enterotoxigenic _E. coli_ (ETEC) in adults in endemic areas and in traveller's diarrhea, though the rate of resistance to commonly used antibiotics is increasing and they are generally not recommended. The antibiotic used depends upon susceptibility patterns in the particular geographical region. Currently, the antibiotics of choice are fluoroquinolones or azithromycin , with an emerging role for rifaximin . Oral rifaximin , a semisynthetic rifamycin derivative, is an effective and well-tolerated antibacterial for the management of adults with non-invasive traveller's diarrhea. Rifaximin was significantly more effective than placebo and no less effective than ciprofloxacin in reducing the duration of diarrhea. While rifaximin is effective in patients with _E. coli_-predominant traveller's diarrhea, it appears ineffective in patients infected with inflammatory or invasive enteropathogens .

PREVENTION

ETEC is the type of _E. coli_ that most vaccine development efforts are focused on. Antibodies against the LT and major CFs of ETEC provide protection against LT-producing, ETEC-expressing homologous CFs. Oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e. the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)-WC cholera vaccine Dukoral, have been developed. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, though several are in various stages of development. In different trials, the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine provided high (85–100%) short-term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine candidate consisting of rCTB and formalin inactivated _E. coli_ bacteria expressing major CFs has been shown in clinical trials to be safe, immunogenic, and effective against severe diarrhoea in American travelers but not against ETEC diarrhoea in young children in Egypt
Egypt
. A modified ETEC vaccine consisting of recombinant _E. coli_ strains over-expressing the major CFs and a more LT-like hybrid toxoid called LCTBA, are undergoing clinical testing.

Other proven prevention methods for _E. coli_ transmission include handwashing and improved sanitation and drinking water, as transmission occurs through fecal contamination of food and water supplies. Additionally, thoroughly cooking meat and avoiding consumption of raw, unpasteurized beverages, such as juices and milk are other proven methods for preventing E.coli. Lastly, avoid cross-contamination of utensils and work spaces when preparing food.

CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS

* Working around livestock * Consuming unpasteurized dairy product * Eating undercooked meat * Drinking impure water

MODEL ORGANISM IN LIFE SCIENCE RESEARCH

Main article: Escherichia coli (molecular biology)

ROLE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Because of its long history of laboratory culture and ease of manipulation, _E. coli_ plays an important role in modern biological engineering and industrial microbiology . The work of Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in _E. coli_, using plasmids and restriction enzymes to create recombinant DNA
DNA
, became a foundation of biotechnology.

_E. coli_ is a very versatile host for the production of heterologous proteins , and various protein expression systems have been developed which allow the production of recombinant proteins in _E. coli_. Researchers can introduce genes into the microbes using plasmids which permit high level expression of protein, and such protein may be mass-produced in industrial fermentation processes. One of the first useful applications of recombinant DNA
DNA
technology was the manipulation of _E. coli_ to produce human insulin .

Many proteins previously thought difficult or impossible to be expressed in _E. coli_ in folded form have been successfully expressed in _E. coli_. For example, proteins with multiple disulphide bonds may be produced in the periplasmic space or in the cytoplasm of mutants rendered sufficiently oxidizing to allow disulphide-bonds to form, while proteins requiring post-translational modification such as glycosylation for stability or function have been expressed using the N-linked glycosylation system of _ Campylobacter jejuni _ engineered into _E. coli_.

Modified _E. coli_ cells have been used in vaccine development, bioremediation , production of biofuels , lighting, and production of immobilised enzymes .

K-12 is a mutant form of E-coli that over-expresses the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) . The mutation arises due to a defect in the gene that constantly codes for the enzyme. A gene that is producing a product without any inhibition is said to have constitutive activity . This particular mutant form is used to isolate and purify the aforementioned enzyme.

MODEL ORGANISM

_E. coli_ is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology studies. Cultivated strains (e.g. _E. coli_ K12) are well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and, unlike wild-type strains, have lost their ability to thrive in the intestine. Many laboratory strains lose their ability to form biofilms . These features protect wild-type strains from antibodies and other chemical attacks, but require a large expenditure of energy and material resources.

In 1946, Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum first described the phenomenon known as bacterial conjugation using _E. coli_ as a model bacterium, and it remains the primary model to study conjugation. _E. coli_ was an integral part of the first experiments to understand phage genetics, and early researchers, such as Seymour Benzer , used _E. coli_ and phage T4 to understand the topography of gene structure. Prior to Benzer's research, it was not known whether the gene was a linear structure, or if it had a branching pattern.

_E. coli_ was one of the first organisms to have its genome sequenced; the complete genome of _E. coli_ K12 was published by _Science_ in 1997.

By evaluating the possible combination of nanotechnologies with landscape ecology , complex habitat landscapes can be generated with details at the nanoscale. On such synthetic ecosystems, evolutionary experiments with _E. coli_ have been performed to study the spatial biophysics of adaptation in an island biogeography on-chip.

Studies are also being performed attempting to program _E. coli_ to solve complicated mathematics problems, such as the Hamiltonian path problem .

HISTORY

In 1885, the German-Austrian pediatrician Theodor Escherich discovered this organism in the feces of healthy individuals. He called it _Bacterium coli commune_ because it is found in the colon. Early classifications of prokaryotes placed these in a handful of genera based on their shape and motility (at that time Ernst Haeckel 's classification of bacteria in the kingdom Monera was in place).

_Bacterium coli_ was the type species of the now invalid genus _Bacterium_ when it was revealed that the former type species ("_Bacterium triloculare_") was missing. Following a revision of _Bacterium_, it was reclassified as _Bacillus coli_ by Migula in 1895 and later reclassified in the newly created genus _ Escherichia
Escherichia
_, named after its original discoverer.

SEE ALSO

* Bacteriological water analysis * Contamination control * Dam dcm strain * Eijkman test * Enterotoxigenic _ Escherichia
Escherichia
coli_ * Fecal coliform * International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria
Bacteria
* List of bacterial genera named after personal names * List of strains of _ Escherichia
Escherichia
coli_ * Mannan oligosaccharide-based nutritional supplements * T4 rII system

REFERENCES

* ^ "coli". _ Oxford English Dictionary _ (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press . September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) * ^ Tenaillon, Olivier; Skurnik, David; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick (2010-03-01). "The population genetics of commensal Escherichia coli". _Nature Reviews Microbiology_. 8 (3): 207–217. ISSN 1740-1526 . doi :10.1038/nrmicro2298 . * ^ Singleton P (1999). _ Bacteria
Bacteria
in Biology, Biotechnology
Biotechnology
and Medicine_ (5th ed.). Wiley. pp. 444–454. ISBN 0-471-98880-4 . * ^ "_ Escherichia
Escherichia
coli_". _CDC National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases_. Retrieved 2012-10-02. * ^ Vogt RL, Dippold L (2005). " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with consumption of ground beef, June-July 2002" . _Public Health Reports_. 120 (2): 174–8. PMC 1497708  _. PMID 15842119 . * ^ Bentley R, Meganathan R (Sep 1982). "Biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) in bacteria". Microbiological Reviews_. 46 (3): 241–80. PMC 281544  _. PMID 6127606 . * ^ Hudault S, Guignot J, Servin AL (Jul 2001). " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli strains colonising the gastrointestinal tract protect germfree mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection" . Gut_. 49 (1): 47–55. PMC 1728375  _. PMID 11413110 . doi :10.1136/gut.49.1.47 . * ^ Reid G, Howard J, Gan BS (Sep 2001). "Can bacterial interference prevent infection?". Trends in Microbiology_. 9 (9): 424–428. PMID 11553454 . doi :10.1016/S0966-842X(01)02132-1 . * ^ Russell JB, Jarvis GN (2001). "Practical mechanisms for interrupting the oral-fecal lifecycle of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli". _Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology_. 3 (2): 265–72. PMID 11321582 . * ^ Eckburg PB, Bik EM, Bernstein CN, Purdom E, Dethlefsen L, Sargent M, Gill SR, Nelson KE, Relman DA (Jun 2005). "Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora" . _Science_. 308 (5728): 1635–8. Bibcode :2005Sci...308.1635E. PMC 1395357  _. PMID 15831718 . doi :10.1126/science.1110591 . * ^ A_ _B_ Feng P; Weagant S; Grant, M (2002-09-01). "Enumeration of _ Escherichia
Escherichia
coli_ and the Coliform Bacteria". _Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed.)_. FDA/Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition. Retrieved 2007-01-25. * ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson, Andrea (2007-06-04). "E. coli Thrives in Beach Sands". Live Science. Retrieved 2007-12-03. * ^ Ishii S, Sadowsky MJ (2008). " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli in the Environment: Implications for Water Quality and Human Health". _Microbes and Environments / JSME_. 23 (2): 101–8. PMID 21558695 . doi :10.1264/jsme2.23.101 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tortora, Gerard (2010). _Microbiology: An Introduction_. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 85–87, 161, 165,. ISBN 0-321-55007-2 . * ^ "Bacteria". Microbiologyonline. Retrieved 27 February 2014. * ^ "E.Coli". Redorbit. Retrieved 27 November 2013. * ^ "Facts about E. coli: dimensions, as discussed in bacteria: Diversity of structure of bacteria: – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25. * ^ Yu AC, Loo JF, Yu S, Kong SK, Chan TF (2014). "Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique". _Appl Microbiol Biotechnol_. 98 (2): 855–862. PMID 24287933 . doi :10.1007/s00253-013-5377-9 . * ^ Kubitschek HE (Jan 1990). "Cell volume increase in Escherichia coli after shifts to richer media". _Journal of Bacteriology_. 172 (1): 94–101. PMC 208405  _. PMID 2403552 . * ^ Darnton NC, Turner L, Rojevsky S, Berg HC (Mar 2007). "On torque and tumbling in swimming Escherichia
Escherichia
coli" . Journal of Bacteriology_. 189 (5): 1756–64. PMC 1855780  _. PMID 17189361 . doi :10.1128/JB.01501-06 . * ^ Madigan MT, Martinko JM (2006). Brock Biology of microorganisms_ (11th ed.). Pearson. ISBN 0-13-196893-9 . * ^ Fotadar U, Zaveloff P, Terracio L (2005). "Growth of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli at elevated temperatures". _Journal of Basic Microbiology_. 45 (5): 403–4. PMID 16187264 . doi :10.1002/jobm.200410542 . * ^ Ingledew WJ, Poole RK (Sep 1984). "The respiratory chains of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli" . _Microbiological Reviews_. 48 (3): 222–71. PMC 373010  _. PMID 6387427 . * ^ Wang JD, Levin PA (2009). "Metabolism, cell growth and the bacterial cell cycle" . Nature Reviews. Microbiology_. 7 (11): 822–7. PMC 2887316  _. PMID 19806155 . doi :10.1038/nrmicro2202 . * ^ Cooper S, Helmstetter CE (1968). "Chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli B/r". Journal of Molecular Biology_. 31 (3): 519–40. PMID 4866337 . doi :10.1016/0022-2836(68)90425-7 . * ^ Arends SR, Weiss DS (February 2004). "Inhibiting Cell Division in Escherichia
Escherichia
coli Has Little If Any Effect on Gene Expression" . _J. Bacteriol_. 186 (3): 880–884. PMC 321490  _. PMID 14729718 . doi :10.1128/JB.186.3.880-884.2004 . * ^ Rueda S, Vicente M, Mingorance J (June 2003). "Concentration and Assembly of the Division Ring Proteins FtsZ, FtsA, and ZipA during the Escherichia
Escherichia
coli Cell Cycle" . J. Bacteriol_. 185 (11): 3344–3351. PMC 155373  _. PMID 12754232 . doi :10.1128/JB.185.11.3344-3351.2003 . * ^ Furse S, Wienk H, Boelens R, de Kroon AI, Killian JA (August 2015). "E. coli MG1655 modulates its phospholipid composition through the cell cycle". FEBS Lett_. 589 (19PartB): 2726–2730. PMID 26272829 . doi :10.1016/j.febslet.2015.07.043 . * ^ Brüssow H, Canchaya C, Hardt WD (Sep 2004). "Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion". _ Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR_. 68 (3): 560–602. PMC 515249  _. PMID 15353570 . doi :10.1128/MMBR.68.3.560-602.2004 . * ^ Krieg, N. R.; Holt, J. G., eds. (1984). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology_. 1 (First ed.). Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co. pp. 408–420. ISBN 0-683-04108-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lukjancenko O, Wassenaar TM, Ussery DW (Nov 2010). "Comparison of 61 sequenced Escherichia
Escherichia
coli genomes" . _Microbial Ecology_. 60 (4): 708–20. PMC 2974192  _. PMID 20623278 . doi :10.1007/s00248-010-9717-3 . * ^ Lan R, Reeves PR (Sep 2002). " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella". Microbes and Infection
Infection
/ Institut Pasteur_. 4 (11): 1125–32. PMID 12361912 . doi :10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01637-4 . * ^ Orskov I, Orskov F, Jann B, Jann K (Sep 1977). "Serology, chemistry, and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli" . _Bacteriological Reviews_. 41 (3): 667–710. PMC 414020  _. PMID 334154 . * ^ Stenutz R, Weintraub A, Widmalm G (May 2006). "The structures of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli O-polysaccharide antigens". FEMS Microbiology Reviews_. 30 (3): 382–403. PMID 16594963 . doi :10.1111/j.1574-6976.2006.00016.x * ^ Lawrence JG, Ochman H (Aug 1998). "Molecular archaeology of the Escherichia
Escherichia
coli genome" . _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America_. 95 (16): 9413–7. Bibcode :1998PNAS...95.9413L. PMC 21352  _. PMID 9689094 . doi :10.1073/pnas.95.16.9413 . * ^ A_ _B_ Nataro JP, Kaper JB (Jan 1998). "Diarrheagenic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli" . _Clinical Microbiology Reviews_. 11 (1): 142–201. PMC 121379  _. PMID 9457432 . * ^ Viljanen MK, Peltola T, Junnila SY, Olkkonen L, Järvinen H, Kuistila M, Huovinen P (Oct 1990). "Outbreak of diarrhoea due to Escherichia
Escherichia
coli O111:B4 in schoolchildren and adults: association of Vi antigen-like reactivity". Lancet_. 336 (8719): 831–4. PMID 1976876 . doi :10.1016/0140-6736(90)92337-H . * ^ Battistuzzi FU, Feijao A, Hedges SB (Nov 2004). "A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land" . _BMC Evolutionary Biology_. 4: 44. PMC 533871  _. PMID 15535883 . doi :10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 . * ^ Lecointre G, Rachdi L, Darlu P, Denamur E (Dec 1998). " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli molecular phylogeny using the incongruence length difference test". Molecular Biology and Evolution_. 15 (12): 1685–95. PMID 9866203 . doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025895 .

* ^ Bacteria
Bacteria
make major evolutionary shift in the lab _New Scientist_ * ^ _A_ _B_ Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (July 26, 2005) . George M. Garrity, ed. _The Gammaproteobacteria_. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2B (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 1108. ISBN 978-0-387-24144-9 . British Library no. GBA561951. * ^ Discussion of nomenclature of Enterobacteriaceae
Enterobacteriaceae
entry in LPSN * ^ International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy 8:73–74 (1958) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Meier-Kolthoff JP, Hahnke RL, Petersen JP, Scheuner CS, Michael VM, Fiebig AF, Rohde CR, Rohde MR, Fartmann BF, Goodwin LA, Chertkov OC, Reddy TR, Pati AP, Ivanova NN, Markowitz VM, Kyrpides NC, Woyke TW, Klenk HP, Göker M (2013). "Complete genome sequence of DSM 30083T, the type strain (U5/41T) of _Escherichia coli_, and a proposal for delineating subspecies in microbial taxonomy". _Standards in Genomic Sciences_. 9: 2. doi :10.1186/1944-3277-9-2 . * ^ "Details: DSM-30083". _dsmz.de_. Retrieved 10 January 2017. * ^ " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC ® 11775&tra". _atcc.org_. Retrieved 10 January 2017. * ^ "Escherichia". bacterio.cict.fr. * ^ " Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (Migula 1895) Castellani and Chalmers 1919". _JCM Catalogue_. * ^ Sims GE, Kim SH (May 2011). "Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli/ Shigella
Shigella
group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)" . _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America_. 108 (20): 8329–34. PMC 3100984  _. PMID 21536867 . doi :10.1073/pnas.1105168108 . * ^ Brzuszkiewicz E, Thürmer A, Schuldes J, Leimbach A, Liesegang H, Meyer FD, Boelter J, Petersen H, Gottschalk G, Daniel R (Dec 2011). " Genome
Genome
sequence analyses of two isolates from the recent Escherichia coli outbreak in Germany
Germany
reveal the emergence of a new pathotype: Entero-Aggregative-Haemorrhagic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (EAHEC)" . Archives of Microbiology_. 193 (12): 883–91. PMC 3219860  _. PMID 21713444 . doi :10.1007/s00203-011-0725-6 . * ^ A_ _B_ Blattner FR, Plunkett G, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ, Mau B, Shao Y (Sep 1997). "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli K-12". _Science_. 277 (5331): 1453–62. PMID 9278503 . doi :10.1126/science.277.5331.1453 . * ^ Zhaxybayeva O, Doolittle WF (Apr 2011). "Lateral gene transfer". _Current Biology_. 21 (7): R242–6. PMID 21481756 . doi :10.1016/j.cub.2011.01.045 . * ^ Blattner FR, Plunkett G, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD, Rode CK, Mayhew GF, Gregor J, Davis NW, Kirkpatrick HA, Goeden MA, Rose DJ, Mau B, Shao Y (Sep 1997). "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli K-12". _Science_. 277 (5331): 1453–1462. PMID 9278503 . doi :10.1126/science.277.5331.1453 . * ^ Hayashi K, Morooka N, Yamamoto Y, Fujita K, Isono K, Choi S, Ohtsubo E, Baba T, Wanner BL, Mori H, Horiuchi T (2006). "Highly accurate genome sequences of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli K-12 strains MG1655 and W3110" . _Molecular Systems Biology_. 2: 2006.0007. PMC 1681481  _. PMID 16738553 . doi :10.1038/msb4100049 . * ^ A_ _B_ Zhou J, Rudd KE (Jan 2013). "EcoGene 3.0" . _Nucleic Acids Research_. 41 (Database issue): D613–24. PMC 3531124  _. PMID 23197660 . doi :10.1093/nar/gks1235 . * ^ Han MJ, Lee SY (Jun 2006). "The Escherichia
Escherichia
coli proteome: past, present, and future prospects" . Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR_. 70 (2): 362–439. PMC 1489533  _. PMID 16760308 . doi :10.1128/MMBR.00036-05 . * ^ Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (May 2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli K-12" . Genome
Genome
Research_. 16 (5): 686–91. PMC 1457052  _. PMID 16606699 . doi :10.1101/gr.4527806 . * ^ Hu P, Janga SC, Babu M, Díaz-Mejía JJ, Butland G, Yang W, Pogoutse O, Guo X, Phanse S, Wong P, Chandran S, Christopoulos C, Nazarians-Armavil A, Nasseri NK, Musso G, Ali M, Nazemof N, Eroukova V, Golshani A, Paccanaro A, Greenblatt JF, Moreno-Hagelsieb G, Emili A (Apr 2009). Levchenko A, ed. "Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins" . PLoS Biology_. 7 (4): e96. PMC 2672614  _. PMID 19402753 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.1000096 . * ^ Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Häuser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (Mar 2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli". Nature Biotechnology_. 32 (3): 285–90. PMID 24561554 . doi :10.1038/nbt.2831 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Todar, K. "Pathogenic _E. coli_". _Online Textbook of Bacteriology_. University of Wisconsin–Madison Department of Bacteriology. Retrieved 2007-11-30. * ^ Evans Jr., Doyle J.; Dolores G. Evans. " Escherichia
Escherichia
Coli". _Medical Microbiology, 4th edition_. The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-12-02. * ^ Lodinová-Zádníková R, Cukrowska B, Tlaskalova-Hogenova H (Jul 2003). "Oral administration of probiotic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli after birth reduces frequency of allergies and repeated infections later in life (after 10 and 20 years)". _International Archives of Allergy and Immunology_. 131 (3): 209–11. PMID 12876412 . doi :10.1159/000071488 . * ^ Grozdanov L, Raasch C, Schulze J, Sonnenborn U, Gottschalk G, Hacker J, Dobrindt U (Aug 2004). "Analysis of the genome structure of the nonpathogenic probiotic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli strain Nissle 1917" . _Journal of Bacteriology_. 186 (16): 5432–41. PMC 490877  _. PMID 15292145 . doi :10.1128/JB.186.16.5432-5441.2004 . * ^ Kamada N, Inoue N, Hisamatsu T, Okamoto S, Matsuoka K, Sato T, Chinen H, Hong KS, Yamada T, Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Watanabe N, Tsuchimoto K, Hibi T (May 2005). "Nonpathogenic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli strain Nissle1917 prevents murine acute and chronic colitis". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases_. 11 (5): 455–63. PMID 15867585 . doi :10.1097/01.MIB.0000158158.55955.de . * ^ "E. coli - Mayo Clinic". _mayoclinic.org_. Retrieved 10 January 2017. * ^ Lim, Ji Youn; Yoon, Jang W.; Hovde, Carolyn J. (20 April 2017). "A Brief Overview of Escherichia
Escherichia
coli O157:H7 and Its Plasmid O157". _J Microbiol Biotechnol_. 20 (1): 5–14. PMC 3645889  _. PMID 20134227 – via PubMed Central. * ^ A_ _B_ "E. coli". * ^ _A_ _B_ "E. coli Infection". * ^ "E. Coli Food Poisoning." About. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . * ^ "Lung Congestion." TheFreeDictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . * ^ "Pulmonary Edema: Get the Facts on Treatment and Symptoms." MedicineNet. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . * ^ Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 03 July 2013. Web. 13 Dec. 2014. . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Uropathogenic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli: The Pre-Eminent Urinary Tract Infection
Infection
Pathogen". Nova publishers. Retrieved 27 November 2013. * ^ "Samen von Bockshornklee mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit für EHEC O104:H4 Ausbruch verantwortlich _in English: Fenugreek seeds with high probability for EHEC O104: H4 responsible outbreak_" (PDF) (in German). Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR) _in English: Federal Institute for Risk Assessment_. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. * ^ "General Information E.coli CDC". _www.cdc.gov_. Retrieved 2017-04-19. * ^ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)". Retrieved 2016-07-21. * ^ Al-Abri SS, Beeching NJ, Nye FJ (June 2005). "Traveller's diarrhoea". _The Lancet Infectious Diseases_. 5 (6): 349–360. PMID 15919621 . doi :10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70139-0 . * ^ Bourgeois, A. Louis; Wierzba, Thomas F; Walker, Richard I (2016). "Status of vaccine research and development for enterotoxigenic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli". _Vaccine_. 34 (26): 2880–2886. PMID 26988259 . doi :10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.076 . * ^ Svennerholm AM (Feb 2011). "From cholera to enterotoxigenic Escherichia
Escherichia
coli (ETEC) vaccine development" . _The Indian Journal of Medical Research_. 133: 188–96. PMC 3089050  _. PMID 21415493 . * ^ A_ _B_ Farrar J, Hotez P, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo D, White NJ, eds. (2013). _Manson's Tropical Diseases_ (23rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 9780702053061 . * ^ "General Information- E.coli". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Retrieved 25 May 2017. * ^ Lee SY (Mar 1996). "High cell-density culture of Escherichia coli". _Trends in Biotechnology_. 14 (3): 98–105. PMID 8867291 . doi :10.1016/0167-7799(96)80930-9 . * ^ Russo E (Jan 2003). "The birth of biotechnology". _Nature_. 421 (6921): 456–457. Bibcode :2003Natur.421..456R. PMID 12540923 . doi :10.1038/nj6921-456a . * ^ _A_ _B_ Cornelis P (Oct 2000). "Expressing genes in different Escherichia
Escherichia
coli compartments". _Current Opinion in Biotechnology_. 11 (5): 450–454. PMID 11024362 . doi :10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00131-2 . * ^ Tof, Ilanit (1994). " Recombinant DNA Technology in the Synthesis of Human Insulin". Little Tree Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 2007-11-30. * ^ Bessette PH, Aslund F, Beckwith J, Georgiou G (Nov 1999). "Efficient folding of proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the Escherichia
Escherichia
coli cytoplasm" . _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America_. 96 (24): 13703–8. Bibcode :1999PNAS...9613703B. PMC 24128  _. PMID 10570136 . doi :10.1073/pnas.96.24.13703 . * ^ Ihssen J, Kowarik M, Dilettoso S, Tanner C, Wacker M, Thöny-Meyer L (2010). "Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia
Escherichia
coli" . Microbial Cell Factories_. 9 (61): 494–7. PMC 2927510  _. PMID 20701771 . doi :10.1186/1475-2859-9-61 . * ^ Wacker M, Linton D, Hitchen PG, Nita-Lazar M, Haslam SM, North SJ, Panico M, Morris HR, Dell A, Wren BW, Aebi M (Nov 2002). "N-linked glycosylation in Campylobacter jejuni and its functional transfer into E. coli". Science_. 298 (5599): 1790–1793. PMID 12459590 . doi :10.1126/science.298.5599.1790 . * ^ Huang CJ, Lin H, Yang X (Mar 2012). "Industrial production of recombinant therapeutics in Escherichia
Escherichia
coli and its recent advancements". _Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology_. 39 (3): 383–99. PMID 22252444 . doi :10.1007/s10295-011-1082-9 . * ^ Summers, Rebecca (24 April 2013) Bacteria
Bacteria
churn out first ever petrol-like biofuel New Scientist, Retrieved 27 April 2013 * ^ Nic Halverson (August 15, 2013). "Bacteria-Powered Light Bulb Is Electricity-Free". * ^ _A_ _B_ Ninfa, Alexander J.; Ballou, David P. (2009). _Fundamental Laboratory Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology_. Wiley. p. 230. ISBN 978-0470087664 . * ^ Fux CA, Shirtliff M, Stoodley P, Costerton JW (Feb 2005). "Can laboratory reference strains mirror "real-world" pathogenesis?". _Trends in Microbiology_. 13 (2): 58–63. PMID 15680764 . doi :10.1016/j.tim.2004.11.001 . * ^ Vidal O, Longin R, Prigent-Combaret C, Dorel C, Hooreman M, Lejeune P (May 1998). "Isolation of an Escherichia
Escherichia
coli K-12 mutant strain able to form biofilms on inert surfaces: involvement of a new ompR allele that increases curli expression" . _Journal of Bacteriology_. 180 (9): 2442–9. PMC 107187  _. PMID 9573197 . * ^ Lederberg, Joshua; E.L. Tatum