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Ernest Frederick "Fritz" Hollings (born January 1, 1922) is a former American politician who served as a United States Senator from South Carolina from 1966 to 2005. A Democrat, was also the 106th Governor of South Carolina
South Carolina
and the 77th Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina. He served alongside Republican Senator Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
for 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in history. At the age of 96, he is the oldest living individual who is or has been a U.S. Senator. Born in Charleston, South Carolina, Hollings graduated from The Citadel in 1942 and joined a law practice in Charleston after attending the University of South Carolina
South Carolina
School of Law. During World War II, he served as an artillery officer in campaigns in North Africa and Europe. After the war, Hollings successively won election to the South Carolina
South Carolina
House of Representatives, as Lieutenant Governor, and as Governor. He sought election to the Senate in 1962 but was defeated by incumbent Olin D. Johnston. Johnston died in 1965, and the following year Hollings won a special election to serve the remainder of Johnston's term. Though the Republican Party became increasingly dominant in South Carolina
South Carolina
after 1966, Hollings remained popular and continually won re-election, becoming one of the longest-serving Senators in U.S. history. Hollings sought the Democratic nomination in the 1984 presidential election but dropped out of the race after the New Hampshire primary. He declined to seek re-election in 2004 and was succeeded by Jim DeMint.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Education 3 Political career

3.1 Governor of South Carolina 3.2 United States Senator

3.2.1 Early Senate career 3.2.2 Presidential candidate 3.2.3 Later Senate career 3.2.4 Controversies

4 Later life 5 Trivia 6 Electoral history 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Early life[edit] Hollings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, the son of Wilhelmine Dorothea Meyer (1888 - 1982) and Adolph Gevert Hollings, Sr. (1882 - 1940)[1][2] He was raised at 338 President St. in the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood from the age of 10 until he enrolled in college. Education[edit] He graduated from The Citadel in 1942, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree. He received an LL.B.
LL.B.
from the University of South Carolina
South Carolina
in 1947 after only 21 months of study, and joined a law practice in Charleston.[3] Hollings is a member of the Pi Kappa Phi
Pi Kappa Phi
fraternity. He was married to Rita Liddy "Peatsy" Hollings from 1971 until her death in October 2012.[4][4][5] He had four children (Michael,[6] Helen,[7] Patricia Salley,[8] and Ernest the 3rd[9]) with his first wife, (Martha) Patricia Salley Hollings.[4][10][11] He is a Lutheran. In addition, Fritz and Patricia had two sons who died.[12] Hollings served as an officer in the U.S. Army's 353rd and 457th Artillery units from 1942 to 1945, during World War II, and was awarded the Bronze Star for meritorious service in direct support of combat operations from December 13, 1944 to May 1, 1945 in France and Germany. He received the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with five Bronze Service Stars for participation in the Tunisia, Southern France, Rome-Arno, Rhineland and Central Europe Campaigns.[13] Political career[edit] He served three terms in the South Carolina
South Carolina
House of Representatives from 1949 to 1954. After only one term, Hollings' colleagues elected him Speaker Pro Tempore in 1951 and 1953.[14] He was subsequently elected Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina
South Carolina
in 1954, and Governor in 1958 at age 36. Governor of South Carolina[edit] As governor of South Carolina
South Carolina
from January 20, 1959, to January 15, 1963, Hollings worked to improve the state's educational system, helping to bring more industry and employment opportunities to the state. His term in office saw the establishment of the state's technical education system and its educational television network. He also called for and achieved significant increases in teachers' salaries, bringing them closer to the regional average. At the 1961 Governor's Conference on Business, Industry, Education and Agriculture in Columbia, S.C., he declared, "Today, in our complex society, education is the cornerstone upon which economic development must be built—and prosperity assured."[15] In 1962, during Hollings' term as governor, the Confederate battle flag was flown above the South Carolina
South Carolina
State House underneath the U.S. and state flags to protest desegregation, where it would remain for thirty-eight years.[16] In 2000 the state legislature voted to move the flag from above the state house to a Confederate soldiers' monument in front of the building,[17] where it remained until 2015, when Republican governor Nikki Haley
Nikki Haley
ordered it removed following the murders of nine black churchgoers by a Confederate sympathizer in the state earlier that year.[18][19] In his last address to the General Assembly on January 9, 1963, ahead of the peaceful admission to Clemson University
Clemson University
of its first black student, Harvey Gantt, Hollings declared: "As we meet, South Carolina is running out of courts ... this General Assembly must make clear South Carolina's choice, a government of laws rather than a government of men…This should be done with dignity. It should be done with law and order."[20] Hollings oversaw the last executions in South Carolina
South Carolina
before the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Furman v. Georgia, which temporarily banned capital punishment. During his term, eight inmates were put to death by electric chair. The last was rapist Douglas Thorne, on April 20, 1962.[21] He sought the Democratic nomination for a seat in the U.S. Senate in 1962 but lost to incumbent Olin D. Johnston. United States Senator[edit] Early Senate career[edit]

Hollings in 1969

Johnston died on April 18, 1965. Hollings' successor as governor, Donald S. Russell, resigned in order to accept appointment to the Senate seat. In the summer of 1966, Hollings defeated Russell in the Democratic primary for the remaining two years of the term. He then narrowly won the special election on November 8, 1966, against the Democrat-turned-Republican Marshall Parker, and was sworn in shortly thereafter. He gained seniority on other newly elected U.S. senators who would have to wait until January 1967, to take the oath of office. In 1967, he was one of eleven senators who voted against the nomination of Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
to become the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. The following year, Hollings won the Senate seat for his first full term when he again defeated Marshall Parker but by a much wider margin. For thirty-six years (until January 2003), he served alongside Republican Strom Thurmond, making them the longest-serving Senate duo ever. This also made Hollings the longest-serving junior senator ever, even though he had more seniority than all but a few of his colleagues. Thurmond and Hollings generally had a good relationship despite their sometimes sharp philosophical differences, and frequently collaborated on legislation and projects to benefit South Carolina. Their combined seniority gave South Carolina
South Carolina
clout in national politics well beyond its relatively small population. Only Thurmond, Robert Byrd, Ted Kennedy, Daniel Inouye, Carl Hayden, John Stennis, Ted Stevens, Pat Leahy, Orrin Hatch, and Thad Cochran
Thad Cochran
have served longer in the Senate than did Hollings. In 1970, Hollings authored The Case Against Hunger: A Demand for a National Policy, acknowledging the Reverend I.D. Newman and Sister Mary Anthony for opening his eyes to the despair caused by hunger and helping him realize that he must do something about it.[22] Hollings made headlines the year before when he toured poverty-stricken areas of South Carolina, often referred to as his "Hunger Tours." In February 1969, Hollings testified as to what he had seen on his fact-finding tours in front of the Senate Select Committee on Hunger and Human Needs. Charleston's News and Courier (now The Post and Courier) reported that "Senators, members of the press corps and visitors packed in the hearing room watched and listened in disbelief as Hollings detailed dozens of tragically poignant scenes of human suffering in his state."[23] Hollings recommended to the committee that free food stamps be distributed to the most needy, and just over a day later, Senator George McGovern
George McGovern
announced that free food stamps would be distributed in South Carolina
South Carolina
as part of a national pilot program for feeding the hungry.[23] In the 1970s, Hollings joined with fellow senators Kennedy and Henry M. Jackson in a press conference to oppose President Gerald Ford's request that Congress end Richard Nixon's price controls on domestic oil, which had helped to cause the gasoline lines during the 1973 Oil Crisis.[24] Hollings said he believed ending the price controls (as was eventually done in 1981) would be a "catastrophe" that would cause "economic chaos."[24] In 1977, Hollings was one of five Democrats to vote against the nomination of F. Ray Marshall
F. Ray Marshall
as United States Secretary of Labor.[25] Presidential candidate[edit] Hollings unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the presidential election of 1984. Hollings' wit and experience, as well as his call for a budget freeze, won him some positive attention, but his relatively conservative record alienated liberal Democrats, and he was never really noticed in a field dominated by Walter Mondale, John Glenn
John Glenn
and Gary Hart. Hollings dropped out two days after losing badly in New Hampshire, and endorsed Hart a week later. His disdain for his competitors sometimes showed. He notably referred to Mondale as a "lapdog" and to former Astronaut Glenn as "Sky King" who was "confused in his capsule."[citation needed][26] Later Senate career[edit] During the 1988 Presidential primaries, Hollings endorsed Jesse Jackson.[27] On October 15, 1991, he was one of seven Southern Democrats who voted to confirm the nomination of Clarence Thomas
Clarence Thomas
to the U.S. Supreme Court in a 52 to 48 vote, the narrowest margin of approval in more than a century. Hollings remained very popular in South Carolina
South Carolina
over the years, even as the state became increasingly friendly to Republicans at the national level. In his first three bids for a full term, he never dropped below 60 percent of the vote. In the 1992 election, however, he faced an unexpectedly close race against former Congressman Tommy Hartnett in what was otherwise a very good year for Democrats nationally. Hartnett had represented the Charleston area in Congress from 1981 to 1987, thus making him Hollings' congressman. His appeal in the Lowcountry – traditionally a swing region at the state level – enabled him to hold Hollings to only 50 percent of the vote. In his last Senate race in 1998, Hollings faced Republican congressman Bob Inglis. One of the more heated and notable moments of the race was a newspaper interview in which Hollings referred to Inglis as a "goddamn skunk". Hollings was re-elected 52%–45%. On January 7, 2003, Hollings introduced the controversial Universal National Service Act of 2006, which would require all men and women aged 18–26 (with some exceptions) to perform a year of military service.

Senator Ernest Hollings

On August 4, 2003, he announced that he would not run for re-election in November 2004. Republican Jim DeMint
Jim DeMint
succeeded him. As a senator, Hollings was noted for his support for legislation in the interests of the established media distribution industry (such as the proposed "Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act"). His hard-line support of various client-side computer restrictions such as DRM and Trusted computing led the Fritz chip
Fritz chip
(a microchip that enforces such restrictions) to be nicknamed after him. Hollings also sponsored the Online Personal Privacy Act.[28] In his later career, Hollings was generally considered to be a moderate politically but was supportive of many civil rights bills. He voted for re-authorizing the Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
in 1982. However, in 1967 he was one of the 11 senators who voted against the confirmation of Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court justice.[29] Hollings later voted in favor of the failed nomination of Robert Bork and also for the successful nomination of Clarence Thomas. On fiscal issues, he was generally conservative, and was one of the primary sponsors of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, an attempt to enforce limits on government spending. Hollings and Howell Heflin
Howell Heflin
of Alabama
Alabama
were the only two Democratic senators to vote against the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993.[30] Controversies[edit] When Hollings embarked on tours of poor areas of South Carolina
South Carolina
in 1968 and 1969 and testified as to his findings before the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, he was accused of drawing unwanted attention to South Carolina
South Carolina
when other states — North and South — also faced extreme poverty. Hollings knew South Carolina was not alone in its struggle and thought that if any politician was going to investigate hunger in South Carolina, it was going to at least be a South Carolinian. After a tour of an East Charleston slum, he said, "I don't want Romney and Kennedy coming here to look at my slums. As a matter of fact when I get caught up with my work, I think I may go look at the slums of Boston."[31] For his efforts, Hollings was also accused of "scheming for the Negro vote." Hollings, who had seen plenty of white hunger and poverty and slums on his tours, responded, "You just don't make political points on hunger. The poor aren't registered to vote and they won't vote."[32] In 1981, Hollings had to apologize to fellow Democrat Howard Metzenbaum after Hollings referred to him as the "senator from B'nai B'rith" on the floor. Metzenbaum, who was Jewish, raised a point of personal privilege and Hollings's remarks were stricken from the record.[33] Hollings was referred to as "the senator from Disney" for his support of the entertainment industry.[34] Hollings would become popular for the wrong reasons among fans of the MTV
MTV
animated series Beavis and Butt-head
Beavis and Butt-head
after he said to Janet Reno, "We've got this… what is it… Buffcoat and Beaver or Beaver and something else. I haven't seen it, I don't watch it, but whatever it is, it was at 7, Buffcoat, and they put it on now at 10:30".[35] After the remark, the mispronunciation of Beavis and Butt-head's names, particularly by characters the writers intended to ridicule, became a running gag on the show. In 1993, Hollings told reporters that he attended international summits because, "Everybody likes to go to Geneva. I used to do it for the Law of the Sea conferences and you'd find those potentates from down in Africa, you know, rather than eating each other, they'd just come up and get a good square meal in Geneva."[33] Hollings had previously caused controversy when responding to Yoshio Sakurauchi's commentary that Americans are lazy and illiterate. Hollings replied, "You should draw a mushroom cloud and put underneath it, 'Made in America by lazy and illiterate Americans and tested in Japan'."[33] In May 2004, Hollings penned a controversial editorial in The Post and Courier, where he argued that Bush invaded Iraq
Iraq
possibly because "spreading democracy in the Mideast
Mideast
to secure Israel
Israel
would take the Jew vote from the Democrats."[36] Later life[edit]

The Hollings Judicial Center at 83 Meeting Street in Downtown Charleston is named for the former governor and senator.

In retirement, Hollings continues to write opinion editorials for newspapers around South Carolina
South Carolina
and is a regular contributor to the Huffington Post. His opinion editorials are also published every week in EconomyInCrisis.org, an independent protectionist news blog. In 2008, the University of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press published Making Government Work, a book authored by Hollings with Washington, D.C., journalist Kirk Victor, imparting Hollings' view on the changes needed in Washington. Among other things, the book recommends a dramatic decrease in the amount of campaign spending. It also attacks free trade policies as inherently destructive, suggesting that certain protectionist measures have built the United States and that only a few parties actually benefit from free trade, such as large manufacturing corporations.[37] Hollings started the Hollings Scholarship in 2005. It gives over 100 undergraduates from around the country a 10-week internship with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
and a monetary scholarship for the school year. Hollings helped to establish the Hollings Center for International Dialogue, an organization which promotes dialogue between the United States and Turkey, the nations of the Middle East, North Africa, and Southwest Asia, and other countries with predominantly Muslim populations in order to open channels of communication, deepen cross-cultural understanding, expand people-to-people contacts, and generate new thinking on important international issues. Hollings is on the board of advisors as well as a distinguished visiting professor of Law with the Charleston School of Law.[38] He delivered the commencement address to the first graduating class there on May 19, 2007.[39][40] Trivia[edit] He played a Southern senator, Senator Marquand, whom Al Pacino attempts to woo in order to land the Democratic convention in the 1996 film City Hall. Because of Strom Thurmond's longevity and length of service, Hollings spent 36 years as the junior senator from South Carolina
South Carolina
despite having seniority over the vast majority of his peers. He finally became senior senator from South Carolina
South Carolina
while he was serving with Lindsey Graham, only for the last two years of his Senate service. Electoral history[edit]

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Special
Special
Election 1966

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings 223,790 51.35

Republican Marshall Parker 212,032 48.65

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1968

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 404,060 61.89

Republican Marshall Parker 248,780 38.11

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1974

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 356,126 69.50

Republican Gwen Bush 146,645 28.62

Independent Harold Hough 9,626 1.88

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1980

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 612,556 70.37

Republican Marshall Mays 257,946 29.63

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1986

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 463,354 63.10

Republican Henry McMaster 261,394 35.60

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1992

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 591,030 50.07

Republican Thomas Hartnett 554,175 46.95

Libertarian Mark Johnson 22,962 1.95

South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Senate Election 1998

Party Candidate Votes % ±

Democratic Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(incumbent) 562,791 52.68

Republican Bob Inglis 488,132 45.69

Libertarian Richard T. Quillian 16,987 1.59

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.  ^ "The Sumter Daily Item - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com.  ^ Hollings, Ernest with Kirk Victor (2008). Making Government Work. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press. p. 9.  ^ a b c UPI (July 12, 1971). "Sen. Hollings to Wed Office Assistant". The Dispatch. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ Ruiz, Myra (July 23, 2010), Biden Speaks At Hollings Library Dedication, WYFF4 News, retrieved October 4, 2011 [permanent dead link] ^ "Hollings' son to run for lieutenant governor". Herald-Journal. Associated Press. June 14, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ "Hollings Granddaughter Dies; Presidential Hopeful Flies Home". Ocala star-Banner. Associated Press. August 14, 1983. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ Schuyler Kropf (April 19, 2003). "Hollings family lays daughter to rest". The Post and Courier. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ "Milestones, Mar. 23, 1959". Time Magazine. 1959. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ "Ernest Frederick Hollings". October 4, 2011.  ^ Priscilla Meyer (February 5, 1961). "South Carolina's First Lady". The News and Courier. Retrieved October 4, 2011.  ^ "Milestones, Mar. 23, 1959". Time Magazine. 1959. Retrieved January 4, 2013.  ^ Once A Soldier...Always A Soldier: Soldiers in the 108th Congress. Arlington, Virginia: Association of the United States Army. 2003. p. 16.  ^ Watson, Inez (Ed.) (1953). South Carolina's Legislative Manual (34th ed.). Columbia, S.C.: General Assembly. p. 72. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Finding Aid for the Gubernatorial Papers of the Ernest F. "Fritz" Hollings Collection" (PDF). South Carolina
South Carolina
Political Collections of the University of South Carolina. Retrieved September 14, 2009.  ^ Ross, Kelley L. (December 2015). "The Police State". Political Economy. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2016. [T]he Confederate Flag flown on the grounds of the capital of South Carolina
South Carolina
was only put there in 1962, as a protest against Desegregation, by the Democrat Governor of the State, Ernest Hollings (Governor of South Carolina, 1959-1963, then U.S. Senator from South Carolina)...  ^ Brunner, Borgna (June 30, 2000). "Confederate Flag Comes Down in South Carolina". Infoplease. Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved May 7, 2013.  ^ " South Carolina
South Carolina
Confederate Battle Flag Removal Bill Signing Ceremony". C-SPAN. July 9, 2015.  ^ " South Carolina
South Carolina
Gov. Nikki Haley
Nikki Haley
Signs Confederate Flag Bill Into Law". NPR. July 9, 2015.  ^ Address by Governor Ernest F. Hollings to the General Assembly of South Carolina, January 9, 1963, p. 8-9, http://digital.tcl.sc.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/how&CISOPTR=291&REC=2, part of the University of South Carolina's Digital Collection, "Fritz Hollings: In His Own Words." ^ [1] Archived October 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hollings, Ernest (1970). The Case Against Hunger: A Demand for a National Policy. New York: Cowles Book Company, Inc. ISBN 0402126114.  ^ a b Pyatt, Rudolph (February 23, 1969). "The Beginning of a Rennaissance [sic] in Dixie". Charleston, S.C.: News and Courier.  ^ a b Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 321. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ "Senate Roll‐Call Vote Approving Marshall". January 27, 1977.  ^ "The Citadel Archives: Hollings, Ernest, 1922".  ^ "Our Campaigns - US President - D Primaries Race - Feb 01, 1988". www.ourcampaigns.com.  ^ (S. 2201) ^ https://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/240_1967.pdf ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress - 1st Session". www.senate.gov.  ^ Robertson, Glenn (January 11, 1968). "Hollings 'Angered' by Tour of Slums." Charleston, S.C.: Evening Post. ^ Pyatt, "The Beginning of a Rennaissance [sic] in Dixie?". ^ a b c "A Senator's Cannibal 'Joke' Angers Blacks". The New York Times. December 16, 1993. Retrieved September 25, 2016.  ^ Schwabach, Aaron (2006). Internet and the Law: Technology, Society, and Compromises. ABC-CLIO. p. 109. ISBN 9781851097319. Hollings' tireless advocacy on behalf of the content industry also earned him an unflattering sobriquet: 'the senator from Disney'.  ^ Jacobs, A.J. (August 15, 1997). "Dude... This Sucks – We mourn the loss of fresh Beavis and Butt-Head episodes cpublisher=EW.com Television News". Entertainment Weekly.  ^ Sen. Hollings defends column labeled "anti-Jewish" by some - wistv.com - Columbia, South Carolina
South Carolina
. wistv.com (April 24, 2014). Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ Hollings, Ernest with Kirk Victor (2008). Making Government Work. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press.  ^ "Board of Advisors webpage". Charleston School of Law. Retrieved September 1, 2009. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012.  ^ "Hollings to give school's first commencement address". Charleston School of Law. March 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.  ^ "Hollings to Address First Graduation Class" (PDF). Reprint from The Citadel of an article from The State (newspaper)
The State (newspaper)
online. 25 March 2007. [permanent dead link]

Sources[edit]

Ballantyne, David T. New Politics in the Old South: Ernest F. Hollings in the Civil Rights Era (U of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press, 2016). 206 pp Minchin, Timothy J., “An Uphill Fight: Ernest F. Hollings and the Struggle to Protect the South Carolina
South Carolina
Textile Industry, 1959–2005,” South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine, 109 (July 2008), 187–211.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutFritz Hollingsat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote

United States Congress. " Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
(id: H000725)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  The Papers of Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
at the University of South Carolina "Fritz Hollings: In His Own Words," an online collection of documents from the Papers of Fritz Hollings
Fritz Hollings
at the University of SC Appearances on C-SPAN https://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/19/weekinreview/19bigp.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Center for Responsive Politics figures on Hollings' funding Salon article on the Online Personal Privacy Act LawMeme article about the Online Personal Privacy Act "Hollings's Harangue" NY Sun Article about the Howard Metzenbaum incident SCIway Biography of Ernest Frederick Hollings NGA Biography of Ernest Frederick Hollings

Party political offices

Preceded by George Timmerman Democratic nominee for Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina 1954 Succeeded by Burnet Maybank, Jr.

Democratic nominee for Governor of South Carolina 1958 Succeeded by Donald Russell

Preceded by Olin Johnston Democratic nominee for Senator from South Carolina (Class 3) 1966, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998 Succeeded by Inez Tenenbaum

Political offices

Preceded by George Timmerman Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina January 18, 1955–January 20, 1959 Succeeded by Burnet Maybank, Jr.

Governor of South Carolina January 20, 1959–January 15, 1963 Succeeded by Donald Russell

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Donald Russell United States Senator (Class 3) from South Carolina 1966–2005 Served alongside: Strom Thurmond, Lindsey Graham Succeeded by Jim DeMint

Preceded by Edmund Muskie Chairperson of Senate Budget Committee 1980–1981 Succeeded by Pete Domenici

Preceded by John Danforth Chairperson of Senate Commerce Committee 1987–1995 Succeeded by Larry Pressler

Preceded by John McCain Chairperson of Senate Commerce Committee 2001–2003 Succeeded by John McCain

Honorary titles

Preceded by John Glenn Oldest Living United States Senator (Sitting or Former) December 8, 2016–present Incumbent

v t e

Governors of South Carolina

J. Rutledge Lowndes J. Rutledge Mathews Guerard Moultrie T. Pinckney C. Pinckney Moultrie Vanderhorst C. Pinckney E. Rutledge Drayton J. Richardson P. Hamilton C. Pinckney Drayton Middleton Alston D. Williams A. Pickens Geddes Bennett Wilson Manning I Taylor Miller J. Hamilton Hayne McDuffie Butler Noble Henagan Richardson II Hammond Aiken Johnson Seabrook Means J. Manning Adams Allston Gist F. Pickens Bonham Magrath Perry Orr Scott Moses Chamberlain Hampton Simpson Jeter Hagood Thompson Sheppard Richardson III Tillman Evans Ellerbe McSweeney Heyward Ansel Blease Smith Manning III Cooper Harvey McLeod Richards Blackwood Johnston Maybank Harley Jefferies Johnston R. Williams Thurmond Byrnes Timmerman Hollings Russell McNair West Edwards Riley Campbell Beasley Hodges Sanford Haley McMaster

v t e

United States Senators from South Carolina

Class 2

P. Butler Hunter Pinckney Sumter Taylor W. Smith R. Hayne Calhoun Huger Calhoun Elmore Barnwell Rhett De Saussure Evans A. Hayne Chesnut Robertson M. Butler Tillman Benet Pollock Dial Blease Byrnes Lumpkin Peace Maybank Daniel Thurmond Wofford Thurmond Graham

Class 3

Izard Read Colhoun P. Butler Gaillard Harper W. Smith Miller Preston McDuffie A. Butler Hammond Sawyer Patterson Hampton Irby Earle McLaurin Latimer Gary E. Smith Hall Johnston Russell Hollings DeMint Scott

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on the Budget

Muskie Hollings Domenici Chiles Sasser Domenici Conrad Domenici Conrad Nickles Gregg Conrad Murray Enzi

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

Commerce and Manufactures (1816–1825)

Hunter Sanford Dickerson

Commerce (1825–1947)

Lloyd Johnston Woodbury Forsyth King Silsbee Goldsborough Davis King Huntington Haywood Dix Hamlin Dodge Clay Chandler Conkling Gordon Ransom McMillan Frye Ransom Frye Nelson Clarke Fletcher Jones H. Johnson Stephens Copeland Bailey

Interstate Commerce (1887–1947)

Cullom Butler Cullom Elkins Clapp Newlands Smith Cummins Smith Watson Couzens Dill Wheeler

Interstate and Foreign Commerce/Commerce (1947–1977)

White E. Johnson Tobey Bricker Magnuson

Commerce, Science, and Transportation (1977–)

Magnuson Cannon Packwood Danforth Hollings Pressler McCain Hollings McCain Hollings McCain Stevens Inouye Rockefeller Thune

v t e

(1980 ←) United States presidential election, 1984
United States presidential election, 1984
(→ 1988)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Ronald Reagan

VP nominee George H. W. Bush

Candidates Ben Fernandez Harold Stassen

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Primary results

Nominee Walter Mondale

VP nominee Geraldine Ferraro

Candidates Reubin Askew Alan Cranston John Glenn Gary Hart Fritz Hollings Jesse Jackson George McGovern

Third party and independent candidates

Citizens Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Communist Party

Nominee Gus Hall

VP nominee Angela Davis

Libertarian Party

Nominee David Bergland

VP nominee Jim Lewis

Candidates Gene Burns Earl Ravenal Mary Ruwart

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Edward Winn

VP nominee Helen Halyard

Socialist Party

Nominee Sonia Johnson

VP nominee Richard Walton

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Melvin T. Mason

VP nominee Matilde Zimmermann

Workers World Party

Nominee Larry Holmes Alternate nominee Gavrielle Holmes

VP nominee Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Charles Doty Larry Flynt Larry "Bozo" Harmon Lyndon LaRouche Running mate Billy Davis

Other 1984 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

South Carolina's delegation(s) to the 90th–108th United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)

90th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • A. Watson • T. Gettys

91st Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • A. Watson • T. Gettys • J. Mann

92nd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • B. Dorn • T. Gettys • J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis

93rd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: B. Dorn • T. Gettys • J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • E. Young

94th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette

95th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette

96th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette • C. Campbell

97th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • K. Holland • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Napier

98th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Spratt • R. Tallon

99th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Spratt • R. Tallon

100th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

101st Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

102nd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

103rd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • A. Ravenel • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis

104th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis • L. Graham • M. Sanford

105th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis • L. Graham • M. Sanford

106th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • M. Sanford • J. DeMint

107th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • J. DeMint • H. Brown

107th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • J. DeMint • H. Brown • J. Wilson

108th Senate: E. Hollings • L. Graham House: J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • J. DeMint • H. Brown • J. Wilson • G. Barrett

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 1320021 LCCN: n80131448 ISNI: 0000 0001 1487 0435 GND: 136519059 SUDOC: 130261181 US Congress: H000725 SN

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