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About 130, see text

Synonyms[2]

Chirocalyx Meisn. Corallodendron Kuntze Duchassaingia Walp. Erythina (lapsus) Hypaphorus Hassk. Micropteryx Walp. Tetradapa Osbeck

Erythrina flabelliformis - MHNT

Erythrina
Erythrina
/ˌɛrɪˈθraɪnə/[3] is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. It contains about 130 species, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. They are trees, growing up to 30 m (98 ft) in height. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ερυθρóς (erythros), meaning "red," referring to the flower color of certain species.[4]

Contents

1 Names 2 Description and ecology 3 Use by humans 4 Selected species

4.1 Formerly placed here

5 Legal status

5.1 United States

5.1.1 Louisiana

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Names[edit] Particularly in horticulture, the name coral tree is used as a collective term for these plants. Flame tree is another vernacular name, but may refer to a number of unrelated plants as well. Many species of Erythrina
Erythrina
have bright red flowers, and this may be the origin of the common name. However, the growth of the branches can resemble the shape of sea coral rather than the color of Corallium rubrum specifically, and this is an alternative source for the name. Other popular names, usually local and particular to distinct species, liken the flowers' red hues to those of a male chicken's wattles, and/or the flower shape to its leg spurs. Commonly seen Spanish names for any local species are bucaré, frejolillo or porotillo, and in Afrikaans
Afrikaans
some are called kafferboom(from the species name Erythrina caffra). Mullumurikku is a widespread name in Kerala. Description and ecology[edit]

Asian pied starling
Asian pied starling
(Gracupica contra) feeding on Indian coral tree (E. variegata) flowers in Kolkata, India.

Not all species of Erythrina
Erythrina
have bright red flowers; the Wiliwili
Wiliwili
(E. sandwicensis) has extraordinary variation in its flower colour, with orange, yellow, salmon, green and white all being found within natural populations. This striking color polymorphism is also found in Erythrina lysistemon
Erythrina lysistemon
and Erythrina
Erythrina
caffra. All species except the sterile hybrids E. × sykesii and E. × bidwillii have legume-type fruit, sometimes called pods, containing one or more seeds. The resilient buoyant seeds are often carried by the sea for large distances and are commonly called "sea beans". Erythrina
Erythrina
leaves are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species including the swift moth Endoclita
Endoclita
damor and the woolly bears Hypercompe eridanus and Hypercompe icasia. The mite Tydeus munsteri is a pest on the coastal coral tree (E. caffra). Many birds visit the nectar-rich Erythrina
Erythrina
flowers. In the Neotropics, these are usually larger hummingbirds, for example the swallow-tailed hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura) and the black-throated (Anthracothorax nigricollis) and green-breasted mangos (A. prevostii) – though they seem not to be especially fond of E. speciosa at least, which they visit rather opportunistically. In Southeast Asia, the black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) which usually does not eat nectar in quantity has been observed feeding on E. suberosa flowers, and mynas and of course more specialized nectar feeders also utilize coral tree flowers. Lorikeets such as the collared lory (Phigys solitarius) and the possibly extinct New Caledonian lorikeet (Charmosyna diadema) are known to consume (or have consumed) large amounts of Erythrina
Erythrina
nectar. Use by humans[edit] Some coral trees are used widely in the tropics and subtropics as street and park trees, especially in drier areas. In some places, such as Venezuela, bucarés are used as shade trees for coffee or cocoa crops. In the Bengal
Bengal
region, they are used for the same purpose in Schumannianthus dichotoma
Schumannianthus dichotoma
plantations. E. lanceolata in particular is considered highly suitable as "frame" tree for vanilla vines to grow up on. The conspicuous, even dramatic coral trees are widely used as floral emblems. cockspur coral tree (E. crista-galli) is the national flower of Argentina
Argentina
and Uruguay. The coastal coral tree (E. caffra) is the official city tree of Los Angeles, California, where it is referred to simply as the "coral tree".[5] The state trees of Mérida and Trujillo in Venezuela
Venezuela
are bucaré ceibo (E. poeppigiana) and purple coral tree (bucaré anauco, E. fusca), respectively. Yonabaru, Okinawa
Yonabaru, Okinawa
as well as the Okinawa Prefecture
Okinawa Prefecture
and Pathum Thani Province have the Indian coral tree (E. variegata) as floral emblems. Known as thong lang in Thailand, the latter species is also one of the thong ("trees") referred to in the name of Amphoe Chom Thong, Chiang Mai Province. In a similar vein, Zumpahuacán
Zumpahuacán
in Mexico
Mexico
derives its name from Nahuatl tzompahuacá, "place of the Erythrina
Erythrina
americana". In Vietnam, people use the leaves of E. variegata to wrap nem (a kind of fermented pork). In Hinduism, the mandara tree in Indra's garden in Svarga
Svarga
is held to be E. stricta. The same motif is found in Tibetan Buddhism, where the man da ra ba growing in Sukhavati
Sukhavati
is identified as an Indian coral tree (E. variegata). The concept of the Five Trees of Paradise
Paradise
is also found in Christian Gnosticism. Though as none of the trees is identified as an Erythrina
Erythrina
here, the concept might not be as directly related to the Asian religions as some presume.

Erythravine
Erythravine
is tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid from Erythrina
Erythrina
mulungu, studied for possible anxiolytic properties.

The seeds of at least one-third of the species contain potent erythrina alkaloids, and some of these are used for medicinal and other purposes by indigenous peoples.[citation needed] They are all toxic to some degree, however, and the seeds of some can cause fatal poisoning.[citation needed] The chemical compounds found in plants in this genus include alkaloids such as scoulerine, erysodin, erysovin (namely in E. flabelliformis), and the putative anxiolytic erythravine (isolated from Mulungu, E. mulungu). Selected species[edit]

Erythrina abyssinica
Erythrina abyssinica
in flower, Funchal
Funchal
(Madeira)

Erythrina speciosa
Erythrina speciosa
inflorescences, Brazil

Erythrina zeyheri
Erythrina zeyheri
leaflets

Erythrina
Erythrina
×sykesii in flower, Auckland, New Zealand

Bark of Erythrina
Erythrina
species 'Croftby', Australia

Erythrina abyssinica
Erythrina abyssinica
Lam.
Lam.
ex DC. (East Africa) Erythrina americana
Erythrina americana
Mill. – Colorín,[6] Tzompāmitl[7] (Mexico) Erythrina ankaranensis
Erythrina ankaranensis
Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar) Erythrina
Erythrina
atitlanensis Krukoff & Barneby Erythrina
Erythrina
berteroana Urb. Erythrina burana
Erythrina burana
Chiov. (Ethiopia) Erythrina caffra
Erythrina caffra
Thunb. – Coastal coral tree (Southeastern Africa) Erythrina
Erythrina
corallodendron L. (Hispaniola, Jamaica) Erythrina coralloides
Erythrina coralloides
D.C. – Flame coral tree, naked coral tree ( Arizona
Arizona
in the United States, Mexico) Erythrina crista-galli
Erythrina crista-galli
L. – Cockspur coral tree, ceibo, seíbo, bucaré (Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Paraguay) Erythrina
Erythrina
decora Harms Erythrina edulis
Erythrina edulis
Micheli – Basul (Andes) Erythrina eggersii
Erythrina eggersii
Krukoff & Moldenke – Cock's-spur, espuela de gallo, piñón espinoso ( United States
United States
Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico) Erythrina elenae
Erythrina elenae
Howard & Briggs (Cuba) Erythrina euodiphylla
Erythrina euodiphylla
Hassk. ex Backh. (Indonesia) Erythrina falcata
Erythrina falcata
Benth. – Brazilian coral tree (Brazil) Erythrina flabelliformis Kearney Erythrina fusca
Erythrina fusca
Lour. – Purple coral tree, bois immortelle, bucaré anauco, bucayo, gallito (Pantropical) Erythrina haerdii
Erythrina haerdii
Verdc. (Tanzania) Erythrina hazomboay
Erythrina hazomboay
Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar) Erythrina herbacea
Erythrina herbacea
L. – Coral
Coral
bean, Cherokee bean, red cardinal, cardinal spear (Southeastern United States, Northeastern Mexico) Erythrina humeana
Erythrina humeana
Spreng. – Natal coral tree, dwarf coral tree, dwarf kaffirboom, dwarf erythrina (South Africa) Erythrina
Erythrina
lanceolata Standl. Erythrina latissima
Erythrina latissima
E.Mey. Erythrina lysistemon
Erythrina lysistemon
Hutch. – Common coral tree, Transvaal kaffirboom, lucky bean tree (South Africa) Erythrina madagascariensis
Erythrina madagascariensis
Du Puy & Labat (Madagascar) Erythrina megistophylla
Erythrina megistophylla
(Ecuador) Erythrina
Erythrina
mexicana (Mexico) Erythrina mulungu
Erythrina mulungu
Diels Mart. – Mulungu (Brazil) Erythrina perrieri
Erythrina perrieri
R.Viguier (Madagascar) Erythrina
Erythrina
poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F.Cook – bucare ceibo Erythrina polychaeta
Erythrina polychaeta
Harms (Ecuador) Erythrina
Erythrina
rubrinervia Kunth Erythrina sacleuxii
Erythrina sacleuxii
Hua (Kenya, Tanzania) Erythrina
Erythrina
sandwicensis O.Deg. – Wiliwili
Wiliwili
(Hawaii) Erythrina schimpffii
Erythrina schimpffii
Diels (Ecuador) Erythrina schliebenii
Erythrina schliebenii
Harms – Lake Latumba Erythrina
Erythrina
(Thought to be extinct since 1938, but some individuals, believed to be less than fifty, were recently rediscovered in forest remnants on rocky sites in coastal Tanzania
Tanzania
(reported in the UK Guardian newspaper 23 March 2012, from a report in the Journal of East African Natural History.) Erythrina
Erythrina
senegalensis DC. Erythrina speciosa
Erythrina speciosa
Andrews (Brazil) Erythrina
Erythrina
stricta Roxb. – Mandara (Southeast Asia) Erythrina
Erythrina
suberosa Roxb. Erythrina tahitensis
Erythrina tahitensis
Nadeaud (Tahiti) Erythrina
Erythrina
tholloniana Erythrina tuxtlana
Erythrina tuxtlana
Krukoff & Barneby (Mexico) Erythrina variegata
Erythrina variegata
L. – Indian coral tree, tiger's claw, sunshine tree, roluos tree (Cambodia), deigo (Okinawa), drala (Fiji), madar (Bangladesh), man da ra ba (Tibet), thong lang (Thailand), vông nem (Vietnam) Erythrina velutina
Erythrina velutina
Willd. (Caribbean, South America, Galápagos Islands) Erythrina vespertilio
Erythrina vespertilio
Benth. – Bat's wing coral tree, grey corkwood, "bean tree" (Australia) Erythrina zeyheri
Erythrina zeyheri
Harv. – Ploughbreaker

Horticultural hybrids:

Erythrina ×bidwillii
Erythrina ×bidwillii
Lindl. Erythrina
Erythrina
×sykesii Barneby & Krukoff

Formerly placed here[edit]

Butea monosperma
Butea monosperma
(Lam.) Taub. (as E. monosperma Lam.) Piscidia piscipula
Piscidia piscipula
(L.) Sarg (as E. piscipula L.)[8]

Legal status[edit] United States[edit] Louisiana[edit] Except for ornamental purposes, growing, selling or possessing Erythrina
Erythrina
spp. is prohibited by Louisiana State Act 159 (where the genus is misspelled Erythina). See also[edit]

Mandarava Psychedelic plants Victor A. Reko

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erythrina.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Erythrina

^ " Erythrina
Erythrina
L". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-24.  ^ "Genus: Erythrina
Erythrina
L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States
United States
Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-01. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 ^ Gledhill, D. (2008). The Names of Plants (4th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-521-86645-3.  ^ Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, National Research Council (1979). Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. National Academy of Sciences. p. 258.  ^ "Zompantle o colorín ( Erythrina americana
Erythrina americana
Miller)". Tratado de Medicina Tradicional Mexicana Tomo II: Bases Teóricas, Clínica Y Terapéutica. Tlahui (20). 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-24.  ^ Karttunen, Frances (1992). An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-8061-2421-6.  ^ "GRIN Species
Species
Records of Erythrina". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States
United States
Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2010-10-15. 

External links[edit]

List of species of Erythrina
Erythrina
from LegumeWeb Photo gallery - coral tree ( Erythrina
Erythrina
lysistemon) University of Florida−UF Featured Creatures: Moths of Erythrina plants — from the UF Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1340386 APDB: 190626 EoL: 28507 EPPO: 1ERZG FloraBase: 22429 FoC: 112153 Fossilworks: 256956 GBIF: 2945830 GRIN: 4442 IPNI: 30007957-2 ITIS: 26675 NCBI: 3841 PLANTS: ERYTH

.