About 130, see text
* Chirocalyx Meisn.
* Corallodendron Kuntze
* Duchassaingia Walp.
* Erythina (lapsus )
* Hypaphorus Hassk.
* Micropteryx Walp.
* Tetradapa Osbeck
Erythrina flabelliformis -
ERYTHRINA /ˌɛrᵻˈθraɪnə/ is a genus of flowering plants in
the pea family,
Fabaceae . It contains about 130 species , which are
distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. They are
trees , growing up to 30 m (98 ft) in height. The generic name is
derived from the Greek word ερυθρóς (erythros), meaning "red,"
referring to the flower color of certain species.
Particularly in horticulture , the name CORAL TREE is used as a
collective term for these plants. "FLAME TREE " is another vernacular
name, but may refer to a number of unrelated plants as well. Many
Erythrina have bright red flowers, and this may be the
origin of the common name. However, the growth of the branches can
resemble the shape of sea coral rather than the color of Corallium
rubrum specifically, and this is an alternative source for the name.
Other popular names, usually local and particular to distinct species,
liken the flowers' red hues to those of a male chicken 's wattles ,
and/or the flower shape to its leg spurs. Commonly seen Spanish names
for any local species are BUCARé, FREJOLILLO or POROTILLO, and in
Afrikaans some are called KAFFERBOOM. MULLUMURIKKU is a widespread
* 1 Description and ecology
* 2 Use by humans
* 3 Selected species
* 3.1 Formerly placed here
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 External links
DESCRIPTION AND ECOLOGY
Asian pied starling
Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra) feeding on Indian coral
tree (E. variegata ) flowers in
Kolkata , India.
Not all species of
Erythrina have bright red flowers; the Wiliwili
(E. sandwicensis) has extraordinary variation in its flower colour,
with orange, yellow, salmon, green and white all being found within
natural populations. This striking color polymorphism is also found in
Erythrina lysistemon and
Erythrina caffra .
All species except the sterile hybrids E. × sykesii and E. ×
bidwillii have legume -type fruit, sometimes called pods, containing
one or more seeds. The resilient buoyant seeds are often carried by
the sea for large distances and are commonly called "sea beans ".
Erythrina leaves are used as food plants by the larvae of some
Lepidoptera species including the swift moth
Endoclita damor and the
Hypercompe eridanus and
Hypercompe icasia . The mite
Tydeus munsteri is a pest on the coastal coral tree (E. caffra ).
Many birds visit the nectar -rich
Erythrina flowers. In the
Neotropics , these are usually larger hummingbirds , for example the
swallow-tailed hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura) and the
black-throated (Anthracothorax nigricollis) and green-breasted mangos
(A. prevostii) – though they seem not to be especially fond of E.
speciosa at least, which they visit rather opportunistically. In
Southeast Asia , the black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) which usually
does not eat nectar in quantity has been observed feeding on E.
suberosa flowers, and mynas and of course more specialized nectar
feeders also utilize coral tree flowers. Lorikeets such as the
collared lory (Phigys solitarius) and the possibly extinct New
Caledonian lorikeet (Charmosyna diadema) are known to consume (or have
consumed) large amounts of
USE BY HUMANS
Some coral trees are used widely in the tropics and subtropics as
street and park trees, especially in drier areas. In some places, such
Venezuela , bucarés are used as shade trees for coffee or cocoa
crops. In the
Bengal region, they are used for the same purpose in
Schumannianthus dichotoma plantations. E. lanceolata in particular is
considered highly suitable as "frame" tree for vanilla vines to grow
The conspicuous, even dramatic coral trees are widely used as floral
emblems . cockspur coral tree (E. crista-galli ) is the national
Uruguay . The coastal coral tree (E. caffra )
is the official city tree of
Los Angeles ,
California , where it is
referred to simply as the "coral tree". The state trees of Mérida
and Trujillo in
Venezuela are bucaré ceibo (E. poeppigiana ) and
purple coral tree (bucaré anauco, E. fusca ), respectively. Yonabaru,
Okinawa as well as the
Okinawa Prefecture and Pathum Thani Province
have the Indian coral tree (E. variegata ) as floral emblems. Known as
thong lang in
Thailand , the latter species is also one of the thong
("trees") referred to in the name of Amphoe Chom Thong, Chiang Mai
Province . In a similar vein,
Mexico derives its name
Nahuatl tzompahuacá, "place of the
Erythrina americana ". In
Vietnam , people use the leaves of E. variegata to wrap nem (a kind of
Hinduism , the mandara tree in
Indra 's garden in
Svarga is held
to be E. stricta . The same motif is found in
Tibetan Buddhism , where
the man da ra ba growing in
Sukhavati is identified as an Indian coral
tree (E. variegata). The concept of the
Five Trees of
Paradise is also
found in Christian
Gnosticism . Though as none of the trees is
identified as an
Erythrina here, the concept might not be as directly
related to the Asian religions as some presume.
tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid from
Erythrina mulungu , studied for
possible anxiolytic properties.
The seeds of at least one-third of the species contain potent
erythrina alkaloids , and some of these are used for medicinal and
other purposes by indigenous peoples. They are all toxic to some
degree, however, and the seeds of some can cause fatal poisoning. The
chemical compounds found in plants in this genus include alkaloids
such as scoulerine , erysodin , erysovin (namely in E. flabelliformis
), and the putative anxiolytic erythravine (isolated from Mulungu , E.
Except for ornamental purposes, growing, selling or possessing
Erythrina is prohibited by
Louisiana State Act 159 (where the genus is
Erythrina abyssinica in flower,
Erythrina speciosa inflorescences ,
Erythrina ×sykesii in flower,
Auckland , New Zealand
Erythrina species 'Croftby',
Lam. ex DC. (
East Africa )
Erythrina americana Mill. – Colorín, Tzompāmitl (
Erythrina ankaranensis Du Puy & Labat (
Erythrina atitlanensis Krukoff & Barneby
Erythrina berteroana Urb.
Erythrina burana Chiov. (
Erythrina caffra Thunb. – Coastal coral tree (Southeastern
Erythrina corallodendron L. (
Erythrina coralloides D.C. – Flame coral tree, naked coral tree
Arizona in the
United States ,
Erythrina crista-galli L. – Cockspur coral tree, ceibo, seíbo,
Erythrina decora Harms
Erythrina edulis Micheli – Basul (
Erythrina eggersii Krukoff & Moldenke – Cock's-spur, espuela de
gallo, piñón espinoso (
United States Virgin Islands ,
Puerto Rico )
Erythrina elenae Howard & Briggs (
Erythrina euodiphylla Hassk. ex Backh. (
Erythrina falcata Benth. – Brazilian coral tree (Brazil)
Erythrina flabelliformis Kearney
Erythrina fusca Lour. – Purple coral tree, bois immortelle,
bucaré anauco, bucayo, gallito (
Erythrina haerdii Verdc. (
Erythrina hazomboay Du Puy & Labat (
Erythrina herbacea L. –
Coral bean, Cherokee bean, red cardinal,
cardinal spear (Southeastern
United States , Northeastern
Erythrina humeana Spreng. – Natal coral tree, dwarf coral tree,
dwarf kaffirboom, dwarf erythrina (South Africa)
Erythrina lanceolata Standl.
Erythrina latissima E.Mey.
Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. – Common coral tree, Transvaal
kaffirboom, lucky bean tree (
South Africa )
Erythrina madagascariensis Du Puy & Labat (
Erythrina megistophylla (
Erythrina mexicana (
Erythrina mulungu Diels Mart. – Mulungu (Brazil)
Erythrina perrieri R.Viguier (Madagascar)
Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp. ) O.F.Cook – bucare ceibo
Erythrina polychaeta Harms (
Erythrina rubrinervia Kunth
Erythrina sacleuxii Hua (
Kenya , Tanzania)
Erythrina sandwicensis O.Deg. –
Erythrina schimpffii Diels (
Erythrina schliebenii Harms – Lake Latumba
to be extinct since 1938, but some individuals, believed to be less
than fifty, were recently rediscovered in forest remnants on rocky
sites in coastal
Tanzania (reported in the UK Guardian newspaper 23
March 2012, from a report in the Journal of East African Natural
Erythrina senegalensis DC.
Erythrina speciosa Andrews (
Erythrina stricta Roxb. – Mandara (
Southeast Asia )
Erythrina suberosa Roxb.
Erythrina tahitensis Nadeaud (
Erythrina tuxtlana Krukoff & Barneby (Mexico)
Erythrina variegata L. – Indian coral tree, tiger's claw,
sunshine tree, roluos tree (Cambodia), deigo (Okinawa), drala (Fiji),
madar (Bangladesh), man da ra ba (Tibet), thong lang (Thailand), vông
Erythrina velutina Willd. (
South America , Galápagos
Erythrina vespertilio Benth. – Bat's wing coral tree, grey
corkwood, "bean tree" (
Erythrina zeyheri Harv. – Ploughbreaker
HORTICULTURAL HYBRIDS :
Erythrina ×bidwillii Lindl.
Erythrina ×sykesii Barneby ">
* ^ "
Erythrina L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved
* ^ "Genus:
Erythrina L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network.
United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-01. Retrieved
* ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
* ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4 ed.). Cambridge
University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-521-86645-3 .
* ^ Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science
and Technology for International Development, Commission on
International Relations, National Research Council (1979). Tropical
Legumes: Resources for the Future. National Academy of Sciences. p.
258. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ "Zompantle o colorín (
Erythrina americana Miller)". Tratado de
Medicina Tradicional Mexicana Tomo II: Bases Teóricas, Clínica Y
Terapéutica. Tlahui (20). 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
* ^ Karttunen, Frances (1992). An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl.
University of Oklahoma Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-8061-2421-6 .
* ^ "GRIN
Species Records of Erythrina". Germplasm Resources
United States Department of Agriculture.
* List of species of
Erythrina from LegumeWeb
* Photo gallery