Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (German: [ˈɛɐ̯nst ˈʁøːm]; 28
November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and
an early member of the Nazi Party. As one of the members of its
predecessor, the German Workers' Party, he was a close friend and
early ally of
Adolf Hitler and a co-founder of the
"Storm Battalion"), the Nazi Party's militia, and later was its
commander. By 1934, the German Army feared the SA's influence and
Hitler had come to see Röhm as a potential rival, so he was executed
during the Night of the Long Knives.
1 Early career
2.1 Second revolution
4 Decorations and awards
5 See also
7 External links
Ernst Röhm was born in Munich, the youngest of three children—he
had an elder sister and brother—of Emilie and Julius Röhm. His
father Julius, a railway official, was described as strict, but once
he realized that his son responded better without exhortation, allowed
him significant freedom to pursue his interests. Although
the family had no military tradition, Röhm entered the Royal Bavarian
10th Infantry Regiment Prinz Ludwig at
Ingolstadt as a cadet on 23
July 1906 and was commissioned on 12 March 1908.
At the outbreak of
World War I
World War I in August 1914, he was adjutant of the
1st Battalion, 10th Infantry Regiment König. The following month, he
was seriously wounded in the face at Chanot Wood in
carried the scars for the rest of his life. He was promoted
to first lieutenant (Oberleutnant) in April 1915. During an
attack on the fortification at Thiaumont, Verdun, on 23 June 1916, he
sustained a serious chest wound and spent the remainder of the war in
Romania as a staff officer. He was awarded the
Iron Cross First Class before being wounded at Verdun, and was
promoted to captain (Hauptmann) in April 1917.
Among his comrades, Röhm was considered a "fanatical, simple-minded
swashbuckler" who frequently displayed contempt for danger.
In his memoirs, Röhm reported that during the autumn of 1918, he
contracted the deadly Spanish influenza and was not expected to live,
but that he recovered after a lengthy convalescence.
Following the armistice on 11 November 1918 that ended the war, Röhm
continued his military career as a captain in the
Reichswehr. He was one of the senior members in Colonel von
Freikorps für den Grenzschutz Ost ("Bavarian Free
Corps for Border Patrol East"), formed in
Ohrdruf in April 1919, which
finally overturned the
Munich Soviet Republic by force of arms on 3
May 1919. In 1919 he joined the
German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party (DAP), which the
following year became the National Socialist German Workers Party
(NSDAP). Not long afterward he met Adolf Hitler, and they
became political allies and close friends. Röhm resigned
or retired from the
Reichswehr on 26 September 1923.
Throughout the early 1920s, Röhm remained an important intermediary
between Germany's right-wing paramilitary organizations and the
Reichswehr. Additionally, it was Röhm who persuaded his
former army commander, Colonel von Epp, to join the Nazis, an
important development since Epp helped raise the sixty-thousand marks
needed to purchase the Nazi periodical, the Völkischer
Nazi Party held its "German Day" celebration at Nuremberg
during early September 1923, it was Röhm who helped bring together
some 100,000 participants drawn from right-wing militant groups,
veteran's associations, and other paramilitary formations—which
included the Bund Oberland, Reichskriegsflagge, the SA, and the
Kampfbund—all of them subordinate to
Hitler as "political leader" of
the collective alliance.
Röhm led the Reichskriegsflagge militia at the time of the Munich
Beer Hall Putsch.[a] He rented the cavernous main hall of the
Löwenbräukeller, supposedly for a reunion and festive comradeship.
Hitler and his entourage were at the
Bürgerbräukeller. It was here that Röhm planned to
announce the revolution and use the units at his disposal to obtain
weapons from secret caches with which to occupy crucial points in the
centre of the city. When the call came, he announced to
those assembled in the
Löwenbräukeller that the Kahr government had
been deposed and
Hitler had declared a "national revolution" which
elicited wild cheering. Röhm then led his force of nearly 2,000 men
to the War Ministry, which they occupied for sixteen
hours.[b] Once in control of the
Röhm awaited news, barricaded inside. The subsequent
march into the city center led by Hitler, Hermann Göring, and General
Erich Ludendorff with banners flying high, was ostensibly undertaken
to "free" Röhm and his forces.
While crowds cheered—whipped into a frenzy by Strasser—shouting
Heil, the armed ragtag assembly wearing red swastika armbands
Hitler and company encountered blue-uniformed Bavarian
State Police, who were prepared to counter the Putsch.
Around the time the marchers reached the
Feldherrnhalle near the city
center, shots rang out, scattering the participants. Before the
exchange of gunfire ended, there were fourteen dead Nazis lying in the
street and four policemen; the putsch had failed and the Nazis' first
bid for power had lasted less than twenty-four hours.
Defendants in the
Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch trial. From left to right:
Pernet, Weber, Frick, Kriebel, Ludendorff, Hitler, Bruckner, Röhm,
Following the failed
Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch of 9 November 1923, Röhm,
Hitler, General Ludendorff, Lieutenant Colonel
Hermann Kriebel and six
others were tried in February 1924 for high treason. Röhm was found
guilty and sentenced to fifteen months in prison, but the sentence was
suspended and he was placed on probation.
Hitler was found
guilty and sentenced to five years' imprisonment, but served only nine
Landsberg Prison (under permissively lenient conditions),
during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf
In April 1924, Röhm became a Reichstag deputy for the völkisch
(racial-national) National Socialist Freedom Party. He
made only one speech, urging the release of Lieutenant Colonel
Kriebel. The seats won by his party were much reduced in the December
1924 election, and his name was too far down the list to return him to
the Reichstag. While
Hitler was in prison, Röhm helped to create the
Frontbann as a legal alternative to the then-outlawed Sturmabteilung
Hitler did not fully support the ambitious plans that Röhm had
for this organization, which proved problematic.
distrustful of these paramilitary organizations because competing
groups like the Bund Wiking, the Bund Bayern und Reich, and the
Blücherbund were all vying for membership and he realized from the
failed putsch that these groups could not be legitimized so long as
the police and Reichwehr stayed loyal to the government.
When in April 1925
Hitler and Ludendorff disapproved of the proposals
under which Röhm was prepared to integrate the 30,000-strong
Frontbann into the SA, Röhm resigned from all political groups and
military brigades on 1 May 1925. He felt great contempt for the
"legalistic" path the party leaders wanted to follow and sought
seclusion from public life. In 1928, he accepted a post in
Bolivia as adviser to the Bolivian Army, where he was given the rank
of lieutenant colonel. In the autumn of 1930, Röhm received a
telephone call from
Hitler requesting his return to
Röhm with Hitler, August 1933
In September 1930, as a consequence of the
Stennes Revolt in Berlin,
Hitler assumed supreme command of the SA as its new Oberster
SA-Führer. He sent a personal request to Röhm, asking him to return
to serve as the SA's Chief of Staff. Röhm accepted this offer and
began his new assignment on 5 January 1931. He brought
radical new ideas to the SA, and appointed several close friends to
its senior leadership. Previously, the SA formations were subordinate
Nazi Party leadership of each Gau. Röhm established new
Gruppe, which had no regional
Nazi Party oversight. Each Gruppe
extended over several regions and was commanded by a SA-Gruppenführer
who answered only to Röhm or Hitler.
The SA by this time numbered over a million members. Their initial
assignment of protecting Nazi leaders at rallies and assemblies was
taken over by the
Schutzstaffel (SS) in relation to the top
leaders. The SA did continue its street
battles against the communist, forces of rival political parties and
violent actions against Jews and others deemed hostile to the Nazi
Under Röhm, the SA often took the side of workers in strikes and
other labor disputes, attacking strikebreakers and supporting picket
lines. SA intimidation contributed to the rise of the Nazis and the
violent suppression of right-wing parties during electoral campaigns,
but its reputation for street violence and heavy drinking was a
hindrance, as was the open homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders
such as his deputy Edmund Heines. In June 1931, the
Münchener Post, a Social Democratic newspaper, began attacking Röhm
and the SA regarding homosexuality in its ranks and then in March
1932, the paper obtained and published some private letters of his
that left no doubt about his homosexuality; these letters were
confiscated by the Berlin police back in 1931 and subsequently passed
along to the journalist Helmuth Klotz.
Hitler was aware of Röhm's homosexuality. Their friendship shows in
that Röhm remained one of the few intimates allowed to use the
familiar German du (the German familiar form of "you") when conversing
with Hitler. In turn, Röhm was the only Nazi leader who
dared to address
Hitler by his first name "Adolf" or his nickname
"Adi" rather than "mein Führer".Their close association
led to rumors that
Hitler himself was homosexual. Unlike
many of the Nazi paladins, Röhm never fell victim to Hitler's
"arresting personality" nor did he come fully under his spell, which
made him unique in the Nazi hierarchy.
Hitler rose to national power with his appointment as chancellor in
January 1933, SA members were appointed auxiliary police and ordered
by Göring to sweep aside "all enemies of the state".
Röhm and the SA regarded themselves as the vanguard of the "National
Socialist revolution". After Hitler's national takeover they expected
radical changes in Germany, including power and rewards for
themselves, unaware that, as Chancellor,
Hitler no longer needed their
street-fighting capabilities. Nevertheless,
name Röhm to the cabinet as a minister without portfolio.
Along with other members of the more radical faction within the Nazi
Party, Röhm advocated a "second revolution" that was overtly
anti-capitalist in its general disposition. These radicals
rejected exploitative capitalism and they intended to take steps to
curb monopolies and promoted the nationalization of land and
industry. Such plans were threatening to the business
community in general, and to Hitler's corporate financial backers in
particular—including many German industrial leaders he would rely
upon for arms production—so to keep from alienating them Hitler
swiftly reassured his powerful industrial allies that there would be
no such revolution as espoused by these Party radicals.
With Orpo Chief
Kurt Daluege and SS Chief Heinrich Himmler, in
Many SA "storm troopers" had working-class origins and longed for a
radical transformation of German society. They were
disappointed by the new regime's lack of socialistic direction and its
failure to provide the lavish patronage they had expected.
Furthermore, Röhm and his SA colleagues thought of their force as the
core of the future German Army, and saw themselves as replacing the
Reichswehr and its established professional officer corps.
By then, the SA had swollen to over three million men, dwarfing the
Reichswehr, which was limited to 100,000 men by the Treaty of
Versailles. Although Röhm had been a member of the officer corps, he
viewed them as "old fogies" who lacked "revolutionary spirit". He
believed that the
Reichswehr should be merged into the SA to form a
true "people's army" under his command, a pronouncement that caused
significant consternation within the army's hierarchy and convinced
them that the SA was a serious threat. At a February 1934
cabinet meeting, Röhm then demanded that the merge be made, under his
leadership as Minister of Defence.
Ernst Röhm in Bavaria in 1934
This horrified the army, with its traditions going back to Frederick
the Great. The army officer corps viewed the SA as an "undisciplined
mob" of "brawling" street thugs, and was also concerned by the
pervasiveness of "corrupt morals" within the ranks of the SA. Reports
of a huge cache of weapons in the hands of SA members caused
additional concern to the army leadership. Unsurprisingly,
the officer corps opposed Röhm's proposal. They insisted that
discipline and honor would vanish if the SA gained control, but Röhm
and the SA would settle for nothing less. In addition the army
leadership was eager to co-operate with
Hitler given his plan of
re-armament and expansion of the established professional military
In February 1934,
Hitler told British diplomat
Anthony Eden of his
plan to reduce the SA by two-thirds. That same month,
that the SA would be left with only a few minor military functions.
Röhm responded with complaints, and began expanding the armed
elements of the SA. Speculation that the SA was planning a coup
Hitler became widespread in Berlin. In March, Röhm offered a
compromise in which "only" a few thousand SA leaders would be taken
into the army, but the army promptly rejected that idea.
On 11 April 1934,
Hitler met with German military leaders on the ship
Deutschland. By that time, he knew President
Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg would
likely die before the end of the year.
Hitler informed the army
hierarchy of Hindenburg's declining health and proposed that the
Reichswehr support him as Hindenburg's successor. In exchange, he
offered to reduce the SA, suppress Röhm's ambitions, and guarantee
Reichswehr would be Germany's only military force. According to
war correspondent William L. Shirer,
Hitler also promised to expand
the army and navy.
Although determined to curb the power of the SA,
Hitler put off doing
away with his long-time ally. A political struggle within the party
grew, with those closest to Hitler, including Prussian premier Hermann
Göring, Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, and Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler, positioning themselves against Röhm. To isolate the
latter, on 20 April 1934, Göring transferred control of the Prussian
political police (Gestapo) to Himmler, who he believed could be
counted on to move against Röhm.
Reichswehr and the conservative business community continued
to complain to Hindenburg about the SA. In early June, defence
Werner von Blomberg
Werner von Blomberg issued an ultimatum to
Hitler took immediate steps to end the growing
tension in Germany, Hindenburg would declare martial law and turn over
control of the country to the army. The threat of a
declaration of martial law from Hindenburg, the only person in Germany
with the authority to potentially depose the Nazi regime, put Hitler
under pressure to act.
Hitler decided the time had come both to
destroy Röhm and to settle scores with old enemies. Both Himmler and
Göring welcomed Hitler's decision, since both had much to gain by
Röhm's downfall—the independence of the SS for Himmler, and the
removal of a rival for Göring.
Main article: Night of the Long Knives
In preparation for the purge known as the Night of the Long Knives,
both Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the SS Security Service,
assembled a dossier of manufactured evidence to suggest that Röhm had
been paid 12 million Reichsmarks (equivalent to € 48 million 2009)
by the government of France to overthrow Hitler. Leading officers in
the SS were shown falsified evidence on 24 June that Röhm planned to
use the SA to launch a plot against the government
(Röhm-Putsch). At Hitler's direction, Göring, Himmler,
Heydrich, and Victor Lutze drew up lists of people in and outside the
SA to be killed. One of the men Göring recruited to assist him was
Willi Lehmann, a
Gestapo official and
NKVD spy. On 25 June, General
Werner von Fritsch
Werner von Fritsch placed the
Reichswehr on the highest level of
alert. On 27 June,
Hitler moved to secure the army's
cooperation. Blomberg and General Walther von Reichenau,
the army's liaison to the party, gave it to him by expelling Röhm
from the German Officers' League. On 28 June,
Essen to attend a wedding celebration and reception; from there he
called Röhm's adjutant at
Bad Wiessee and ordered SA leaders to meet
with him on 30 June at 11:00 a.m. On 29 June, a
signed article in
Völkischer Beobachter by Blomberg appeared in which
Blomberg stated with great fervour that the
Reichswehr stood behind
Hotel Lederer am See (former Hanselbauer Hotel) in Bad Wiessee
before its planned demolition in 2017
On 30 June 1934,
Hitler and a large group of SS and regular police
Munich and arrived between 06:00 and 07:00 at Hanselbauer
Hotel in Bad Wiessee, where Röhm and his followers were
staying. With Hitler's early arrival, the SA leadership,
still in bed, were taken by surprise. SS men stormed the hotel and
Hitler personally placed Röhm and other high-ranking SA leaders under
arrest. According to Erich Kempka,
Hitler turned Röhm over to "two
detectives holding pistols with the safety catch removed". The SS
Breslau SA leader
Edmund Heines in bed with an unidentified
eighteen-year-old male SA senior troop leader. Goebbels
emphasised this aspect in subsequent propaganda, justifying the purge
as a crackdown on moral turpitude. Kempka said in a 1946
Hitler ordered both Heines and his partner taken
outside of the hotel and shot. Meanwhile, the SS arrested
the other SA leaders as they left their train for the planned meeting
with Röhm and Hitler.
Hitler presented no evidence of a plot by Röhm to overthrow
the regime, he nevertheless denounced the leadership of the
SA. Arriving back at party headquarters in Munich, Hitler
addressed the assembled crowd. Consumed with rage,
"the worst treachery in world history".
Hitler told the crowd that
"undisciplined and disobedient characters and asocial or diseased
elements" would be annihilated. The crowd, which included party
members and many SA members fortunate enough to escape arrest, shouted
its approval. Joseph Goebbels, who had been with
Bad Wiessee, set the final phase of the plan in motion. Upon returning
to Berlin, Goebbels telephoned Göring at 10:00 with the codeword
kolibri ("hummingbird") to let loose the execution squads on the rest
of their unsuspecting victims. Leibstandarte SS Adolf
Sepp Dietrich received orders from
Hitler to form an
"execution squad" and go to Stadelheim prison in
Munich where Röhm
and other SA leaders were being held under arrest. There
in the prison courtyard, the Leibstandarte firing squad shot five SA
generals and an SA colonel. Several of those not
immediately executed were taken back to the Leibstandarte barracks at
Lichterfelde, given one-minute "trials", and shot by a firing squad.
Röhm himself, however, was kept prisoner.
Hitler was hesitant in authorising Röhm's execution, perhaps because
of loyalty or embarrassment about the execution of an important
lieutenant; he eventually did so, and agreed that Röhm should have
the option of suicide. On 1 July, SS-Brigadeführer
Theodor Eicke (later
Kommandant of the Dachau concentration camp) and
Michael Lippert visited Röhm. Once inside
Röhm's cell, they handed him a Browning pistol loaded with a single
bullet and told him he had ten minutes to kill himself or they would
do it for him. Röhm demurred, telling them, "If I am to be killed,
let Adolf do it himself." Having heard nothing in the
allotted time, Eicke and Lippert returned to Röhm's cell at 14:50 to
find him standing, with his bare chest puffed out in a gesture of
defiance. Eicke and Lippert then shot Röhm, killing
Obergruppenführer Viktor Lutze, who
had been spying on Röhm, was named as the new Stabschef
While some Germans were shocked by the killings of 30 June to 2 July
1934, many others saw
Hitler as the one who restored "order" to the
country. Goebbels's propaganda highlighted the "Röhm-Putsch" in the
days that followed. The homosexuality of Röhm and other SA leaders
was made public to add "shock value", even though the sexuality of
Röhm and other named SA leaders had been known by
Hitler and other
Nazi leaders for years.
The purge of the SA was legalised on 3 July with a one-paragraph
decree: the Law Regarding Measures of State Self-Defence, a step that
historian Robin Cross contends was done by
Hitler to cover his own
tracks. The Law declared, "The measures taken on 30 June,
1 and 2 July to suppress treasonous assaults are legal as acts of
self-defence by the State." At the time no public reference was made
to the alleged SA rebellion, but only generalised references to
misconduct, perversion and some sort of plot. In a
nationally broadcast speech to the Reichstag on 13 July, Hitler
justified the purge as a defence against
treason. Before the events of the Night of the
Long Knives concluded, not only was Röhm dead, but more than 200
additional people had been killed,[d] including Nazi official
Gregor Strasser, former chancellor General Kurt von Schleicher, and
Franz von Papen's secretary, Edgar Jung. Most of those
murdered had little to no affiliation with Röhm but were killed for
In an attempt to erase Röhm from German history, all known copies of
the 1933 propaganda film
The Victory of Faith
The Victory of Faith (Der Sieg des
Glaubens)—in which Röhm appeared—were destroyed in 1934, probably
on Hitler's order.[e]
Decorations and awards
Military Merit Cross (Bavaria)
Military Merit Cross (Bavaria) 4th Class with swords, 1914
Iron Cross 2nd Class
Iron Cross 1st Class, 1916
Wound Badge in Silver, 1918
Nazi Germany portal
Persecution of homosexuals in
Nazi Germany and the Holocaust
Glossary of Nazi Germany
History of Germany
Nazi Party leaders and officials
^ His involvement in such activities was very much in keeping with his
persona, as Röhm claimed in his memoir—originally published in
1928—that "War and unrest appeal to me more than the orderly life of
your respectable burgher."
^ Röhm was not involved with the Sturmabteiling until after he
returned from a trip to Bolivia, but he did work to create armed
militia units. He was deeply involved in hoarding arms and shipping
weapons into Austria in defiance of the terms of the Versailles
Treaty, but was never caught. See Röhm, Ernst (1928) Die Geschichte
eines Hochverräters Munich: Franz Eher Verlag; and "Homosexuals and
the Third Reich", Jewish Virtual Library
^ Röhm was buried in the Westfriedhof ("Western Cemetery") in Munich.
In 1957, the German authorities tried Lippert in
Munich for Röhm's
murder. Until then, Lippert had been one of the few executioners of
the purge to evade trial. Lippert was convicted and sentenced to 18
months in prison.
^ Rudolf Pechel—considered a reliable source—claims the number was
much higher, placing the death toll at 922.
The Victory of Faith
The Victory of Faith was long thought to have been lost until a
single copy was found in storage in Britain in the 1990s. See: The
Victory of Faith, Internet Archive The 1935 film Triumph of the Will
(Triumph des Willens), produced in 1934, showed the new Nazi
hierarchy, with the SS as the Nazis' premier uniformed paramilitary
group and Röhm replaced by Viktor Lutze. but by then, the role of the
SA was much less prominent than in the early years.See: Charles
Hamilton (1984), Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol.
1, p. 312
^ Hancock 2008, p. 8.
^ Hockerts 2003, p. 714.
^ Hancock 2008, p. 11.
^ Hancock 2008, pp. 18–19.
^ Hancock 2008, p. 19.
^ Hancock 2008, pp. 19–21.
^ Hancock 2008, p. 23.
^ Röhm 1934, pp. 50–51.
^ a b Snyder 1989, p. 65.
^ Röhm 1934, pp. 56–57.
^ a b c d e Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 807.
^ a b Manvell & Fraenkel 2010, p. 135.
^ Siemens 2017, p. 16.
^ Snyder 1989, p. 66.
^ Childers 2017, p. 52.
^ Childers 2017, p. 43.
^ Childers 2017, p. 57.
^ Dornberg 1982, p. 20.
^ Dornberg 1982, pp. 84, 118.
^ Childers 2017, pp. 58–59.
^ Childers 2017, p. 59.
^ Childers 2017, pp. 60–61.
^ Childers 2017, pp. 61–62.
^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 147, 239.
^ Bullock 1962, p. 121.
^ a b Siemens 2017, p. 29.
^ McNab 2013, p. 14.
^ a b McNab 2013, p. 16.
^ Cook & Bender 1994, pp. 17, 19.
^ Weale 2012, pp. 15–16.
^ Weale 2012, pp. 70, 166.
^ Machtan 2002, p. 107.
^ Siemens 2017, p. 173.
^ Gunther 1940, p. 6.
^ Knickerbocker 1941, p. 34.
^ Moulton 1999, p. 469.
^ McNab 2013, p. 17.
^ Snyder 1994, p. 298.
^ a b McDonough 1999, p. 26.
^ Bendersky 2007, pp. 96–98.
^ Frei 1993, pp. 10–11.
^ Siemens 2017, pp. 122–123, 187–188.
^ a b McNab 2013, pp. 16, 17.
^ Evans 2005, pp. 24–25.
^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 306.
^ Fest 1974, p. 467.
^ Shirer 1990, p. 207.
^ Evans 2005, p. 54.
^ Wheeler-Bennett 2005, pp. 319–320.
^ a b Evans 2005, p. 31.
^ Evans 2005, p. 30.
^ Wheeler-Bennett 1967, p. 321.
^ O'Neill 1967, pp. 72–80.
^ Bullock 1958, p. 165.
^ Wheeler-Bennett 1967, p. 322.
^ Bullock 1958, p. 166.
^ Kempka 1971.
^ a b c Kershaw 1999, p. 514.
^ a b c Shirer 1960, p. 221.
^ a b Evans 2005, p. 32.
^ Cook & Bender 1994, pp. 22–23.
^ Cook & Bender 1994, p. 23.
^ Gunther 1940, pp. 51–57.
^ Evans 2005, p. 33.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 312.
^ Messenger 2005, pp. 204–205.
^ Evans 2005, pp. 32–33.
^ Kershaw 2008, p. 315.
^ Cross 2009, p. 94.
^ Fest 1974, p. 468.
^ Fest 1974, pp. 473–487.
^ Shirer 1960, p. 226.
^ Moulton 1999, p. 470.
^ Klee 2016, p. 503.
^ Ullrich 2016, p. 532.
^ a b c d Miller 2015, p. 186.
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Succeeded byViktor Lutze
vteMembers of the
Chancellor: Adolf Hitler
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Deputy Führer: Rudolf Hess
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Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach
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Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach
Vice-Chancellor: Franz von Papen
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